David Livingstone

Kufuma Wikipedia

David Livingstone

Livingstone in 1864
Kubabika(1813-03-19)19 March 1813
Kufwa1 May 1873(1873-05-01) (vyaka vikaŵa 60)[1]
Resting placeWestminster Abbey
51°29′58″N 0°07′39″W / 51.499444°N 0.1275°W / 51.499444; -0.1275
Known forProselytizing Christianity, exploration of Africa, and meeting with Henry Stanley
Mbumba
(m. 1845; died 1862)
Ŵana6

David Livingstone (19 March 1813 - 4 May 1873) wakaŵa dokotala wa ku Scotland[2], Congregationalist, pioneer Christian missionary with the London Missionary Society[2], na explorer ku Africa, uyo wakakhumbanga kuti waleke wuzga; yumoza wa ŵanthu ŵakumanyikwa chomene ŵa ku Britain mu nyengo ya Victorian ya 19th century. David wakaŵa mfumu wa Mary Moffat Livingstone, uyo wakafuma mu mbumba yakumanyikwa ya ŵamishonale ya mu virimika vya m'ma 1700, Moffat.[2] Livingstone wakaŵa munthu wavinjeru uyo wakacitanga vinthu vinandi vyakupambanapambana. Wakaŵa mishonale wa Chiprotesitanti uyo wakajipeleka kuti waŵe musambiri, munthu uyo wakajipeleka kuti waŵe musambazi, wasayansi, wakwendakwenda, wakunozga vinthu, wakususka wuzga, na wakukhozgera kuti Britain yisandenge malonda ghake na kukhazikiska maufumu ghanyake.[3]

Livingstone wakamanyikwanga kuti ni munthu uyo wakakhumbanga kumanya uko kukufuma maji gha mu Mlonga wa Nile, ndipo wakagomezganga kuti usange wangawuskapo cisisi ici, wamanyikwenge kuti wacitengepo kanthu kuti walekeske malonda gha ŵazga mu caru ca East Africa. Wakaphalira mubwezi wake kuti: "Maji gha mu Nile ghali na candulo cifukwa ca kunovwira kuti niŵe na nkhongono pakati pa ŵanthu. Nkhongono iyi [ndiyo] nkhugomezga kuti yizamumazga suzgo likuru".[4] Wakamba kupenja malo ghakupambanapambana gha ku Central Africa, ndipo ivi vikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵasange malo ghakupambanapambana mu Africa. Pa nyengo yeneyiyo pera, maulendo ghake gha umishonale, "kuzgeŵa", na nyifwa yake mu Africa, ndiposo kuzunurika kwake nga ni munthu wakuzirwa mu 1874 vikapangiska kuti paŵe maubwezi ghanandi gha Ŵakhristu ŵa ku Central Africa.[5]

Umoyo wake[lemba | kulemba source]

Livingstone's birthplace in Blantyre, South Lanarkshire, Scotland
David Livingstone's birthplace, with period furnishings

Livingstone wakababika pa 19 March 1813 mu tawuni ya Blantyre, Scotland, mu nyumba ya ŵantchito ŵa fakitare ya thonje pa m'mphepete mwa Mlonga wa Clyde pasi pa mlatho uwo ukujumpha mu Bothwell.[6] Wakaŵa mwana waciŵiri pa ŵana ŵankhondi na ŵaŵiri ŵa Neil Livingstone (1788 ⁇ 1856) na muwoli wake Agnes (née Hunter; 1782- 1865).

Apo Davide wakaŵa na vilimika khumi, wakamba kugwira nchito pa fakitare ya Henry Monteith & Co. ku Blantyre Works. Iyo na mudumbu wake John, ŵakagwiranga nchito ya maora 12 pa zuŵa, ŵakakakiliranga visulo vya thonje pa makina ghakusonera.

Neil Livingstone wakaŵa msambizgi wa Sande sukulu ndipo wakakananga kumwa moŵa, ndipo wakagaŵiranga mathirakiti gha Cikhristu paulendo wake wa kuguliska tiyi nyumba na nyumba. Wakaŵazga comene mabuku ghakukhwaskana na cisopo, vyamwendakwenda, na mauteŵeti gha umishonale. Ivi vikamovwira kuti waŵe munthu wakutemwa kuŵazga, kweniso kuti wasangenge vinyama, vyakumera, na vinthu vinyake mu migodi ya malibwe. Neil wakafipanga mtima kuti mabuku gha sayansi ghangatimbanizga Cikristu ndipo wakayezga kucicizga mwana wake kuti waŵazgenge vya cisopo pera, kweni David wakatemwanga comene vinthu vya cilengiwa na sayansi, ndipo ici cikamupangiska kuti wasande umo cisopa na sayansi vikukolerana.[7] Mu 1832, wakaŵazga buku la Thomas Dick lakuti Philosophy of a Future State, ndipo wakasanga fundo izo zikamovwira kuti wagwirizaniske cisopa na sayansi. Padera pa Baibolo, buku ili ndilo likamovwira comene pa nkhani ya vinjeru.[8]

Ŵanyake awo ŵakamovwira comene apo wakaŵa mwana ŵakaŵa Thomas Burke, mupharazgi wa mu Blantyre, na David Hogg, msambizgi wake wa Sunday school. Apo wakaŵa na virimika 15, David wakafumamo mu Church of Scotland na kuluta ku mpingo wa Congregational, ndipo wakapusikika na ŵapharazgi nga ni Ralph Wardlaw, awo ŵakakananga kuti munthu wangapona cifukwa ca kugomezga kuti vinthu vyose vili kulembekerathu. Pakuti Livingstone wakasambizgika visambizgo vya ŵanthu ŵa ku United States, wakazomera fundo iyo Charles Finney, uyo ni Pulofesa wa vya cisopa pa Oberlin College, ku Ohio, wakayowoya yakuti "mzimu utuŵa ukupelekeka kwa wose awo ŵakuwulomba". Kwa Livingstone, ici cikang'anamuranga kuti walekerethu kopa kuti wazamuparanyika kwamuyirayira. Livingstone wakati waŵazga buku la Karl Gützlaff, ilo likayowoyanga za visopa vya ku Britain na America, wakaciska adada ŵake kuti ŵasambire vya udokotala kuti ŵasange nchito ya kusopa.

Ivyo vikacitikira Livingstone ku H. Mulimo wa ku Blantyre uwo Monteith wakacitanga, ukaŵawovwiranga chomene ŵana awo ŵakaŵa na vyaka vyapakati pa 10 na 26. Mulimo uwu ukaŵa wakukhumbikwa kuti wovwire mbumba yake iyo yikaŵa yambura ndalama zinandi, kweni ukamusambizga kuti waŵe wakuzizipizga, ndiposo kuti waŵenge walusungu na wose awo ŵakugwira nchito, nga ni umo wakalongolera mu mazgu agho wakacemerezganga mu sumu ya Robert Burns yakuti: "When man to man, the world o'er/Shall brothers be for a' that".[lower-alpha 1]

Masambilo[lemba | kulemba source]

Livingstone wakasambiranga pa sukulu ya mu muzi wa Blantyre, pamoza na ŵana ŵanyake awo ŵakagwiranga nchito ya ku fakitare nangauli ŵakagwiranga nchito maora 14 pa zuŵa (6 koloko mulenji mpaka 8 koloko mise). Cifukwa cakuti wakaŵa na mbumba iyo yikalimbikiranga comene kusambira, wakasambira vinandi.

Apo wakaŵa na vilimika 21, wakakondwa comene na kapepara ako adada ŵake ŵakapokera kufuma ku chalichi ako kakayowoyanga ivyo Gützlaff wakacema ŵamishonale kuti ŵalute ku China, ndipo kakayowoyanga kuti ŵamishonale ŵakwenera kusambizgika kuŵa ŵadokotala. Awiske ŵakamukhorweska, ndipo nga umo ŵakacitiranga ŵana ŵanyake ku Scotland, Livingstone wakeneranga kusanga vyakukhumbikwa pa umoyo wake, na kuzomerezgana na ŵalaŵiliri ŵa fakitare, ndipo wakeneranga kugwira nchito yake yakale kufuma pa Isitara m'paka Okutobala. Mu 1836, wakasambira ku Anderson's University, ku Glasgow, ndipo wakasambiranga vyaumoyo na chemistry. Kweniso wakasambiranga vya cisopa na Richard Wardlaw, uyo wakalimbananga na wuzga.[9][10][11] Kuti wanjire sukulu ya udokotala, wakakhumbikwiranga kumanya Cilatini, ndipo wakasambizgikanga na Daniel Gallagher (uyo pamasinda wakaŵa wasembe, ndipo wakambiska chalichi la St. Simon's, ku Partick). Livingstone wakalimbikiranga comene nchito, wakasambira comene vya sayansi na vya cipatala, ndipo wakasanga ŵabwezi ŵanandi, kusazgapo Andrew Buchanan na James Young.[10][12]

Pa nyengo iyo, gulu la London Missionary Society (LMS) ndilo likaŵa likuru comene pa gulu la ŵamishonale mu caru ici. Mu Okutobala 1837 wakalembeska ku LMS, ndipo mu Janyuwale ŵakamutumira mafumbo agho wakazgora. Wakazgoreka yayi m'paka apo wakacemekera ku maungano ghaŵiri mu Ogasiti 1838. Pamanyuma pake wakapokelereka nga ni mulondezgi, ndipo wakapika masambiro ghakwambilira ku Ongar, Essex, nga ni umo ŵakambira masambiro kuti waŵe muteŵeti mu mpingo wa Congregational Union wakutumikira mu LMS, m'malo mwa masambiro ghakwambilira gha mishonale. Ku Ongar, iyo na ŵasambiri ŵanyake 6 ŵakasambiranga Cigiriki, Cilatini, Cihebere, na vya cisopa kwa Reverend Richard Cecil, uyo mu Janyuwale 1839 wakawona kuti nangauli Livingstone wakaŵa "wakujikuzga" kweniso "wakusuzga", kweni wakaŵa na "maghanoghano ghawemi, wakukhazikika, wakutemwa kusesa, kweniso wakaŵa na nkharo yiwemi. Pakati pajumpha mwezi umoza, wakalutilira kughanaghana kuti Livingstone "wakaŵa wakunozgeka yayi" kuti wasambire vya cisopa ku Cheshunt College, ndipo wakaŵa "wakwenelera kweni wakaŵa kuti walije mahara". Mu Juni 1839 ŵalongozgi ŵa LMS ŵakazomera Livingstone, ndipo ŵakazomera pempho lake lakuti walutilire kusambira na Cecil ku Ongar mpaka kuumaliro wa cilimika, ndipo pamanyuma pake LMS yikamovwira kuti wasambire vya udokotala ku London.

