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ISBN

Kufuma Wikipedia
(Kufumila ku ISBN (identifier))
International Standard Book Number
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A 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar code
AcronymISBN
OrganisationInternational ISBN Agency
Introduced1970; 54 vyaka vyajumphapo (1970)
No. of digits13 (formerly 10)
Check digitWeighted sum
Example978-3-16-148410-0
Websiteisbn-international.org

Nambala ya International Standard Book Number (ISBN) ni nambara iyo yikulongora umo mabuku ghakuguliskikira. Ŵakupharazga ŵakugura panji kupokera mazina gha ISBN ku wupu unyake wa International ISBN Agency.[1]

Buku lililose likuŵa na ISBN (International Number Number Number) ndipo para lafuma likuŵa na ISBN. Mwachiyelezgero, buku la pa kompyuta, buku lakupelekeka mu mapepara ghafinyi, na buku lakupelekeka mu mapepara ghakusuzga, waliyose waŵenge na ISBN yake. Nambala ya ISBN njitali manambara 10 usange yapika pambere chaka cha 2007 chindafike, ndipo njitali manambara 13 usange yapika pa 1 Janyuwale 2007 panji pamanyuma pake. Nthowa yakupelekera ISBN yikupambana mu vyaru na vyaru, ndipo kanandi yikuthemba pa unandi wa mabuku agho ghakusindikizgika mu vyaru ivi.

Mtundu wakwambilira wa ISBN ukapangika mu 1967, kufuma pa manambara 9 gha Standard Book Numbering (SBN). Gulu la pa charu chose lakuwona vya ndembera (International Organization for Standardization (ISO)) ndilo likapangiska ISBN ya manambara 10.

Mabuku agho ghakupharazgika na ŵanthu ŵekha nyengo zinyake ghakuŵa na ISBN yayi. Nyengo zinyake wupu wa International ISBN Agency ndiwo ukupeleka mazina gha mabuku agha.

Nambara yinyake iyo yikovwira kumanya mabuku nga ni magazini na manyuzipepara ni International Standard Serial Number (ISSN). International Standard Music Number (ISMN) yikung'anamura sumu.

Mbili[lemba | kulemba source]

Nambara ya Buku (SBN) ni nthowa yakupangira mabuku iyo yikugwiliskira ntchito manambara gha manambara 9. Mu 1965, WHSmith, uyo wakuguliska mabuku ku Britain, wakapharazga kuti wakukhumba kuŵika manambara gha mabuku ghake. Ŵakalemba ntchito ŵanthu ŵanyake kuti ŵaŵawovwire, ndipo Gordon Foster, uyo wakaŵa pulofesa wa masamu pa Trinity College ku Dublin ndiyo wakambiska nthowa iyi. Wupu wa International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee on Documentation ukakhumbanga kusintha SBN ya ku Britain kuti yiŵe yakovwira pa caru cose. Mtundu wa ISBN ukapangika mu 1967 ku United Kingdom na David Whitaker (uyo wakucemeka "Wiske wa ISBN") ndipo mu 1968 ku United States na Emery Koltay (uyo pamanyuma wakazgoka mulongozgi wa U.S. Wupu wa ISBN R. R. Bowker).[2][3][4]

Fomu ya ISBN ya manambara 10 yikapangika na wupu wa ISO ndipo yikalembeka mu 1970 nga ni ISO 2108. Ku United Kingdom ŵakalutilira kugwiliskira nchito nambara ya SBN m'paka mu 1974. Wupu wakuwona vya masisiteri (International ISBN Agency) ndiwo uli na mazaza gha kulembeska masisiteri pa charu chose. Pa Intaneti pali mabuku gha ISO agho ghakulongosora waka vya mu 1978.

Nambala ya SBN yingasinthika kuŵa ISBN mwa kuŵikapo chilembo cha "0". Mwaciyelezgero, magazini yaciŵiri ya Mr. J. Wakayama G. Reeder Returns, ilo likalembeka na Hodder mu 1965, lili na "SBN 340 01381 8", apo "340" likung'anamura mupharazgi. Para nambala iyi yalembeka pambere nambara yindalembeke, yingazgoka ISBN 0-340-01381-8; nambara iyi yikukhumbikwa yayi kuŵerengaso. Ŵakupharazga ŵanyake, nga ni Ballantine Books, nyengo zinyake ŵakagwiliskiranga ntchito manambara 12 gha SBNs apo manambara ghatatu ghaumaliro ghakalongoranga mtengo wa buku; nga ni umo viliri na Woodstock Handmade Houses.

