Malaŵi

Kufuma Wikipedia
(Kufuma ku Malawi)
Republic of Malawi
Charu cha Malaŵi  (Chitumbuka)
Mbendela Chidindo cha Boma
Chiluso: "Unity and Freedom"
Nyimbo: Mlungu dalitsani Malaŵi (Chichewa)
(English: "O God Bless Our Land of Malawi")[1]
Makhalilo gha malawi (dark green) in southeast Africa
Makhalilo gha malawi (dark green) in southeast Africa
Msumba Waboma
kweneso Msumba Usani
Lilongwe
Chiyowoyelo chaboma
Recognised regional languages
Mitundu ya Ŵanthu (2018 census[2])
Vipembezo
Mwenecharu Malawian
Mtundu wa Boma Unitary presidential republic
 -  President Lazarus Chakwera
 -  Vice-President Saulos Chilima
 -  House Speaker Catherine Gotani Hara
 -  Chief Justice Rizine Mzikamanda
Independence from the United Kingdom
 -  Dominion 6 July 1964 
 -  Republic 6 July 1966 
 -  Current constitution 18 May 1994 
Ukulu wa Malo
 -  Malo 118,484 km2 (99th)
45,747 sq mi
 -  Maji (%) 20.6%
Chiŵelengelo cha ŵanthu
 -  2020 estimate Neutral increase 20,091,635[3] (62nd)
 -  2018 census 17,563,749[2]
 -  Density 153.1/km2 (56th)
396.5/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2021 estimate
 -  Total $30.44 billion[4]
 -  Per capita $1,591[5]
GDP (nominal) 2021 estimate
 -  Total $11.9 billion[6]
 -  Per capita $625[7]
Gini (2016)Negative increase 44.7[8]
medium
HDI (2019)Decrease 0.483[9]
low · 174th
Ndalama Malawian kwacha (D) (MWK)
Mtundu Wanyengo CAT (UTC+2)
Kalembelo kasiku dd/mm/yyyy
Woko la galimoto left
Intaneti yacharu .mw[10]
* Population estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected.

Malaŵi, mwanthunthu, Ripabuliki ya Malaŵi, ni charu ku manjililo gha dazi gha chirwa cha Afilika ndipo kale yikachemekanga Nyasaland apo yili pasi pa ŵangelezi. Malaŵi yina mphaka na Zambia, Tanzania na Mozambique. Malawi njikulu kujumpha 118,484 km2 ndipo yina ŵanthu 18,143,217 (mu Julayi 2018). Nyanja Malaŵi, yili chigaŵa chimoza mu vigaŵa vitatu vya malo ghose gha Malawi. Msumba ulula ni Lilongwe, mbwe Blantyre, mbwe Mzuzu mbwe Zomba ughu uli Msumba ulala wakale. Zina la Malawi likufuma ku Maravi, Zina lakale la ŵacheŵa kung'anamula kuti Moto, chifukwa apa ŵakasemanga visulo Moto ukabukanga.

Malawi njimoza ya vyalu vikavu nkhanira pa charu. Chuma chakhe chugomezga chomene ulimi, ndipo ŵanthu ŵanandi mbakukala m'mikaya aŵo ŵakwandana chomene. Boma la Malawi lugomezga nkhanira ovwili wavyalu vyakuwalo.

Ku Malaŵi Kuli ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakuluwala HIV na AIDS. Kuli ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakufumapo ku Ulaya na ku Asia.

Malo gha Afrika agho sono ni Malaŵi kukiza ŵanthu wachi Bantu mvilimika vyachi mankhonde-khonde chachi nkhonde. Mvilimika mankhonde-khonde vati vyajumpha mu chilimika cha 1891 malogha ghakaphangika na ŵangelezi. Mu 1953 Malaŵi, iyo apo yikaŵa Nyasaland, malo ghakuvikililika na United Kingdom, yikazgoka yojilamula yekha pachoko mu mkolano wa Rhodesia na Nyasaland. Mkolano ughu ukasungunulika mu 1963. Mu 1964 uvikiliki wa Nyasaland ukamalizgika ndipo Nyasaland yikazgoka yojilamula yekha kwe pasi pa Karonga Elizabeth II na zina liphya la Malawi. Mbwe pati pajumpha vyaka viŵili ka zgoka ripabuliki, ufumu wa Elizabeth II pa Malawi kumalaso papo. Kufuma pakutola ufulu yika zgoka ya chipani chimoza pasi pa mlongozgi Hastings Kamuzu Banda uyu wakaŵa na nkhongono zose, kukhala pa ulongozgi mpaka 1994. Malawi sono yina Boma la udemoklase, yavipani vinandi na mlongozgi wosankhika na ŵanthu, iyo sono ni Lazarus Chakwera.

Chalochi china wupu la ŵasilikali ŵapamtunda, m'maji na mlengalenga. Malawi yili mu ma wupu gha vyalo vingapo nthe United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, Southern African Development Community (SADC), Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), na African Union (AU).