Kuti wasambire vya chipatala, wakalutizga masambiro ghake ku Charing Cross Hospital Medical School. Pa 16 November 1840 wakaba Licentiate of the Faculty (now Royal College) of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow (mu 1857 wakaba Honorary Fellow of the Faculty). Pa Novembala 20, 1840, Livingstone wakimikika kuŵa muteŵeti wa mpingo, pamoza na William Ross, uyo nayo wakaŵa mishonale ku South Africa, mu mpingo wa Albion Chapel, ku Finsbury. Cecil na J. J. Freeman.[13]

Vision for Africa[lemba | kulemba source]

Zulu dance, at Shupanga on the Zambesi to collect tribute from Portuguese merchants.

Nangauli Livingstone wakazomera pempho la Gützlaff lakuti ŵamishonale ŵapharazgike ku China, kweni cifukwa cakuti Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Opiyamu yikaŵa pafupi, ŵalara ŵa LMS ŵakaghanaghana kuti ŵaleke kutuma ŵanthu ku China. Wakati wapempha kuti wakakhaleko nyengo yitali ku Ongar, Cecil wakamuphalira kuti ŵakukhumba kuti iyo wagwirenge nchito ku West Indies "m'malo mwa ku South Africa". Pa Julayi 2, 1839, wakalembera kalata ŵalara ŵa LMS kuti ku West Indies kukaŵa ŵadokotala ŵanandi, ndipo nyengo zose wakakhumbanga kuluta ku vigaŵa vinyake vya pa charu chapasi m'malo mwa kukakhala ku malo ghakupambanapambana. Wati wazomerezgana na gulu la LMS, wakalutilira kusambira vya cisopa na Cecil mpaka kuumaliro wa cilimika ici, ndipo pamasinda wakambiraso masambiro gha udokotala.

Mu Janyuwale 1840, wakati wamba masambiro ghake, wakawelera ku sukulu ya Mrs. Nyumba iyo Sewell wakakhalanga apo wakaŵa mishonale ku Aldersgate.[10][14] Ŵanji awo ŵakakhalanga ku malo agha nyengo na nyengo ŵakizanga kucezga na mishonale Robert Moffat, uyo panyengo iyo wakaŵa ku England na mbumba yake kuti waŵapharazgire vya mulimo wa LMS ku Kuruman, South Africa. Livingstone wakamufumba kanandi waka vya Africa, ndipo nga umo Moffat wakalongosolera pamanyuma, wakati: "Nyengo na nyengo wakanifumbanga usange ine nkhugomezga kuti wangawovwira ku Africa. Nkhamuphalira kuti ine nkhugomezga kuti wangacita nthena, usange wangaluta ku malo ghakale yayi, kweni ku malo ghambura ŵanthu, chomenechomene ku mapiri ghakumpoto, uko nyengo zinyake nkhawonanga josi la mizi yikuruyikuru, uko kulije mishonale uyo wali kufikapo".

Iyo wakakondwa na umo Moffat wakawoneranga mulimo wa umishonale kumpoto kwa Bechuanaland, kweniso nkhani ya Chikhristu na malonda. John Philip, uyo wakaŵa mishonale wa LMS, wakati wadumbiskana na Fowell Buxton, uyo wakakhumbanga kuti boma lilekerethu mulimo wa kupharazga, wakalemba buku la Researches in South Africa mu 1828. Fundo iyi yikakhozgeka na Livingstone apo wakaluta ku ungano uwo ukacitikira ku Exeter Hall pa Juni 1, 1840. Pa ungano uwu, Buxton wakalongosora mwakukhorweska kuti malonda gha ŵazga ku Africa ghamalenge usange ŵalongozgi ŵa mafuko, m'malo mwa kuguliska ŵazga, ŵangasanga vinthu vyakukhumbikwa ku Europe kwizira mu "malonda ghaunenesko".[15][16]

Mission stations[lemba | kulemba source]

Livingstone wakafumako ku London pa Novembala 17, 1840, ndipo wakaluta ku Cape of Good Hope, pamoza na ŵamishonale ŵanyake ŵaŵiri ŵa LMS: Ross, uyo wakasankhika pa uteŵeti umoza na iyo, na muwoli wake. Pa ulendo utali uwu, wakasambira ciyowoyero ca Cidachi na Citswana, ndipo kapiteni wakamusambizga comene umo ŵangendeskera sitima. Mu Rio de Janeiro, mwakupambana na maboti ghanyake ghaŵiri, iyo wakafika pa mtunda ndipo wakakondwa na tchalitchi na malo agho ghakaŵa ku mtunda, kweni wakakondwa yayi na uloŵevu wa ŵantchito ŵa sitima ŵa ku Britain na ŵa ku America, ntheura wakaŵagaŵira mathirakiti mu malo ghakunjilira moŵa. Pa 15 March 1841, ngaraŵa yikafika ku Simon's Bay, ndipo kwa mwezi umoza, ŵanthu ŵatatu aŵa ŵakakhala mu msumba wa Cape Town pamoza na mfumu na muwoli wa Philip. Nga ni mulongozgi wa LMS, Philip wakalutilira na ndondomeko yawo yakuti ŵanthu wose ŵakaŵa ŵakuyana pamaso pa Chiuta na dango, ivyo vikapangiska kuti ŵaŵe na mphindano na ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Boers, na awo ŵakakhalanga ku Britain. Ŵamishonale ŵakakolerana nayo yayi nkhani iyi, kweniso ŵakakolerana yayi na fundo yakuti wakakhumbanga kuti ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Griqua ndiwo ŵapharazgenge. Ŵanyake, nga ni Moffatt, ŵakakhumbanga kuti ŵapharazgenge mu vigaŵa vinyake. Pakaŵaso mphindano pakati pa ŵamishonale awo ŵakagwiranga nchito za mawoko, na ŵamishonale awo ŵakaŵikika kuŵa ŵalaŵiliri.[17]

Ngalaŵa iyi yikaluta na Livingstone na mbumba yake ku Algoa Bay, ndipo kufuma pa 19 Meyi mpaka pa 31 Julayi ŵakenda pa ngolo ya ng'ombe kuluta ku Kuruman Mission. Mbumba ya Moffat yikaŵa kuti yindawelere kufuma ku Britain, ndipo iyo wakajiŵikamo comene mu umoyo wa Ŵatswana. Kufuma mu Seputembala mpaka kuumaliro wa Disembala, wakenda mtunda wa makilomita 1,210 na mishonale Roger Edwards, uyo wakaŵa ku Kuruman kwambira mu 1830. Ŵakacezgera na kudumbiskana malo ghakucemeka Mabotsa, Botswana, kufupi na Zeerust, North West Province, South Africa.

Mu 1842, Livingstone wakaluta ku Africa na ŵanyake ŵaŵiri, Paul na Mebalwe, awo ŵakaŵa ŵamishonale. Mu Juni 1843, Edwards wakazomelezgeka na LMS kuti wakhazikiske malo gha mishoni pamoza na muwoli wake ku Mabotsa. Livingstone wakasamukira ku malo agha na kukolerana nawo, ndipo wakaŵawovwira pa mulimo wa kuzenga. Wakalembera kalata Arthur Tidman, uyo wakaŵa mulembi wa LMS, kuti waŵenge wakukondwa kucemeka Mabotsa kuti "ntchigaŵa ca nchito yane", kweni waŵenge wakunozgeka "kuya kulikose, kweni kunthazi pera".

Mu Janyuwale 1844, mbumba ya Moffat yikati yafika ku Mlonga wa Vaal pamoza na mbumba zinyake ziŵiri za ŵamishonale, Livingstone wakaluta kukakumana nawo, ndipo wakakhala mu ngolo ya Moffat na kuyowoya na Robert kwa maora ghanandi mu ulendo wa mazuŵa 17 panji 18 wa ku Kuruman. Aka kakaŵa kakwamba kuti wakumane na mwana wawo Mary, uyo wakababikira na kukulira ku Africa.[18]

Deacon Mebalwe shooting, distracting the lion which had overpowered Livingstone.
Livingstone Memorial Sculpture in Blantyre, Scotland

Pa 16 February, Mebalwe na Livingstone ŵakamba kuvikilira mberere zawo. Livingstone wakawona nkharamu yikuru, kweni apo iyo wakayeghanga katundu, nkharamu iyi yikamuwukira, yikamudinya woko lake lamazere, ndipo yikamugwaza pasi. Mebalwe wakaponoska umoyo wa nkhalamu apo wakayizguzga kuti yikome nkharamu. Nayo wakuluma. Mwanalume munyake uyo wakayezga kumugwaza na mkondo wakalasika pambere wandafwe.

Nangauli Livingstone wakaphwanya chiwangwa, kweni iyo na Edwards ŵakakhozga ubwezi wawo. Wakaluta ku Kuruman kuti wakachizgike, ndipo mwana wa Moffat, zina lake Mary, ndiyo wakamupweleleranga. Woko lake likachizgika, ndipo likamba kumuwuska na futi, nangauli likalutilira kumusuzga umoyo wake wose, ndipo wakatondekanga kuwuska woko lake kujumpha pa chiŵegha.

Livingstone na Mary ŵakatorana pa Janyuwale 9, 1845.