Kwambira pa Janyuwale 1, 2007, manambara gha ISBN ghali na manambara 13, ndipo ghakukolerana na manambara gha "Bookland" agho ghali na manambara 13..[5]

Kuona mwapatali patali[lemba | kulemba source]

Buku lililose likuŵa na ISBN yake (pakuleka kupulinta). Mwaciyelezgero, buku la e-book, la ma audiobook, la mapepara ghapusu, na la buku limoza, lili na ISBN yakupambana.:12 ISBN njitali manambara 13 usange yili kulembeka pa 1 Janyuwale 2007 panji pamanyuma pake, ndipo njitali manambara 10 usange yili kulembeka pambere chaka cha 2007 chindafike.[lower-alpha 1][5] Nambala ya International Standard Book Number yili na vigaŵa vinayi (para ni ISBN ya manambara 10) panji vigaŵa vinkhondi (para ni ISBN ya manambara 13).

Pa chigaŵa cha 5 mu buku la International ISBN Agency's official user manual:11 pali kulembeka umo ISBN ya manambara 13 yiliri:

Vigaŵa vya ISBN ya manambara 10, EAN-13 na barcode. Wonani manambara agho ghali mu chigaŵa chilichose. Chigaŵa cha EAN-13 icho chili na zina lakuti "EAN" ni code ya charu cha Bookland.
  1. pa ISBN ya manambara 13, chigaŵa chakwamba   a GS1 prefix: mpaka sono GS1 yapeleka 978 panji 979,
  2. chigaŵa cha gulu la kulembeska (gulu la vyaru ivyo vikuyowoya chiyowoyero chimoza, charu chimoza panji chigaŵa chimoza),[lower-alpha 2]
  3. chigaŵa cha uyo wakulembeska,
  4. chigaŵa cha kufumiska, na
  5. Chilembo cha checksum panji chilembo cha digito.

Nambala ya ISBN ya manambara 13 yingagaŵika mu vigaŵa vyake (vigaŵa vyakwambilira, gulu la kulembeska, munthu uyo wali kulembeska, buku, na nambara ya kuwoneskera), ndipo para vyaŵa nthena, kanandi vigaŵa ivi vikugaŵikana na vilembo vyambura kulembeka. Kugaŵa vigaŵa vya ISBN ya manambara 10 (gulu la ŵanthu awo ŵali kulembeska, awo ŵali kulembeska, awo ŵalembeka, na awo ŵali na nambara iyo ŵakukhumba kuwona) kukucitikaso na ma hyphens panji malo. Ntchipusu yayi kupambaniska makora ISBN, chifukwa vigaŵa vinandi vikugwiliskira ntchito manambara ghanandi yayi.[lower-alpha 3]

Issuing process[lemba | kulemba source]

Kufumiska ISBN nkhwakuyana waka na charu chilichose, chifukwa ni wupu uwo uli na mazaza pa charu ichi. Vinthu ivyo vikulembeka pa ISBN vikuthemba pa umo mabuku ghakusindikizgika mu charu icho, ntheura vikupambana kuyana na unandi wa mabuku, na unandi, mtundu, na ukuru wa awo ŵakulemba mabuku. Maofesi ghanyake ghakulembeka mazina gha visopa ghakusangika mu malaibulale panji mu maofesi gha boma ghakuwona vya kusambizga ŵanthu Baibolo. Mu vigaŵa vinyake, nchito ya kulembeska ISBN yikucitika na mawupu agho ghakupokera ndalama yayi kufuma ku boma.[7]

Maofesi ghose gha ISBN ghali pa webusayiti ya International ISBN Agency.[8] Pa vyaru ivi pali vigaŵa vichoko waka:

Chigaŵa cha gulu la kulembeska[lemba | kulemba source]

TChigaŵa cha gulu la kulembeska ISBN ni nambara ya manambara 1 m'paka 5 iyo yili na chigaŵa chimoza pera (ya 978 panji 979): 11 ndipo yingapatukana na "978-1-"... Magulu gha kulembeska ghakapelekeka mu chigaŵa cha 978 prefix. Mabungwe gha cilembo cimoza mu cigaŵa ca 978 ni: 0 panji 1 ku vyaru vya ciyowoyero ca Cingelezi; 2 ku vyaru vya ciyowoyero ca Cifurenci; 3 ku vyaru vya ciyowoyero ca Cigerman; 4 ku Japan; 5 ku vyaru vya ciyowoyero ca Cirushiya; na 7 ku China. Chiyelezgero cha gulu la manambara ghankhondi ni 99936, ku Bhutan. Magulu gha kulembeska agho ghalipo ni agha: 05, 600, 625, 65, 7, 8094, 950, 989, 9917 na 99901. Mabuku agho ghakusindikizgika mu viyowoyero vichoko chomene kanandi ghakukhala nyengo yitali.