Mbiri[lemba | kulemba source]

Mdauko wa chalo cha Malaŵi
1897 British Central Africa stamp issued by the United Kingdom
Malawi's first Prime Minister and later the first President, Hastings Banda (left), with Tanzania's President Julius Nyerere

Pambeli ku malo agho sono ni Malawi kundize ŵa Bantu kukaŵa ŵa Kafula kweni ŵa Bantu ŵakamba kwiza mchilimika cha chi khumi kufuma ku mpoto kwa Afrika. ŵakalutilila ku m'mwela kwe ŵanyakhe ŵakakhala na kwamba ufumu wa Maravi na ŵa nkhamanga.

Pati pajumpha 1600, maravi yikaŵa na Fumu yimoza kwe mu 1700, Ŵakagaŵanika. ŴaArab ŵakamba kugula ŵazga m'Malaŵi chomene nkhanira m'ma 1800s, pafupi ŵanthu 20,000 ŵakibika kufuma ku Nkhotakota kuluta nawo ku Kilwa kukaguliskika.

Mu 1889, uvikili wa Britain ukaŵikika pa mapiri ya Shire, iyo mu 1891 yikasazgika kukwana Malaŵi yose wa mwahuno nga British Central Africa Protectorate. Mu 1907, uvili uwu ukazachemeka Nyasaland.

Mu 1944, Nyasaland African Congress (NAC) yopangika na ŵina Afrika ŵamu Nyasaland kuti yituske kunthazi makhumbo gha ŵina Malawi kwa Boma la ŵazungu. Nyasaland yikazaŵikika ku federeshoni yochemeka Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, kweniso Central African Federation ŵanthu ŵotinkha boma la ŵazungu ŵakakula ndipo NAC yikakula ŵolondezga. Mmoza wa ŵotinkha bola la ŵazungu akaŵa Dr. Hastings Banda, uyu akaŵa doktala ŵosambizgika kuwalo wakachemeka ku kaya ku Nyasaland mu 1958 kuti wavwile kulimbana na Boma la ŵazungu. Banda wakasankhika kuŵa president wa NAC. Ndipo wakakakika. Ŵakamuluka mu 1960 nakufumbika kuti walembe Dango la Nyasaland.

Mu 1961, Chipani cha Malaŵi Congress (MCP) ya Banda yikapambana mvisankho ndipo Banda wakazgo Phungu Yilala mu 1963. Federation yikamala mu 1963, ndipo pa 6 July 1964, Nyasaland yikasanga ufulu kwa ŵina Britain nakujichema Malawi. Na Dango liphya, Malawi yikazgoka ripabuliki na Banda nga Mlongozgi-charu.

Dango ilo likazgola Malawi la chipani chimoza icho chikaŵa MCP. Mu 1971, ŵakati Banda ni mlongozgi wa Moyo. Kwa pafupi vyaka 30, Banda wakalamulila nthenda. Vipani vyosuska nthe ya Malawi Freedom Movement ya Orton Chirwa na Socialist League of Malawi, yakapangika na aŵo ŵakatchimbizgika mu Malawi.

Banda wakazomela referendamu mu 1993 apo ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵawukila boma ndipo ŵanthu ŵakavotela kuti Malawi yiŵe demoklase ya vipani vinandi. Mu 1993, ulongozgi wa Moyo ukakanika ndipo dango liphya likapangika. Mu 1994 mu visankho viphya, Banda wakaluskika na Bakili Muluzi uyu wakasankhikaso mu visola vya mu 1999, Ntheura wakakhara mlongozgi paka 2004, apo Dr. Bingu wa Mutharika wakasoleka na kuzasolekaso mu 2009.

Iye wakatinkhika na ŵanandi, chomene mu ulendo wakhe wachiŵiri nga mlongozgi apo ŵanthu ŵakachi viwoneskelo ivo ŵanthu 18 ŵakakomeka na ŵapolisi ndipo ŵanthu 44 ŵakapwetekeka.

Mu April 2012, Mutharika wakafwa na nthenda ya ntima; ndipo mlongozgi wakazgoka uyu wakaŵa mlongozgi wachiŵiri pasi pa Mutharika Joyce Banda.

Mu 2014 Joyce Banda wakatondeka visankho (kuŵa wachitatu) na kupokeleleka na peter Mutharika munung'una wa Bingu wa Mutharika nga mlongozgi.

Mu visankho vya 2019 wakapambana Peter Mutharika nanangawuli mphara ya milandu ghokhwaska Dango yikagamula kuti chisankho chikibika na chipani cha Peter Mutharika (icho ni Democratic Progressive Party) pamoza na wupu la Visola Ntheura visankho vizamuchitikaso pa 2 julayi 2020 apo chisankho cha 2019 chakomeka.

Malati[lemba | kulemba source]

Malati gha Malaŵi

Maboma gha Malawi[lemba | kulemba source]

MW-Districts.svg

Vyandale[lemba | kulemba source]

Vyandale vya Malaŵi

Vyachuma[lemba | kulemba source]

Malaŵi nchalo chakukhalila chomene pa vyalo vyapasi.

Ŵanthu[lemba | kulemba source]

Malaŵi wana ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 18 miliyoni,kukula kwa 3.32% mu 2018.