Livingstone wakeneranga kuleka uteŵeti wake wakwamba wa umishonale ku Mabotsa mu caru ca Botswana mu 1845 cifukwa ca mphindano izo zikaŵapo pakati pa iyo na Rogers Edwards, uyo nayo wakaŵa mishonale, ndiposo cifukwa cakuti ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Bakgatla ŵakaleka kupulikira makani ghawemi. Mu 1847, wakaleka uteŵeti wake wa ku Chonuane cifukwa ca njara, kweniso cifukwa cakuti ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Boer ŵakaŵa pafupi, ndipo wakakhumbanga "kusamukira ku vigaŵa vinyake". Ku Kolobeng Mission, Livingstone wakang'anamura maghanoghano gha mulongozgi Sechele mu 1849 pamanyuma pa vilimika viŵiri vya kulimbikira kumunyengelera. Pakati pajumpha myezi yichoko waka, Sechele wakafwa.[19]

Exploration of southern and central Africa[lemba | kulemba source]

The journeys of Livingstone in Africa between 1851 and 1873

Livingstone na William Cotton Oswell ŵakaluta kutali kumpoto kwa Kolobeng kuti ŵasambire ciyowoyero ca Tswana na kusanga malo ghakukhala ŵamishonale. Mu 1849 ŵakambuka mapopa gha Kalahari na kufika pa Nyanja ya Ngami. Mu 1850, Royal Geographical Society yikamuwonga ndipo yikamupa wachi wa chronometer chifukwa cha ulendo wake wa ku nyanja yikuru ya Ngami. Wakapulika za mlonga uwo ukwenera kuti ukaŵa "msewu ukuru" uwo ukafikanga ku nyanja, ndipo mu Ogasiti 1851 ŵakafika ku Zambezi, uko wakagomezganga kuti kukaŵa "kiyi wakunjilira mu vyaru vya mukati". Mu 1852, wakati watuma mbumba yake ku Britain, Livingstone wakaluta kumpoto ku muzi wa Linyanti pa mlonga wa Zambezi, uwo ukaŵa pakati pa mphepete ya kumafumiro na kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Africa. Ŵakafika mu msumba wa Luanda ku Portugal mu Meyi 1854 pamanyuma pa masuzgo ghanandi na nyifwa iyo yikaŵa pafupi kucitika ya Livingstone. Livingstone wakamanya kuti ulendo uwu ukaŵa wakusuzga comene ku ŵamalonda ŵa munthazi, ntheura wakawelera ku Linyanti. Pamanyuma pake, pamoza na ŵanalume 114 ŵa fuko la Kololo, awo ŵakagwiranga nchito na mulongozgi uyu, ŵakanyamuka kuya ku Zambezi. Pa ulendo uwu, wakaŵa munthu wakwamba ku Europe kuwona maji ghakututuka gha Mosi-oa-Tunya, agho wakathya zina lakuti Victoria Falls, mu zina la Fumukazi Victoria. Paumaliro wakafika ku Quelimane pa Nyanja ya India, ndipo wakapanga mapu gha nthowa ya mu mlonga wa Zambezi.[20][21]

Pa cifukwa ici, Livingstone wakaŵa munthu wakwamba wa ku Europe kujumpha mu caru ca Africa pa mtunda uwu, ndipo ŵanthu ŵakamulumba kuti "wakajura" caru ca Africa, kweni pakaŵa kale nthowa zinandi za malonda. Ŵamalonda ŵa ku Portugal ŵakanjira mu caru ca Africa kufuma ku vigaŵa vyose viŵiri, mu 1853 na 1854 ŵamalonda ŵaŵiri ŵa ku Arabia ŵakambukira ku Zanzibar kuluta ku Benguela, ndipo ca m'ma 1800 ŵamalonda ŵa ku Angola ŵakambukira ku Mozambique.[22]

Livingstone preaching the gospel to unconverted Africans. Like other missionaries of the era he had a low success rate and is credited with a single conversion.[23]

Livingstone wakakhumbanga kuti ku Central Africa kuŵe malonda na visopa, kweni wakakhumbanga kuti ŵazga ŵa ku Africa ŵaleke kugwiliskirika nchito na Ŵaphwitikizi ŵa ku Tete na Ŵaarabu ŵa ku Kilwa. Mazgu ghake agho ghakalembeka pa chikhwangwani chake ku Victoria Falls ghakaŵa "Chikhristu, Malonda na Civilization", ndipo wakagomezganga kuti ghazamuzgora malonda gha ŵazga na kupeleka ntchindi ku ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe. Wakagomezganga kuti nthowa yakufiskira vilato ivi yikaŵa yakuti Mlonga wa Zambezi uŵe nthowa yikuru yakwendeskera malonda gha Ŵakhristu mu vyaru vya mukati.[24]

Author and campaigner[lemba | kulemba source]

Wakawelera ku Britain mu Disembala 1856. Mu 1855, wupu wa Royal Geographical Society ukamupa nkhombo ya Patron's Medal cifukwa ca ivyo wakacita ku Africa. Wati wacicizgika na wupu wa London Missionary Society, wakalemba buku lake lakucemeka kuti Missionary Travels, ilo mu 1857 likalembeka na John Murray. Buku ili likaŵa la malonda comene. Buku ili likaŵa na nkhani za sayansi, ndipo likalongosoranga makora vya ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa. Wakayowoya kuti mauteŵeti gha umishonale na "malonda gha pamtunda" pa mlonga wa pakati pa Africa vizamumazga malonda gha ŵazga.[21][25]

Slave traders and their captives bound in chains and collared with 'taming sticks'. From Livingstone's Narrative

Livingstone wakakhozgeka comene na umo ŵanthu ŵa ku Britain ŵakacitira na ivyo wakasanga, kweniso ŵakamovwira kuti wacitenge maulendo ghanyake. Wakayowoya kuti wakambenge kupenjerezga malo ghanyake, kuti wasange nthowa za malonda izo wakagomezganga kuti zingatora malo gha malonda gha ŵazga, m'malo mwa kupenja nthowa za umishonale. Wupu wa London Missionary Society (LMS) ukati wamanya ivyo wakakhumbanga kucita, ukamutumira kalata, iyo Livingstone wakapokera ku Quelimane, na kumuwonga cifukwa ca ulendo wake, kweni ukati ŵalongozgi ŵa wupu uwu "ŵakakanizgika kovwira kuti mulimo wa kupharazga makani ghawemi ufike patali". Wakakana kuti ŵambe kuzenga misasa yinyake kumpoto kwa Zambezi, ndipo wakakhumbanga kuti Zambezi yiŵe nthowa yakwendeskera malonda mu vyaru vinyake, kweni wakakhumba yayi kuleka LMS nyengo yeneyiyo. Apo Roderick Murchison, pulezidenti wa Royal Geographical Society, wakadumbiskana nayo na nduna ya vya caru, Livingstone wakayowoyapo cilicose yayi ku ŵalongozgi ŵa LMS, nanga ni apo cikawonekanga kuti boma ndilo lizamugwiliskira nchito ndalama pakwendeska ulendo wa ku Zambezi. Wakaphalira mubwezi wake kuti: "Nindamanye vinandi vyakukhwaskana na Boma, kweni nkhumanya vinandi vyakukhwaskana na Sosaite (LMS)". Mu 1857, Livingstone wakafumapo pa gulu la London Missionary Society, ndipo mu Meyi wa cilimika ici, wakimikika kuŵa mulara wa boma la ku Mozambique. Mu Febuluwale 1858, boma likati malo agho wakenera kulamulira ni "mafumiro gha dazi kwa Africa na vigaŵa vya mukati mwa Africa".

Apo wakadumbiskananga na boma kuti waŵe Konsolo, ŵa LMS ŵakaghanaghananga kuti wawelerenge ku Africa na ulendo wawo wa ku Kololo ku Barotseland, uko Livingstone wakawovwira. Paumaliro, mishonale yumoza, muwoli wake, muwoli wa mishonale munyake, na ŵana ŵake ŵatatu ŵakafwa na maleriya. Livingstone wakakumana na viyezgo vinandi pa ulendo wake wakwamba, kweni wakapulikiska yayi masuzgo agho wakakumana nagho, ndipo wakajumphizga kughanaghanira za caru ico ŵakasangako, ntheura ŵamishonale aŵa ŵakaluta ku malo gha mathipa uku ŵakaŵa na cakurya cambura kukwana ca quinine. Munthu munyake wakulemba mbiri ya ŵanthu zina lake Tim Jeal, wakawona kuti nkhani iyi yikulongora kuti Livingstone wakatondeka kucita makora vinthu vinyake, ndipo wakalongora kuti nyengo zose wakaŵikanga vilato vyake na ntchito yake pakwamba kuluska umoyo wa ŵanthu ŵanyake.

Pa nyengo iyi Livingstone wakaŵa munthu wakumanyikwa comene, ndipo ŵanthu ŵakakhumbanga kuti wayowoyenge nkhani pa wumba, ndipo wakasankhika kuŵa mu Royal Society. Wakapokera ndalama zinandi ku boma kuti wawovwire pa ulendo wake wakulondezgapo. Kweniso boma likamupa ndalama zakukwana £5,000 kuti wawone umo ŵamalonda ŵa ku Britain ŵangagwilira nchito pa Mlonga wa Zambezi.[21]

Zambezi expedition[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu Disembala 1857, ofesi ya munthavi yikanozga kuti yilute na gulu likuru. Mu Janyuwale 1858 wakazomera kulongozga ulendo waciŵiri wa ku Zambezi pamoza na ŵalara ŵa ŵasilikari ŵankhondi na yumoza.