Mu chigaŵa cha 979, chigaŵa cha kulembeska chigaŵa cha 0 chili kulembeka kuti chiŵe chakukolerana na International Standard Music Numbers (ISMNs), kweni chigaŵa ichi chikuŵa na ISBN yayi. Magulu gha kulembeska agho ghalembeka mu chigaŵa cha 979 ni 8 ku United States of America, 10 ku France, 11 ku Republic of Korea, na 12 ku Italyy.[28]

The original 9-digit standard book number (SBN) had no registration group identifier, but prefixing a zero to a 9-digit SBN creates a valid 10-digit ISBN.

Registrant element[lemba | kulemba source]

Wupu wa ku caru cose ukupeleka ISBN (cf. Wupu uwu ukupeleka zina la ISBN ku buku lililose. Mu vyaru vinandi, dango likukhumba yayi kuti mulembi wa mabuku wapelekenge ISBN, nangauli mu mashopu ghanandi ghakurughakuru mukusangika mabuku agho ghali na ISBN.

Wupu wa International ISBN Agency ndiwo ukulemba mazina gha ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 1 miliyoni awo ŵali na mazina agha. Mungapenja pa Intaneti.

Ŵapharazgi ŵakupokera mazina ghakupambanapambana gha ISBN, ndipo mazina ghakurughakuru ghakupelekeka ku ŵapharazgi awo ŵakukhazga kuti ghaŵawovwirenge. Para mabokosi gha ISBN ghasangika, mupharazgi wangapokera mabokosi ghanyake gha ISBN agho ghali na chigaŵa chakupambana cha uyo wakulembeska. Ntheura, mupharazgi wangaŵa na vigaŵa vyakupambanapambana vya munthu wakulembeska. Kweniso mu charu chimoza mungaŵa vimanyikwiro vinandi vya gulu la kulembeska. Ivi vingacitika para ŵanthu wose awo ŵali kulembeska mu gulu limoza ŵapelekeka ku ŵapharazgi.

Pakugwiliskira nchito vigaŵa vyakupambanapambana, mawupu ghakulembesa mabuku ghangaŵa na mwaŵi wa kupeleka mazina ghakupambanapambana ku awo ŵakulemba mabuku. Mwaciyelezgero, mupharazgi mulara wangapika mabokosi gha ISBN apo manambara ghachoko ghali kupelekeka ku munthu uyo wakulembeska ndipo manambara ghanandi ghali kupelekeka ku munthu uyo wakulemba mabuku.[29] Apa pali ma code gha ISBN agho ghakulongora umo ma block ghakupambanirana.

ISBN Charu panji chigaŵa Wakulemba
99921-58-10-7 Qatar NCCAH, Doha
9971-5-0210-0 Singapore World Scientific
960-425-059-0 Greece Sigma Publications
80-902734-1-6 Czech Republic; Slovakia Taita Publishers
85-359-0277-5 Brazil Companhia das Letras
1-84356-028-3 English-speaking area Simon Wallenberg Press
0-684-84328-5 English-speaking area Scribner
0-8044-2957-X English-speaking area Frederick Ungar
0-85131-041-9 English-speaking area J. A. Allen & Co.
93-86954-21-4 English-speaking area Edupedia Publications Pvt Ltd.
0-943396-04-2 English-speaking area Willmann–Bell
0-9752298-0-X English-speaking area KT Publishing

Chiyowoyero cha Chingelezi[lemba | kulemba source]

Vigaŵa vya gulu la kulembeska mu Cingelezi ni 0 na 1 (vigaŵa viŵiri pa vigaŵa vyakujumpha 220 vya gulu la kulembeska). Vinthu viŵiri ivi vya gulu la kulembeska vili kugaŵika mu vigaŵa vya munthu wakulembeska mu ndondomeko iyo yikovwira kumanya utali wake, nga ni umo vikuŵira:[30]

Publication

element length

0 – Registration group element 1 – Registration group element Total

Registrants

From To Registrants From To Registrants
6 digits 0-00-xxxxxx-x 0-19-xxxxxx-x 20 1-01-xxxxxx-x