Mitundu ya ŵanthu (mu 2018)

Mitundu ya Viyowoyelo vyamu Malaŵi
Flag of Malawi.svg

ChiTumbuka · ChiCheŵa · ChiTonga · ChiNkhonde · ChiSukwa · ChiLomwe · ChiMang'anja · ChiSena · ChiYao · ChiNdali · ChiMakhuwa · ChiNyika · ChiNyiha · ChiLambya · ChiNyakyusa

  • 34.4% ŵaChewa
  • 18.9% ŵaLomwe
  • 13.3% ŵaYao
  • 10.4% ŵaNgoni
  • 9.2% ŵaTumbuka
  • 3.8% ŵaSena
  • 3.2% ŵaMang'anja
  • 1.9% ŵaNyanja
  • 1.8% ŵaTonga
  • 1.0% ŵaNgonde
  • 0.6% ŵaLambya
  • 0.5% ŵaSukwa
  • 1.1% ŵanyakhe
ŵaTumbuka[lemba | kulemba source]

ŴaTumbuka (panji, Kamanga, Batumbuka na Matumbuka) ni mtundu wa ŵanthu uwo ukusangika mu charu cha Malaŵi,ku Mafumilo gha Dazi gha Zambia mu maboma nga ni Lumezi,Lundazi na Chasefu na Kummwela kwa Tanzania.

ChiTumbuka chigaŵika nga ntchigaŵa cha gulu la chi Bantu, ndipo nakukhazikika mu malo gha pakati pa Dambo la Dwangwa kummwela, Dambo la Rukulu Wakumpoto cha kumpoto,Nyanja ya Malaŵi ku mafumilo gha dazi, na Dambo la Luangwa. ŴaTumbuka ŵakusangika mu visaghala (valleys) pafupi na madambo, nyanja kweneso mu malo ghakukwela ngati ni Nyika Plateau,uko ŵakuchemeka chomene kuti Ŵahenga nangauli uku nkhung'anamula magulu ghanyake gha chi Tumbuka agho ghalikugaŵana. Mtundu wa ŵaTumbuka ungagaŵikaso mu mitundu ingapo idoko idoko iyo yina mafumu ghawo agho ghose mafumu ghali pasi pa fumu ikulu Fumu Chikulamayembe. Magulu agha ghakusazgapo ŵina Henga, Poka na kamanga.

Mwakuyowoya mwakudumula,mtundu wa ŵaTumbuka ukaŵa umoza wa mitundu ichoko ichoko uwo ukafumila ku Luba (Mbili ya ŵaTumbuka kufuma 1400 mpaka 1900) agho sono ni malo ghakuthyeka kuti Democratic Republic of Congo. Iyi ikaŵa nyengo yakuti maboma kulije ghaliwose ghati ni agha ghaliko sono ndipo ŵakaŵa kuti ŵakhala kale paŵwekha kwa vyaka vyakujumpha ma handiledi (100+) ulendo wakuti wapasuka ku mtundu wa chi bantu kuchanya kwa chigaŵa cha pakati cha Afilika.

Mtundu wa ŵaTumbuka na mitunduso inyake idoko idoko ikadikizgika ku Luba na mlala wa nkhondo wa mtundu wachi Kongolo (mtundu uwo ukasazgikana na mitundu inyake iyo ikakhalila pa nyeno iyo ku Luba) ŵati ŵayezgesa kunyengelela ŵaTumbuka kuti ŵathele ndipo ŵakatondeka.

Chipembezo[lemba | kulemba source]

Malaŵi ntchalo chachi Khilisitu, na chiŵelengelo chidoko cha ŵa Silamu. Boma likusachizga kuti 87% ya chalo china ŵa Khilisitu, na ŵasilamu ŵakukwana 11.6%.

Vigomezgo (2018)

  • 77.3% ŵakhristu
  • —33.5% ŵosuska
  • —17.2% katolika
  • —26.6% ŵakhristu ŵanyakhe
  • 13.8% ŵasilamu
  • 2.1% aŵa ŵalije
  • 1.2% zyachikaya
  • 5.6% vinyakhe

Viyowoyelo[lemba | kulemba source]

Chiyowoyelo cha chalo ntchiNgelez.Viyowoyelo vinyakhe vikulu ni Chichewa, icho chikuyowoyeka 57% ya ŵanthu ŵose, Chinyanja (12.8%), Chiyao (10.1%), na Chitumbuka (9.5%).

Ulimi na vitukuko[lemba | kulemba source]

Chuma cha Malaŵi chili mu ulimi.

Wonaniso[lemba | kulemba source]

Mbendera cha Malaŵi

Ukaboni[lemba | kulemba source]

  1. "Malawi National Anthem Lyrics". National Anthem Lyrics. Lyrics on Demand. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2008.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "2018 Population and Housing Census Main Report" (PDF). Malawi National Statistical Office. Retrieved 25 December 2019.
  3. "Malawi Population 2022 – Pediaglobe". pediaglobe.com.
  4. data.worldbank.org
  5. data.worldbank.org
  6. data.worldbank.org
  7. data.worldbank.org
  8. "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 23 June 2021.
  9. Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  10. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named BBC