Boti lakucemeka Ma Robert likapangika mwaluŵiro ndipo likanyamulika mu boti la Colonial Office la Pearl, ilo likaluta nalo ku Ceylon. Ŵakafumako pa 10 March, ndipo ŵakaluta ku Freetown na kutora ŵanthu 12 ŵa mtundu wa Kru kuti ŵakateŵetere pa sitima ya pa mlonga, ndipo ŵakafika pa Zambezi pa 14 May. Ŵakaghanaghana kuti ngalaŵa zose ziŵiri ziŵawovwire kuti ŵende mu mlonga na kukhazikapo malo, kweni pakaŵa pakusuzga kuti ngalaŵa zijumphemo para zajumpha mu Cahora Bassa rapids. Pearl wakataya katundu wawo pa cirwa ico cikaŵa pa mtunda wa makilomita 64 kufuma uko kukaŵa boti ili. Kufuma pa malo agha, Ma Robert wakendanga mwakuzizima, ndipo ŵakamuguzira mu maji ghanandi. Mlonga uwu ukaŵa malo gha nkhondo, ndipo ŵasilikari ŵa ku Portugal na ŵazga ŵawo ŵakarwanga nkhondo na Ŵachikunda ŵa ku Matakenya (Mariano) awo ŵakakhumbanga ŵazga, kweni wose ŵaŵiri ŵakazomera kuti ŵaŵe ŵabwezi.[26][27]

The grave of Livingstone’s wife, Mary Moffat Livingstone, in Chupanga, Mozambique. She died in 1862.

Ŵasayansi ŵara ŵakati ŵakhala waka ku Shupanga, ŵakamanya yayi umo vinthu vikwenera kucitikira, ntheura ŵakakolerana yayi. Thomas Baines, uyo wakaŵa citatata, ŵakamuwuskamo mu gulu ili. Ŵanyake awo ŵakaluta ku Nyanja ya Nyasa ndiwo ŵakaŵa ŵakwamba kufika ku Nyanja iyi, ndipo ŵakenda pa sitima zinayi. Mu 1861, ofesi ya Colonial yikatumizga boti la nkhuni lakucemeka Pioneer, ilo likanyamura gulu la University Mission to Central Africa (UMCA) ilo likalongozgekanga na Bishop Charles MacKenzie.

Livingstone wakawunjika ndalama kuti wapange ngalaŵa yinyake, ya Lady Nyasa, iyo yikanozgeka kuti yende pa Nyanja ya Nyasa. Buku ili likatumizgika mu vigaŵa-vigaŵa, mwakupambana na ivyo wakapempha, pamoza na ŵamishonale ŵanyake, kusazgapo Mary Livingstone, ndipo ŵakafika mu 1862. Ngalaŵa ya Pioneer yikacedwa kufika pa mtunda kuti yikakumane nawo, ndipo yikacedwa comene cifukwa cakuti yikamanya kuti Bishopu wafwa. Mary Livingstone wakafwa pa 27 Epulero 1862 cifukwa ca maleriya.

Livingstone wakatora sitima ya Pioneer na kuluta ku mtunda na kukawona Mlonga wa Ruvuma, ndipo dokotala John Kirk wakalemba kuti: "Nkhuwona kuti Dr. Livingstone wali na maghanoghano ghaheni ndipo ni mulongozgi wakofya comene".

Apo ŵapayiniya ŵakaweleranga ku Shupanga mu Disembala 1862, ŵakaŵalipira (mu salu) "ŵanalume ŵa Mazaro" awo ŵakafumapo na kusanga ŵanyake. Pa 10 Janyuwale 1863 ŵakanyamuka, ŵakaguzanga Lady Nyasa, ndipo ŵakakwelera mu Mlonga wa Shire uko kukaŵa vinthu vinandi ivyo vikaparanyika apo Mariano wakambanga kupenja ŵazga ku Chikunda, ivyo vikapangiska njara. Ŵakafika ku Chibisa na ku Murchison Cataracts mu Epulero, ndipo ŵakamba kuwuskapo Nyanakazi Nyasa na kuzenga msewu uwo ukajumphanga mu vigaŵa vinyake vya Nyanja iyi.[28][29]

Mu 1864 wakanyamura ngalaŵa izi mu mlonga pamanyuma pakuti boma lazomerezga kuti ŵaleke kuluta. Ŵapharazgi ŵanandi ŵa mu nyuzipepara ŵakayowoya kuti ulendo wa ku Zambezi watondeka, ndipo Livingstone vikamusuzga kusanga ndalama zakwendeskera ulendo wake wa ku Africa. John Kirk, Charles Meller, na Richard Thornton, ŵasayansi awo ŵakasankhika na Livingstone kuti ŵacite mulimo uwu, ŵakapeleka vinthu vinandi vyakukhwaskana na vyakumera, vinyama, na ŵanthu ku masukulu gha ŵasayansi ku United Kingdom.

Nile River[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu Janyuwale 1866, Livingstone wakawelera ku Africa, ndipo pa nyengo iyi wakaluta ku Zanzibar, ndipo kufuma ku malo agha wakamba kupenja uko kukufuma maji gha mu Mlonga wa Nile. Richard Francis Burton, John Hanning Speke, na Samuel Baker ŵakayowoya kuti Nyanja ya Albert panji Nyanja ya Victoria ndiyo yikafuma maji agha. (Ivyo vikaŵa vyaunenesko nadi, cifukwa Nile "yikuphulika kufuma pasi pa mapiri gha ku Burundi pakati pa Nyanja ya Tanganyika na Nyanja ya Victoria"), kweni pakaŵa mphindano pa nkhani iyi. Livingstone wakagomezganga kuti cisimi ici cikaŵa kumwera ndipo wakasora gulu la ŵazga awo ŵakafwatuka ku wuzga, ŵanthu ŵa ku virwa vya Comoros, na ŵateŵeti ŵaŵiri ŵa pa ulendo wake wakwamba, Chuma na Susi.

This house in Mikindani in southern Tanzania was the starting point for Livingstone's last expedition. He stayed here from 24 March to 7 April 1866.

Livingstone wakamba ulendo wake kufuma pa mlomo wa mlonga wa Ruvuma, kweni pacoko na pacoko awo ŵakamovwiranga ŵakamba kumuleka. Ŵanthu ŵa ku virwa vya Comoros ŵakawelera ku Zanzibar ndipo ŵakaphalira ŵalara ŵa boma kuti Livingstone wafwa. Wakafika pa Nyanja ya Malawi pa 6 Ogasiti, ndipo pa nyengo iyi vinthu vyake vinandi vikaŵa kuti vyibika, kusazgapo munkhwala wake wose. Kufuma apo, Livingstone wakaluta ku Nyanja ya Tanganyika, ndipo umoyo wake ukaŵa pa ngozi. Wakatuma uthenga ku Zanzibar kupempha kuti ŵatumizge vinthu ku Ujiji ndipo wakaluta kumanjiliro gha dazi, chifukwa cha ulwari. Wakafika pa Nyanja ya Mweru pa 8 November 1867 ndipo wakalutizga ulendo wake, wakaluta kumwera kukaŵa munthu wakwamba wa ku Europe kuwona Nyanja ya Bangweulu. Wakati wasanga mlonga wa Lualaba, Livingstone wakaghanaghana kuti ungaŵa mu mphepete mwa Mlonga wa Nile, kweni wakamanya kuti mu mphepete mwa Mlonga wa Congo muli Nyanja ya Upper Congo.[30]

Caka ca 1869 cikamba apo Livingstone wakalwara comene apo wakaŵa mu nkhorongo. Ŵamalonda Ŵaarabu ndiwo ŵakamuponoska, ŵakamupa munkhwala na kuluta nayo ku malo gha Ŵaarabu. Mu Malici 1869, Livingstone wakalwara nthenda ya chibungu ndipo wakati wafika ku Ujiji, wakasanga kuti ŵanthu ŵabiba katundu wake. Wakapwetekeka na cholera ndipo malundi ghake ghakaŵa na vilonda, ntheura wakeneranga kugomezga ŵamalonda ŵa ŵazga kuti ŵamufikiske ku Bambara, uko nyengo ya vula yikamukora. Pakuti wakaŵaje cakurya, Livingstone wakaryanga mu cipinda ico ŵakakakilira vingwe kuti ŵakondweske ŵanthu ŵa mu cigaŵa ici.

Pa Julayi 15, 1871, Livingstone wakalemba ivyo wakawona apo Ŵaarabu ŵakaguliskanga ŵazga ku msika wa Nyangwe, mumphepete mwa Mlonga wa Lualaba.

Ŵakayowoya kuti cifukwa ca kupanikizgira ici cikaŵa kuwezgera pa ivyo wakacita Manilla, uyo wakaŵa muzga uyo wakawukira ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Mohombo cifukwa ca kulongozgeka na mulongozgi wa mtundu wa Wagenya, Kimburu. Ŵaarabu ŵakawukira ŵamalonda na ŵanthu ŵa Kimburu.

Ŵasayansi ŵa pa Yunivesite ya Indiana ku Pennsylvania, awo ŵakawona ivyo vikaŵa mu diary ya Livingstone ŵakayowoya kuti apo wakalembanga ivyo vikaŵa mu diary yake, wakaleka kughanaghanira vya ŵalondezgi ŵake ŵanyake, awo ŵakaŵa ŵazga ŵa ŵamalonda ŵa ku Banyan, awo ŵakagwiranga nchito na John Kirk, uyo wakaŵa mulara wa boma ku Zanzibar, ndipo wakatumika kuti wakaponoske Livingstone. Ŵazga aŵa ŵakaŵafwatura ndipo ŵakasazgikako ku gulu lake, kweni ŵakalongora nkhaza ku ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha mwakupambana na ulongozgi wake, ndipo wakafipanga mtima kuti panji ndiwo ŵakambiska kuti ŵanthu ŵakomeke. Mu diary yake wakalemba kuti "ŵanalume ŵa Dugumbe ŵakakoma Kimburu na munyake kuti ŵaŵe ŵazga" ndipo wakalongosora kuti ŵazga ŵa Manilla ndiwo ŵakalongozganga, kweni pakuwona ivyo vikacitika, wakati ŵanthu ŵa Dugumbé ndiwo ŵakaŵa na mulandu, ndipo ŵakamba mulandu uwu kuti ŵaŵe ciyelezgero ciwemi ku Manilla. Mu diary yake wakalongosora kuti wakatuma ŵanalume ŵake na ndembera kuti ŵawovwire munung'una wa Manilla. Baibolo ilo Waller wakalemba mu "Last Journals", ilo likalembeka mu 1874, likulongosora yayi ivyo Livingstone wakayowoya vyakukhwaskana na Kirk na nkharo yiheni ya ŵanalume ŵa ku Banyan awo ŵakagwiranga nchito, ndipo likulongosora yayi umo ŵanthu ŵa mu muzi ŵakakhalira pakwamba apo ŵakalimbana na ŵazga ŵa Ŵaarabu. Cigaŵa ico cikulongosora vya kukoma ŵanthu cikaŵa na mazgu ghacoko waka. Kupenjerezga ivyo vikalembeka mu dayare kukulutilira.[31][32]

Livingstone wakatenthema comene na ivyo vikacitika, ndipo wakalutilira yayi kupenja maji gha mu Nile. Nyengo ya vula yikati yamara, wakenda mtunda wa makilomita 390 kufuma ku Nyangwe kuwelera ku Ujiji, malo gha Ŵaarabu agho ghakaŵa kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Nyanja ya Tanganyika.