1-04-xxxxxx-x

1-02-xxxxxx-x

1-06-xxxxxx-x

5 25
5 digits 0-200-xxxxx-x

0-229-xxxxx-x 0-370-xxxxx-x 0-640-xxxxx-x 0-646-xxxxx-x 0-649-xxxxx-x 0-656-xxxxx-x

0-227-xxxxx-x

0-368-xxxxx-x 0-638-xxxxx-x 0-644-xxxxx-x 0-647-xxxxx-x 0-654-xxxxx-x 0-699-xxxxx-x

494 1-000-xxxxx-x

1-030-xxxxx-x 1-100-xxxxx-x 1-714-xxxxx-x

1-009-xxxxx-x

1-034-xxxxx-x 1-397-xxxxx-x 1-716-xxxxx-x

316 810
4 digits 0-2280-xxxx-x

0-3690-xxxx-x 0-6390-xxxx-x 0-6550-xxxx-x 0-7000-xxxx-x

0-2289-xxxx-x

0-3699-xxxx-x 0-6397-xxxx-x 0-6559-xxxx-x 0-8499-xxxx-x

1,538 1-0350-xxxx-x

1-0700-xxxx-x 1-3980-xxxx-x 1-6500-xxxx-x 1-6860-xxxx-x 1-7170-xxxx-x 1-7900-xxxx-x 1-8672-xxxx-x 1-9730-xxxx-x

1-0399-xxxx-x

1-0999-xxxx-x 1-5499-xxxx-x 1-6799-xxxx-x 1-7139-xxxx-x 1-7319-xxxx-x 1-7999-xxxx-x 1-8675-xxxx-x 1-9877-xxxx-x

2,852 4,390
3 digits 0-85000-xxx-x 0-89999-xxx-x 5,000 1-55000-xxx-x

1-68000-xxx-x 1-74000-xxx-x 1-77540-xxx-x 1-77650-xxx-x 1-77830-xxx-x 1-80000-xxx-x 1-83850-xxx-x 1-86760-xxx-x

1-64999-xxx-x

1-68599-xxx-x 1-77499-xxx-x 1-77639-xxx-x 1-77699-xxx-x 1-78999-xxx-x 1-83799-xxx-x 1-86719-xxx-x 1-86979-xxx-x

22,310 27,310
2 digits 0-900000-xx-x 0-949999-xx-x 50,000 1-869800-xx-x

1-916506-xx-x 1-916908-xx-x 1-919655-xx-x 1-987800-xx-x 1-991200-xx-x

1-915999-xx-x

1-916869-xx-x 1-919599-xx-x 1-972999-xx-x 1-991149-xx-x 1-998989-xx-x

113,741 163,741
1 digit 0-6398000-x-x

0-6450000-x-x 0-6480000-x-x 0-9500000-x-x

0-6399999-x-x

0-6459999-x-x 0-6489999-x-x 0-9999999-x-x

522,000 1-7320000-x-x

1-7750000-x-x 1-7764000-x-x 1-7770000-x-x 1-8380000-x-x 1-9160000-x-x 1-9168700-x-x 1-9196000-x-x 1-9911500-x-x 1-9989900-x-x

1-7399999-x-x

1-7753999-x-x 1-7764999-x-x 1-7782999-x-x 1-8384999-x-x 1-9165059-x-x 1-9169079-x-x 1-9196549-x-x 1-9911999-x-x 1-9999999-x-x

119,590 641,590
Total 579,052 Total 258,814 837,866

Check digits[lemba | kulemba source]

Chiŵerengero cha digito ni nthowa yakuwoneramo maubudi agho ghakovwira kumanya maubudi. Chiŵelengero ichi chili na nambara yimoza. Nthowa ya ISBN ya manambara 10 njakusazgikira kwa iyo ya SBNs, ntheura vyaru viŵiri ivi vikukolerana; SBN iyo yili na cero (ISBN ya manambara 10) yikuŵa na cikozgo cimoza na ca SBN kwambura cero. Chiŵerengero icho chikulembeka ni base 11, ndipo chingaŵa chiŵerengero chose pakati pa 0 na 9, panji 'X.' Nambala ya ISBN ya manambara 13 yikukolerana yayi na ya SBN ndipo kanandi yikupambana na ya manambara 10, ntheura yikuvikilirika yayi. Chifukwa ntchakuti nambara ya manambara 13 yikeneranga kukolerana na EAN, ntheura yikaŵanga na "X" yayi.