Geographical discoveries[lemba | kulemba source]

Nangauli Livingstone wakananga pakuyowoya za Nile, kweni wakasora malo ghanandi agho ghakovwira ŵasayansi ŵa ku vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi, nga ni Nyanja ya Ngami, Nyanja ya Malawi, na Nyanja ya Bangweulu, kusazgapo Victoria Falls iyo yazunulika kale. Wakalongosora makora umo Nyanja ya Tanganyika, Nyanja ya Mweru, na nthowa ya milonga yinandi, comenecomene ya Zambezi, ndipo ivyo wakawona vikawovwira kuti vigaŵa vikuruvikuru ivyo vikaŵa vyambura kumanyikwa vilembeke. Nangauli vikaŵa nthena, kweni wakafika yayi kumpoto kwa Nyanja ya Tanganyika, iyo yikaŵa kumwera kwa Equator, ndipo wakafika yayi ku nkhorongo za mu Mlonga wa Congo uko kukaŵa kufupi na Msumba wa Ntangwe, kufupi na Misisi.

Livingstone wakapika mendulo ya golide ya Royal Geographical Society of London, ndipo wakaŵa yumoza wa ŵanthu awo ŵakakolerananga na gulu ili umoyo wake wose.[8]

Stanley meeting[lemba | kulemba source]

Livingstone's meeting with Stanley took place at Ujiji, an Arab trading post under the Sultanate of Zanzibar, marked in pink at the bottom left of this map.
Henry Morton Stanley meets David Livingstone
Livingstone Memorial in Ujiji, Tanzania

Kwa vilimika vinkhondi na cimoza, Livingstone wakaleka kucezga na ŵanthu ndipo vilimika vinayi vyaumaliro wa umoyo wake, wakaŵa mulwari comene. Pa makalata 44 agho wakatuma, limoza pera ndilo likafika ku Zanzibar. Kalata yimoza iyo yikalembeka na Horace Waller, yikavumbukwa na Peter Beard mu 2010. Likuti: "Nili na nthumbo yikuru, kweni iyi njinu pera... Nkhukayika usange nizamukuwonaso".[33][34]

Mu 1869, nyuzipepara ya New York Herald yikatuma Henry Morton Stanley kuti wamupenje. Wakamusanga Livingstone mu tawuni ya Ujiji pa mphepete mwa Nyanja ya Tanganyika pa Novembala 10, 1871. Livingstone, nkhugomezga?" Livingstone wakazgora kuti, "Enya", ndipo wakasazgirapo kuti, "Nkhuwonga comene kuti nili pano kuti nimupokelerani". Mazgu ghakumanyikwa agha ghangaŵa ghakupangika waka, cifukwa pamasinda Stanley wakalemba mu diary yake ivyo vikacitika. Nanga ni nkhani ya Livingstone ya umo wakakumana na ŵanthu aŵa yikuzunurapo yayi mazgu agha. Kweni mazgu agha ghakusangika mu nyuzipepara ya New York Herald ya Ogasiti 10, 1872, ndipo mabuku gha Encyclopædia Britannica na Oxford Dictionary of National Biography ghakuzunura mazgu agha kwambura kukayika. Mazgu agha ghakumanyikwa comene cifukwa cakuti ghakulongora kuti Livingstone wakaŵa yekha muzungu uyo wakaŵapo pa mtunda wa makilomita ghanandi, kweniso cifukwa cakuti Stanley wakayezgayezga kuti wawoneke wakucindikika mu nkhorongo ya mu Africa mwa kuyowoya mazgu agho munthu wangaghanaghananga kuti wangapulika mu kilabu ya ŵanthu ŵakuzirwa ku London. Ndipouli, awo ŵakaŵazganga nyuzipepara iyi ŵakawona kuti Stanley wakuneneska yayi. Munthu munyake uyo wakalemba mbiri ya umoyo wa Stanley, zina lake Tim Jeal, wakati umoyo wake wose Stanley wakalimbananga na suzgo lakuti wakaŵa mukavu. Buku la Stanley likulongora kuti mazgu agha ghakaŵa ghakufuma ku soni, cifukwa wakakhumba yayi kukumbatira Livingstone.

Nangauli Stanley wakamuchiskanga, kweni Livingstone wakaŵikapo mtima kuti waleke kuwukapo mu Africa m'paka wamalizge mulimo wake. Ulwari wake ukamupangiska kuti watimbanizgike maghanoghano ndipo wakasuzgikanga kusankha vinthu paumaliro wa umoyo wake. Wakenda mu mlonga wa Lualaba, ndipo wakati watondeka kusanga nthowa yakunjilira mu mlonga wa Nile, wakawelera ku Nyanja ya Bangweulu na malo ghake kuti wakawone umo mlonga uwo ukendanga kumpoto ukuyendera.[35]

Christianity and Sechele[lemba | kulemba source]

Livingstone wakumanyikwa kuti ni "mishonale mulara comene mu Africa", ndipouli, pali kulembeka kuti wakang'anamura mtima munthu yumoza pera wa ku Africa: Sechele, uyo wakaŵa mulongozgi wa ŵantu ŵa mtundu wa Kwena ŵa ku Botswana (ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Kwena mba Sotho-Tswana, awo ŵakusangika mu South Africa, Lesotho, na Botswana mu magulu ghose ghatatu gha ciyowoyero ca Sotho-Tswana). Sechele wakababika mu 1812. Adada ŵake ŵakafwa apo Sechele wakaŵa na vilimika 10, ndipo ŵaŵiri mwa ŵadumbu ŵake ŵakagaŵana fuko, ndipo ici cikapangiska kuti Sechele wafumeko ku nyumba yake kwa vilimika vinkhondi na vinayi. Sechele wakati wawelera, wakatora cigaŵa ca fuko la sekuru wake, ndipo pa nyengo iyi ndipo wakakumana na Livingstone. Livingstone wakamba kutemwa chomene Sechele, chomenechomene umo wakaŵazgiranga. Pakuti Sechele wakasambiranga luŵiro, wakasambira alufabeti mu mazuŵa ghaŵiri ndipo mwaluŵiro wakamba kuyowoya Cingelezi. Wakati wasambizga ŵanakazi ŵake luso ulu, wakalemba Baibolo mu ciyowoyero cake.

Livingstone wakamanyikwanga mu vigaŵa vinandi vya mu Africa kuti wakacindikanga ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha, ndipo mafuko agho wakaluta nagho ghakamucindikanga na cipulikano ndiposo kugomezgeka. Ndipouli, wakatondeka kuzgora ŵanthu ŵa mu fuko ili kuti ŵaŵe Ŵakhristu. Cifukwa cimoza nchakuti, Sechele, uyo panyengo iyo wakaŵa mulongozgi wa fuko la ku Africa, wakakondwa yayi na fundo yakuti Livingstone wangapempha yayi vula kwa Ciuta wake nga ni umo awo ŵakapanganga vula ŵakacitiranga, ŵeneawo ŵakatenge ŵangacita. Livingstone wakadandawura kwa nyengo yitali, ndipo wakabapatiza Sechele na kumuzomerezga kuti waŵe muteŵeti wa chalichi. Sono Sechele wakaŵa mu chalichi, kweni wakalutilira kucita vinthu kuyana na mitheto yake ya ku Africa, iyo yikaŵa yakupambana na visambizgo vya Livingstone.:20

Sechele wakaŵa wakupambana yayi na ŵanalume ŵanyake ŵa fuko lake pa nkhani ya kutora ŵanakazi ŵanandi. Wakaŵa na ŵawoli ŵankhondi, kusazgapo MmaKgari (kufuma ku lizgu la Citswana ilo likung'anamura "anyina ŵa Kgari"), Mokgokong na Masebele. Wakati walekana na ŵanakazi aŵa, Livingstone wakaŵabatizga wose ndipo vyose vikenda makora. Ndipouli, pakati pajumpha cilimika cimoza, yumoza wa ŵawoli ŵake wakale wakaŵa na nthumbo, ndipo mwana wakababika na Sechele. Sechele wakapempha Livingstone kuti waleke kumugongoweska cifukwa cipulikano cake cikaŵa kuti citali, kweni Livingstone wakafumamo mu caru ici na kuluta kumpoto kuti walutilire kuzgora ŵanthu kuŵa Ŵakhristu. Template:Mapeji ghakukhumbikwa