ISBN check digits[lemba | kulemba source]

Kuyana na buku la 2001 la International ISBN Agency's official user manual, nambara ya ISBN (iyo ni nambara yaumaliro ya nambara 10 ya ISBN) yikwenera kuŵa pakati pa 0 na 10 (chimanyikwiro cha 'X' chikung'anamura 10), ndipo yikwenera kuŵa yakuti nambara 10 zose, yimoza na yimoza yikwenera kuŵikamo (nambara yimoza), kufuma pa 10 kufika pa 1, ni nambara yimoza na 11.

For example, for an ISBN of 0-306-40615-2:

Formally, using modular arithmetic, this is rendered

It is also true for ISBNs that the sum of all ten digits, each multiplied by its weight in ascending order from 1 to 10, is a multiple of 11. For this example:

Formally, this is rendered

The two most common errors in handling an ISBN (e.g. when typing it or writing it down) are a single altered digit or the transposition of adjacent digits. It can be proven mathematically that all pairs of valid ISBNs differ in at least two digits. It can also be proven that there are no pairs of valid ISBNs with eight identical digits and two transposed digits. (These proofs are true because the ISBN is less than eleven digits long and because 11 is a prime number.) The ISBN check digit method therefore ensures that it will always be possible to detect these two most common types of error, i.e., if either of these types of error has occurred, the result will never be a valid ISBN – the sum of the digits multiplied by their weights will never be a multiple of 11. However, if the error were to occur in the publishing house and remain undetected, the book would be issued with an invalid ISBN.[31]

In contrast, it is possible for other types of error, such as two altered non-transposed digits, or three altered digits, to result in a valid ISBN (although it is still unlikely).

ISBN check digit calculation[lemba | kulemba source]

Each of the first nine digits of the 10-digit ISBN – excluding the check digit itself – is multiplied by its (integer) weight, descending from 10 to 2, and the sum of these nine products found. The value of the check digit is simply the one number between 0 and 10 which, when added to this sum, means the total is a multiple of 11.

For example, the check digit for an ISBN of 0-306-40615-? is calculated as follows:

Adding 2 to 130 gives a multiple of 11 (because 132 = 12×11) – this is the only number between 0 and 10 which does so. Therefore, the check digit has to be 2, and the complete sequence is ISBN 0-306-40615-2. If the value of required to satisfy this condition is 10, then an 'X' should be used.

Alternatively, modular arithmetic is convenient for calculating the check digit using modulus 11. The remainder of this sum when it is divided by 11 (i.e. its value modulo 11), is computed. This remainder plus the check digit must equal either 0 or 11. Therefore, the check digit is (11 minus the remainder of the sum of the products modulo 11) modulo 11. Taking the remainder modulo 11 a second time accounts for the possibility that the first remainder is 0. Without the second modulo operation, the calculation could result in a check digit value of 11 − 0 = 11, which is invalid. (Strictly speaking, the first "modulo 11" is not needed, but it may be considered to simplify the calculation.)

For example, the check digit for the ISBN of 0-306-40615-? is calculated as follows:

Thus the check digit is 2.

It is possible to avoid the multiplications in a software implementation by using two accumulators. Repeatedly adding t into s computes the necessary multiples:

// Returns ISBN error syndrome, zero for a valid ISBN, non-zero for an invalid one.
// digits[i] must be between 0 and 10.
int CheckISBN(int const digits[10]) {
  int i, s = 0, t = 0;

  for (i = 0; i < 10; ++i) {
    t += digits[i];
    s += t;
  }
  return s % 11;
}

The modular reduction can be done once at the end, as shown above (in which case s could hold a value as large as 496, for the invalid ISBN 99999-999-9-X), or s and t could be reduced by a conditional subtract after each addition.

ISBN check digit calculation[lemba | kulemba source]

Appendix 1 of the International ISBN Agency's official user manual[32]:33 describes how the 13-digit ISBN check digit is calculated. The ISBN check digit, which is the last digit of the ISBN, must range from 0 to 9 and must be such that the sum of all the thirteen digits, each multiplied by its (integer) weight, alternating between 1 and 3, is a multiple of 10. As ISBN is a subset of EAN-13, the algorithm for calculating the check digit is exactly the same for both.