Livingstone wakati wafumako ku fuko la Kwena, Sechele wakalutilira kugomezgeka ku Cikhristu ndipo wakalongozganga ŵamishonale ku mafuko gha pafupi na kuzgora pafupifupi ŵanthu wose ŵa fuko la Kwena kuŵa Ŵakristu. Neil Parsons wa ku Yunivesite ya ku Botswana wakati, Sechele "wakacita vinandi pakuthandazga Cikristu kumwera kwa Africa mu vilimika vya m'ma 1800 kuluska mishonale waliyose wa ku Europe". Nangauli Sechele wakajicemanga kuti ni Mkhristu, kweni ŵamishonale ŵanandi ŵa ku Europe ŵakakolerana nayo yayi. Mulongozgi wa fuko la Kwena wakakhumbanga kuti vula yilokwe, kweniso wakakhumbanga kuti ŵanakazi ŵaŵe na ŵanakazi ŵanandi.[36]

Death[lemba | kulemba source]

David Livingstone Medal[37]

Livingstone wakafwa pa 1 May 1873 apo wakaŵa na vyaka 60 mu muzi wa Chitambo ku Chipundu, kumwera-kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Nyanja ya Bangweulu, mu Zambia lero, chifukwa cha maleriya na kuthika ndopa mukati chifukwa cha nthenda ya malungo. Wakalongozgeka na ŵantchito ŵake ŵakugomezgeka, Chuma na Susi, ndipo gulu lake likanozga vyakusunkhizga nyifwa. Ŵakafumiskamo mtima wake na kuwusunga musi mwa khuni ilo likaŵa pafupi na malo agho wakafwira. Ŵanthu ŵakuti khuni ili ni mvula panji baobab, kweni likwenera kuti ni mpundu, chifukwa awo ŵakukhala pasi pa khuni ili mbachoko chomene kweniso ŵali mu malo ghambura maji.[38][39] Pa malo agha, agho sono ghakucemeka kuti Livingstone Memorial, pali kulembeka kuti wakafwa pa 4 May, zuŵa ilo Chuma na Susi ŵakayowoya (ndipo ŵakalilemba mu khuni); kweni mabuku ghanandi ghakulongora kuti zuŵa lakwamba la Meyi ndilo likaŵa zuŵa leneko ilo Livingstone wakalemberanga ivyo wakalemba.

Ŵanthu awo ŵakalongozgekanga na Chuma na Susi, ŵakanyamura thupi lake, pamoza na buku lake lakulongosora umoyo wake na katundu wake, ndipo ŵakenda ulendo wa mazuŵa 63 kuluta ku Bagamoyo, tawuni iyo yili mumphepete mwa nyanja, mtunda wa makilomita ghakujumpha 1,600. Ŵakafika ku Ujiji mu Febuluwale 1874, uko ŵakasanga mapepara gha Livingstone na kughapeleka ku England. Ŵalondezgi 79 ŵakamalizga ulendo uwu, ndipo ŵanalume aŵa ŵakapokera malipiro ghawo, ndipo viwangwa vya Livingstone vikaweleraso ku Britain kuti ŵakasunge. Mu London, thupi lake likagona pa No.1 Savile Row, uko panyengo iyo kukaŵa likuru la Royal Geographical Society, pambere ŵandamuŵike ku Westminster Abbey.[8][40][41]

Livingstone and slavery[lemba | kulemba source]

Arab slave traders and their captives

Ndipo usange ivyo nasanga vyakukhwaskana na wuzga wa ku Ujijian vikovwira kuti malonda gha ŵazga ghaleke kucitika ku East Coast, niwonenge kuti nkhani iyi njakuzirwa comene kuluska kusanga maji ghose gha mu Nile.

— Livingstone mu kalata iyo wakalembera mulembi wa nyuzipepara ya New York Herald[42]

Apo wakayowoyanga za malonda gha ŵazga ku East Africa mu nyuzipepara yake:

Ntchambura macitiko kuti uheni wake uleke kuŵa na nkhongono.[43]

Livingstone wrote about a group of slaves forced to march by Arab slave traders in the African Great Lakes region when he was travelling there in 1866:

Tikawona muzga mwanakazi uyo ŵakamukoma na futi panji kumudinya ndipo wakaŵa mu nthowa. Gulu la ŵanalume likimilira patali, ndipo gulu linyake la ŵanakazi likawoneleranga. Ŵakati Muarabu munyake uyo wakajumphapo mulenjilenji zuŵa lira, wakachita nthena chifukwa cha ukali chifukwa cha kutaya ndalama izo ŵakamulipira, chifukwa chakuti mwanakazi uyu wakatondekanga kwenda. 27 Juni 1866 - Lero tikakumana na munthu uyo wakafwa na njara, cifukwa wakaŵa wakunyotwa comene. Yumoza wa ŵanalume ŵithu wakendendendeka ndipo wakasanga ŵazga ŵanandi awo ŵakaŵa na ndodo za wuzga, awo ŵasekuru ŵawo ŵakaŵaleka cifukwa ca kusoŵa cakurya. Ŵakaŵa ŵakulopwa comene mwakuti ŵakatondekanga kuyowoya panji kuyowoya uko ŵakafuma; ŵanyake ŵakaŵa ŵacoko comene.

— Livingstone 1874, p. 62

He also described:

Nthenda yiheni comene iyo nili kuyiwonapo mu caru ici yikuwoneka kuti ni mtima wakuphyoka, ndipo yikuwukira ŵanalume ŵanangwa awo ŵakakoleka na kuzgoka ŵazga... Ŵanalume 21 ŵakafwatuka, kweni wose ŵakacimbira nyengo yeneyiyo. Ŵanandi 8 ŵakakakika, ndipo ŵakafwa mu mazuŵa ghatatu ŵati ŵambuka. Iwo ŵakalongosora kuti ŵakasuzgikanga waka mu mtima, ndipo ŵakaŵika woko pa malo ghakwenelera, nangauli ŵanandi ŵakughanaghana kuti woko ili lili mu chiwangwa cha pa nganga.

— Livingstone 1874, p. 352

Makalata gha Livingstone, mabuku ghake, na magazini ghake ghakawovwira kuti ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakane wuzga, kweni wakakhumbikwiranga wovwiri wa awo ŵakaguliskanga ŵazga, awo wakakhumbanga kuŵawuskapo. Wakaŵa mulongozgi wambura nkharo pakati pa ŵanyake, ndipo pa ulendo wake waumaliro wakaluta nga ni munthu uyo wakwenda yekha, na ŵateŵeti na awo ŵakamunyamulira katundu, kweni wakaŵavya wovwiri wa nkhwantha. Kweniso wakakhumbanga yayi kulondezga nthowa za ŵanthu ŵankhaza nga ni Stanley, kuti waŵavikilire ŵantchito ŵake na katundu wake. Pa vifukwa ivi, wakazomera kovwirika na kupokelereka kufuma mu 1867 na Mohamad Bogharib na Mohamad bin Saleh (wakumanyikwaso kuti "Mpamari"), ŵamalonda awo ŵakaguliskanga ŵazga, nga umo wakalongosolera mu mabuku ghake. Iwo nawo ŵakasanga candulo cifukwa cakuti Livingstone wakaŵa na mazaza pa ŵanthu ŵa mu cigaŵa ici, ndipo ici cikawovwira kuti Mpamari wafumiskike mu wuzga wa Mwata Kazembe. Livingstone wakakwiya comene wakati wamanya kuti ŵanji mwa awo ŵakatumizgikanga kufuma ku Ujiji ŵakaŵa ŵazga.

Kweni maukaboni gha Livingstone ghakukhwaskana na ŵazga ŵakughakayikira comene.[44][45]

Legacy[lemba | kulemba source]

Ku umaliro wa vyaka vya m'ma 1860, Livingstone wakaŵa na lumbiri luheni ku Europe cifukwa ca kutondeka kwa ulendo wake wa ku Zambezi, ndipo ŵanthu ŵakamugomezganga yayi pa nkhani ya uko kukufuma Mlonga wa Nile. Ulendo wake ukaŵa wakulongozgeka makora yayi. Stanley na nyuzipepara yake ŵakamovwira kuti waŵe na lumbiri luwemi, kweniso ŵateŵeti ŵa Livingstone ŵakamovwira kuti waŵe wakugomezgeka. Kulembeka kwa buku lake laumaliro kukavumbura kuti wakaŵa wakukhwima mtima nangauli wakasuzgikanga.

Mu 1860, pa pempho lake, ŵakambiska sukulu ya University's Mission to Central Africa. Ŵamishonale ŵanandi ŵakuzirwa, nga ni Mulongozgi Stirling na Miss Annie Allen, ŵakamba kuteŵetera gulu ili. Gulu ili na ŵamishonale awo ŵakagwiranga nchito ya udokotala ŵakamba kovwira comene ŵanthu ŵa mu Africa.

Livingstone wakabowozga vinthu vinyake vya ku Europe. Wakaciska ŵanthu awo ŵakakhumbanga kuti ŵazga ŵaleke kugwiliskirika nchito, awo ŵakendanga mu vyaru vinyake, na ŵamishonale. Wakajulira ŵanthu ŵa ku Central Africa kuti ŵamishonale ŵambe kusambizga ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa na kuŵapwelelera, kweniso wakambiska kampani ya African Lakes Company. Ŵalongozgi ŵanandi ŵa ku Africa na ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha ŵakamucindikanga comene, ndipo zina lake likawovwira kuti ŵaŵe paubwezi na ŵaboma ŵa ku Britain.[8]

Livingstone statue, Edinburgh by Amelia Robertson Hill

Ici cikapangiska kuti pamasinda pa vilimika 50 kufuma apo wakafwira, mu Africa muŵe ufumu wa ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake, ndipo ŵazungu ŵakaciskika kuti ŵakhalenge mu vyaru vinyake. Ndipouli, ivyo Livingstone wakaghanaghananga kuti "makoloni" ghaŵenge nga ni umo ise tikughanaghanira sono ni ufumu wa ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe yayi, kweni vikaya vya Ŵakhristu ŵakujipeleka awo ŵakakhalanga na ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe kuti ŵaŵawovwire kusanga nthowa za umoyo zambura wuzga. Livingstone wakaŵa yumoza wa gulu la ŵanthu awo ŵakatemwanga kupharazga makani ghawemi ndipo ŵakakhumbanga kuti vinthu viŵayendere makora ku Britain. Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1800, gulu ili likawovwira kuti ŵanthu ŵa mu charu cha Britain ŵaleke kughanaghana kuti Chiuta wali na mazaza pa ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake.

Nyumba ya David Livingstone ku Blantyre yili mu nyumba iyo wakababikiramo, ndipo yili pa malo agho pakaŵa nyumba iyo wakagwirangamo ntchito. Cipulikano cake ca Cikhristu cikulongoreka mu buku lake, umo muli mazgu ghakuti: "Nkhukhumba cara kuŵa na cinthu cilicose ico nili naco panji ico ningaŵa naco, kweni ico cikukolerana na ufumu wa Khristu. Usange cinthu cinyake cingawovwira kuti vinthu vya Ufumu viŵe makora, cipelekekenge panji kusungika, kweni para nkhupeleka panji kusungika, ndikuti nkhukhozga ucindami wa Uyo nkhugomezga kuti wazamuniponoska kwamuyirayira".

Alvyn Austin mu 1997 wakati:[46]

Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1960, Livingstone wakalongosoreka kuti ni munthu yumoza pera uyo wakazgoka Mkhristu, kweni pamasinda wakawelera nyuma. Wakenda mu vigaŵa vichoko waka ivyo ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakafikako yayi. Wakathaska ŵazga ŵachoko waka. Ndipouli, mu nyengo iyi apo mazina gha vyaru ghakuzgoreka na vithuzithuzi vikubwangandulika, Livingstone wandafwe. Nangauli ŵanthu ŵa mu Africa mazuŵa ghano ŵakutinkha comene ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe, nga ni Cecil Rhodes, kweni Livingstone wakalutilira kuŵa munthu wacikanga. Kwa nyengo yitali, Rhodesia wali kuleka kuzunura zina lake, kweni mu misumba ya Livingstone (Zambia) na Livingstonia (Malawi) zina la munthu uyu likulutilira kumanyikwa.

Mu 2002, David Livingstone wakasankhika kuŵa yumoza wa ŵanthu 100 ŵakumanyikwa comene ŵa ku Britain.[47]

Family life[lemba | kulemba source]

Posthumous portrait of David Livingstone by Frederick Havill

Nangauli Livingstone wakawovwira comene kuti ufumu wa Britain uthande, kweni mbumba yake yikakhwaskika comene. Ŵana ŵake ŵakakura kwambura awiskewo, ndipo muwoli wake Mary (mwana wa Mary na Robert Moffat), uyo wakatorana nayo mu 1845, wakaŵa na umoyo uheni comene, ndipo wakafwa na maleriya pa 27 Epulero 1862.

Wakaŵa na ŵana ŵankhondi na yumoza:

  1. Robert died while serving in the Union Army during the American Civil War;[48] He took the name Rupert Vincent and was the substitute for Horace Heath, and took his place in Company H of the 3rd New Hampshire Volunteers. Robert ended up being captured by the Confederate States Army and died at the Salisbury prison camp in Rowan County, North Carolina,[49] which has since been termed, "North Carolina's Andersonville."[50]
  2. Agnes (born 1847 or 1857, died 1912; married A.L. Bruce, a wealthy Scottish brewery executive.[51])
  3. Thomas, died in Egypt in 1876 at the age of 27 from bilharzia, a disease he contracted as a child living in Africa.[52]
  4. Elizabeth (who died at two months)
  5. William Oswell (nicknamed Zouga because of the river along which he was born, in 1851; died in 1892 in Trinidad where he practiced medicine.[52])
  6. Anna Mary (born 1858, died 1939)

Only Agnes, William Oswell and Anna Mary married and had children.[53] His one regret in later life was that he did not spend enough time with his children.[54]

Archives[lemba | kulemba source]

Ivyo vikalembeka mu mabuku gha David Livingstone vikusungikira mu ofesi ya University of Glasgow (GUAS). Pa Novembala 11, 2011, buku la Livingstone la 1871 Field Diary, pamoza na mabuku ghanyake ghakalembeka na David Livingstone Spectral Imaging Project.

Mabuku agho ghakulongosora ivyo vikacitika apo Livingstone wakaŵa mishonale wa London Missionary Society (nga ni mapu gha ku South-East Africa) ghali mu malo ghakusungirako vinthu vyakale gha School of Oriental and African Studies.

Mabuku gha pa Intaneti agho ghakukolerana na vinthu ivi na vinyake, ghakusangika na ŵanthu wose kwizira mu pulogiramu ya Livingstone Online ya pa Yunivesite ya Nebraska-Lincoln.[55][56]

Place names and other memorials[lemba | kulemba source]

Photograph of Livingstone in later life

Africa[lemba | kulemba source]

Botswana

  • Scottish Livingstone Hospital in Molepolole 50 km west of Gaborone, Botswana
  • There is a memorial to Livingstone at the ruins of the Kolobeng Mission, 40 km west of Gaborone, Botswana.
  • Livingstone Kolobeng College, a private secondary school in Gaborone, Botswana.

Burundi

The Livingstone–Stanley Monument in Mugere (present-day Burundi) marks a spot that Livingstone and Stanley visited on their exploration of Lake Tanganyika, mistaken by some as the first meeting place of the two explorers.

Congo

Ghana

  • Livingstone House, Achimota School, Ghana (boys' boarding house).

Kenya

  • Dr Livingstone Primary School in Nairobi, Kenya.
  • Livingstone house, Alliance Highschool in Kiambu, Kenya.
David Livingstone statue at Victoria Falls, the first statue on the Zimbabwean side

Malawi

Namibia

  • David Livingstone Museum in Sangwali, north-eastern Namibia. Livingstone stayed at Sangwali in the 1850s before travelling further north.

South Africa

  • David Livingstone Senior Secondary School in Schauderville, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
  • Livingstone Hospital, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

Tanzania

  • A memorial in Ujiji commemorates his meeting with Stanley.[58]
  • The church tower of the Holy Ghost Mission (Roman Catholic) in Bagamoyo, Tanzania, is sometimes called "Livingstone Tower" as Livingstone's body was laid down there for one night before it was shipped to London.[citation needed]
  • Livingstone House in Stone Town, Zanzibar, provided by the Sultan for Livingstone's use, January to March 1866, to prepare his last expedition; the house was purchased by the Zanzibar government in 1947.[citation needed]
  • Plaque commemorating his departure from Mikindani (present-day Tanzania) on his final expedition on the wall of the house that has been built over the house he reputedly stayed in.
  • Livingstone Street, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Uganda

Zambia

Zimbabwe

  • The David Livingstone Memorial statue at Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe, erected in 1934 on the western bank of the falls.[63] Michler 2007 quoted 1954 which is wrong. The statue was unveiled on 5 August 1934[64]
  • A plaque was unveiled in November 2005 at Livingstone Island on the lip of Victoria Falls marking where Livingstone stood to get his first view of the falls.[59]
  • David Livingstone Primary School in Salisbury, Rhodesia (present-day Harare, Zimbabwe).[65]
  • David Livingstone Secondary School in Ntabazinduna about 40 km from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.
  • Livingstone House in Harare, Zimbabwe, designed by Leonora Granger.[who?][66]

Asia[lemba | kulemba source]

New Zealand

  • Livingstone Street in Westmere, Auckland
  • Livingstone Road in Flaxmere, Hastings

Europe[lemba | kulemba source]

Scotland

Livingstone statue, Glasgow

England

  • A statue of David Livingstone stands in a niche on the outer wall of the Royal Geographical Society on Kensington Gore, London, looking out across Kensington Gardens. It was unveiled in 1953.[73]
  • Livingstone is one of the four houses at Eltham College.
  • David Livingstone Primary School in Thornton Heath, South London.

North America[lemba | kulemba source]

Canada

United States

South America[lemba | kulemba source]

  • The Livingstone Healthservice in Jardín América, Misiones, Argentina is named in his honour.[74]

Banknotes[lemba | kulemba source]

In 1971–1998 Livingstone's image was portrayed on £10 notes issued by the Clydesdale Bank. He was originally shown surrounded by palm tree leaves with an illustration of African tribesmen on the back.[75] A later issue showed Livingstone against a background graphic of a map of Livingstone's Zambezi expedition, showing the River Zambezi, Victoria Falls, Lake Nyasa and Blantyre, Malawi; on the reverse, the African figures were replaced with an image of Livingstone's birthplace in Blantyre, Scotland.[76]

Science[lemba | kulemba source]

The following species have been named in honour of David Livingstone:

The mineral livingstonite is named in his honor.[77] It was described in 1874 from Mexico.

Portrayal in film and books[lemba | kulemba source]

In popular culture[lemba | kulemba source]

In the 1940 Warner Bros. Looney Tunes cartoon "Africa Squeaks", a caricature of Spencer Tracy as Henry Morton Stanley erroneously presumes Porky Pig to be Livingstone in the heart of "Darkest Africa".

The Moody Blues 1968 single "Dr. Livingstone, I Presume" paints the adventures of Livingstone, Captain Scott, and Columbus with the refrain "What did you find there? Did you stand awhile and stare? Did you meet anyone?", followed by a repeated chorus of "We're all looking for someone".

The ABBA song "What about Livingstone?"[80] mentions Livingstone "traveling up the Nile". Livingstone made 4 great journeys into Africa, three of them starting in Cape Town, South Africa and the last at Zanzibar. None of the routes traveled on the Nile which lay far to the north. He may have crossed sections of the headwaters of Nile on his final expedition but he would not have known so as these areas were not considered in the Nile watershed until much later.

A song from American heavy metal band Alcatrazz called Jet to Jet from 1983's No Parole from Rock 'n' Roll contains the lyrics "Dr. Livingstone where are you, when We need you the most" which is in reference to the famed doctor and his expedition to Africa.

Stanley's search for and discovery of Livingstone is the subject of the Hugh Masekela song "Witch Doctor" that appears on his 1976 album, Colonial Man.

Wonaniso[lemba | kulemba source]

Ukaboni[lemba | kulemba source]

Notes[lemba | kulemba source]

  1. This sentiment today would be expressed along the lines of: "all people, worldwide, are brothers and sisters, despite everything."[8]

Citations[lemba | kulemba source]

  1. "David Livingstone (1813–1873)". BBC - History - Historic Figures. 2014. Retrieved 12 Julayi 2018.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Bayly, Paul (2013). David Livingstone, Africa's greatest explorer : the man, the missionary and the myth. Stroud. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-78155-333-6. OCLC 853507173.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  3. Easton, Mark (3 Sekutembala 2017). "Why don't many British tourists visit Victoria Falls?". BBC News. Retrieved 12 Julayi 2018.
  4. Jeal 2013, p. 289.
  5. Mackenzie, John M. (1990). "David Livingstone: The Construction of the Myth". In Walker, Graham; Gallagher, Tom (eds.). Sermons and battle hymns: Protestant popular culture in modern Scotland. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-0217-9.
  6. "David Livingstone Centre: Birthplace Of Famous Scot". Archived from the original on 12 Febuluwale 2007. Retrieved 12 Julayi 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  7. Ross 2002, p. 6.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Blaikie, William Garden (1880). The Personal Life of David Livingstone... Chiefly from His Unpublished Journals and Correspondence in the Possession of His Family. London: John Murray – via Project Gutenberg.
  9. Ross 2002, pp. 9–12.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Lawrence, Christopher (2015). Wisnicki, Adrian S.; Ward, Megan (eds.). "Livingstone's Medical Education". Livingstone Online. Retrieved 15 Malichi 2022.
  11. "The University of Glasgow Story : David Livingstone". University of Glasgow. n.d. Retrieved 12 Julayi 2018.
  12. Ross 2002, pp. 13–14.
  13. The Evangelical Magazine and Missionary Chronicle. 1841. p. 50. Retrieved 15 Malichi 2022.
  14. Ross 2002, pp. 19–20.
  15. Vetch, Robert Hamilton (1893). "Livingstone, David" . In Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography (in English). Vol. 33. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 385.
  16. Ross 2002, pp. 24–25.
  17. Ross 2002, pp. 25, 33–36, 37–40.
  18. Ross 2002, pp. 44–46, 49.
  19. Livingstone, David (1960). Isaac Schapera (ed.). Livingstone's private journals, 1851–1853. University of California Press. p. 304.
  20. Jeal 2013, pp. 126, 147–8.
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 Wisnicki, Adrian S.; Ward, Megan (2015). "Livingstone's Life & Expeditions". Livingstone Online. Retrieved 28 Sekutembala 2021.
  22. Jeal 1973b, p. 159.
  23. Jeal 1973b.
  24. Holmes, Tim (1996). "The History". Spectrum Guide to Zambia. Struik. ISBN 978-1-86872-012-5.
  25. Livingstone 1857, pp. 92, 679–680, 683.
  26. Ross 2002, pp. 129–138.
  27. Livingstone & Livingstone 1866, pp. 472–475.
  28. Ross 2002, pp. 180–182.
  29. Livingstone, David. "Personal Letter to J. Kirk or R. Playfair". David Livingstone Online. Archived from the original on 21 December 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  30. "Researchers now presume that Dr Livingstone lied". CBS News. 2 Novembala 2011. Retrieved 25 Epulelo 2019.
  31. Wisnicki, Adrian S. (2011). "Livingstone in 1871". livingstoneonline.org. Retrieved 25 Epulelo 2019.
  32. "David Livingstone letter deciphered at last. Four-page missive composed at the lowest point in his professional life". Associated Press. 2 Julayi 2010. Retrieved 2 Julayi 2010.
  33. Livingstone's Letter from Bambarre Archived 5 Julayi 2010 at the Wayback Machine, emelibrary.org; accessed 4 July 2010.
  34. Livingstone 1874.
  35. Tomkins, Stephen (19 Malichi 2013). "The African chief converted to Christianity by Dr Livingstone". BBC News. Retrieved 12 Julayi 2018.
  36. Wyon, Allen (Febuluwale 1890). "A Livingstone Medal". Chronicles of the London Missionary Society. London: 60.
  37. Wickens, G. E.; Lowe, P. (2008). The Baobabs: Pachycauls of Africa, Madagascar and Australia. Springer Netherlands. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-4020-6430-2.
  38. Dugard 2014, p. 147.
  39. G. Bruce Boyer (Summer 1996). "On Savile Row". Cigar Aficionado. Archived from the original on 17 Ogasiti 2010. Retrieved 21 Disembala 2009.
  40. "David Livingstone". Westminster Abbey. Retrieved 7 Febuluwale 2023.
  41. Stanley, Henry Morton (1872). How I Found Livingstone: Travels, Adventures and Discoveries in Central Africa: Including an Account of Four Months' Residence with Dr. Livingstone. Scribner, Armstrong & Company.
  42. Livingstone 1874, p. 442.
  43. Teelock, Vijayalakshmi; Peerthum, Satyendra (2017). Transition from Slavery in Zanzibar and Mauritius. CODESRIA. pp. 47–. ISBN 978-2-86978-680-6.
  44. Rijpma, Sjoerd (2015). David Livingstone and the Myth of African Poverty and Disease: A Close Examination of his Writing on the Pre-colonial Era. BRILL. pp. 161–. ISBN 978-90-04-29373-1.
  45. Alvyn Austin, "Discovering Livingstone" Christian History (1997) 16#4 pp 10-19.
  46. "The Top 100 Great Britons". BBC. 2002. Archived from the original on 4 Disembala 2002. Retrieved 19 Julayi 2017.
  47. Chirgwin, A. M. (1934). "New Light on Robert Livingstone". Journal of the Royal African Society. 33 (132): 250–252. JSTOR 716469.
  48. Murray, John (Ogasiti 2011). "Rupert Vincent, I Presume?". Crossfire. Retrieved 12 Julayi 2018.
  49. Joel R. Stegall (13 Sekutembala 2018). "Salisbury Prison: North Carolina's Andersonville". North Carolina Civil War & Reconstruction History Center (in American English). Retrieved 7 Febuluwale 2023.
  50. Dugard & 2012, p. 384.
  51. 52.0 52.1 Dugard & 2012.
  52. Steven Wilson. "Livingstone Descendants". Freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved 23 Janyuwale 2012.
  53. Ferguson, Niall (2002). Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power. Basic Books. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-465-02329-5.
  54. "Scottish explorer David Livingstone's writings, drawings now available through online archive". Life at OSU (in English). 24 Juni 2015. Retrieved 19 Febuluwale 2019.
  55. "Livingstone Online: An Introduction | Livingstone Online". www.livingstoneonline.org (in English). Retrieved 19 Febuluwale 2019.
  56. "David Livingstone Clinic - University of Strathclyde".
  57. Grant, C. H. B. (Epulelo 1932). "The Livingstone-Stanley Memorials in Africa". The Geographical Journal. 79 (4): 318–319. doi:10.2307/1784331. ISSN 0016-7398. JSTOR 1784331.
  58. 59.0 59.1 59.2 "David Livingstone Remembered". Archived from the original on 27 Sekutembala 2007. Retrieved 27 Epulelo 2007.
  59. Crehan, Kate (1997). "Max Gluckman and the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute". The Fractured Community: Landscapes of Power and Gender in Rural Zambia. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
  60. Schumaker, Lynette Louise, "The lion in the path: Fieldwork and culture in the history of the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, 1937-1964" (1994). Dissertations available from ProQuest. AAI9521118. https://repository.upenn.edu/dissertations/AAI9521118
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Sources and further reading[lemba | kulemba source]

  • Austin, Alvyn. "Discovering Livingstone" Christian History (1997) 16#4 pp. 10–19.
  • Dritsas, Lawrence. Zambesi: David Livingstone and expeditionary science in Africa (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2020).
  • Dugard, Martin (2012). Into Africa: The Epic Adventures Of Stanley And Livingstone. Transworld. ISBN 978-1-4464-3720-9.
  • Dugard, Martin (2014). The Explorers: A Story of Fearless Outcasts, Blundering Geniuses, and Impossible Success. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4516-7757-7.
  • Gooding, Philip. "David Livingstone, UNESCO, and Nation-Building in 19th-21st-Century Scotland and East and Central Africa." Journal of Indian Ocean World Studies 5.2 (2021): 243–269. online
  • Groop, Kim Stefan. "Exploring Africa in the Nordic Press: David Livingstone, Henry Stanley and the Popular Fascination with Exploration and Adventure in Africa in the Late 19th Century." in Modernity, Frontiers and Revolutions: Proceedings of the 4th International Multidisciplinary Congress (CRC Press, 2018). online[dead link]
  • Holmes, Timothy (1993). Journey to Livingstone: Exploration of an Imperial Myth. Edinburgh: Canongate Press. ISBN 978-0-86241-402-3; scholarly biography
  • Jeal, Tim (1973). Livingstone. London: Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-434-37208-9., scholarly biography
  • Jeal, Tim (1973b). Livingstone. New York: G. P. Putnum's Sons. ISBN 9780399112157. LCCN 73-82030., first American edition
  • Jeal, Tim (2013). Livingstone: Revised and Expanded Edition. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-19100-4.
  • Kilbride, Daniel. "The Old South Confronts the Dilemma of David Livingstone." Journal of Southern History (2016) 82#4 p789-822; how he was seen in the American South.
  • Lewis, Joanna. Empire of sentiment: the death of Livingstone and the myth of Victorian imperialism (Cambridge University Press, 2018) .
  • Liebenberg, Elri. "‘I Will Open a Path into the Interior (of Africa), or Perish’: David Livingstone and the Mapping of Africa." Cartographic Journal 58.1 (2021): 29-49.

External links[lemba | kulemba source]

Template:Wikisource author  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cameron, Verney Lovett". Encyclopædia Britannica (in English). Vol. 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 109.