Formally, using modular arithmetic, this is rendered:

The calculation of an ISBN check digit begins with the first twelve digits of the 13-digit ISBN (thus excluding the check digit itself). Each digit, from left to right, is alternately multiplied by 1 or 3, then those products are summed modulo 10 to give a value ranging from 0 to 9. Subtracted from 10, that leaves a result from 1 to 10. A zero replaces a ten, so, in all cases, a single check digit results.

For example, the ISBN check digit of 978-0-306-40615-? is calculated as follows:

s = 9×1 + 7×3 + 8×1 + 0×3 + 3×1 + 0×3 + 6×1 + 4×3 + 0×1 + 6×3 + 1×1 + 5×3
  =   9 +  21 +   8 +   0 +   3 +   0 +   6 +  12 +   0 +  18 +   1 +  15
  = 93
93 / 10 = 9 remainder 3
10 –  3 = 7

Thus, the check digit is 7, and the complete sequence is ISBN 978-0-306-40615-7.

In general, the ISBN check digit is calculated as follows.

Let

Then

Njira iyi ya kuwoneskera njakuyana waka na nthowa ya UPC ya kuwoneskera manambara. Para pali mphambano pakati pa manambara ghaŵiri gha pafupi na limoza, manambara ghaŵiri agha ghakusangika yayi. Mwaciyelezgero, ciyelezgero ico cili pacanya apa cikulongora kuti para nambala 6 yalondezgeka na nambala 1, mbwenu pali suzgo. Para nambala iyi yalembeka mu ndondomeko yiwemi, yikwimira 3 × 6 + 1 × 1 = 19; kweni para nambala iyi yalembeka mu nthowa yinyake (1 na 6), yikwimira 3 × 1 + 1 × 6 = 9. Ndipouli, 19 na 9 vikuyana waka, ndipo vyose vikuyana waka. Fomula ya ISBN yikugwiliskira ntchito nambala ya nambala 11 iyo yikovwira kuti munthu waleke kuwona vinthu mwambura kuwona.

Kweniso usange manambara ghaŵiri, ghanayi, ghankhondi na limoza.

ISBN to ISBN conversion[lemba | kulemba source]

ISBN yikuzgoka ISBN para pa ISBN pali mazgu ghakuti "978" na kupendeseraso chiŵelengero chaumaliro. Para nambala yikwamba na chilembo chinyake padera pa 978, yingaŵa yayi.

Errors in usage[lemba | kulemba source]

Publishers and libraries have varied policies about the use of the ISBN check digit. Publishers sometimes fail to check the correspondence of a book title and its ISBN before publishing it; that failure causes book identification problems for libraries, booksellers, and readers.[33] For example, ISBN 0-590-76484-5 is shared by two books – Ninja gaiden: a novel based on the best-selling game by Tecmo (1990) and Wacky laws (1997), both published by Scholastic.

Most libraries and booksellers display the book record for an invalid ISBN issued by the publisher. The Library of Congress catalogue contains books published with invalid ISBNs, which it usually tags with the phrase "Cancelled ISBN".[34] However, book-ordering systems will not search for a book if an invalid ISBN is entered to its search engine.[citation needed] The International Union Library Catalog (a.k.a., WorldCat OCLC – Online Computer Library Center system) often indexes by invalid ISBNs, if the book is indexed in that way by a member library.[35]

eISBN[lemba | kulemba source]

Only the term "ISBN" should be used; the terms "eISBN" and "e-ISBN" have historically been sources of confusion and should be avoided. If a book exists in one or more digital (e-book) formats, each of those formats must have its own ISBN. In other words, each of the three separate EPUB, Amazon Kindle, and PDF formats of a particular book will have its own specific ISBN. They should not share the ISBN of the paper version, and there is no generic "eISBN" which encompasses all the e-book formats for a title.[36]

EAN format used in barcodes, and upgrading[lemba | kulemba source]

Mazuŵa ghano, manambara agho ghali pa chikopi chakumasinda cha buku (panji mukati mwa chikopi chakunthazi cha buku la mapepara) ni EAN-13; ghangaŵa na manambara ghankhondi agho ghakulongora ndalama iyo munthu wakuguliska na mtengo wake. Pa manambara 10 gha ISBN, nambala ya "978", iyo ni Bookland "country code", yikwamba na ISBN mu barcode data, ndipo chiŵelengero cha check digit chikupendekaso kuyana na EAN-13 formula (modulo 10, 1× na 3× weighting on alternating digits).

Chifukwa cha kuchepa kwa mazina ghanyake gha ISBN, wupu wa International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ukasintha mazina agha. Ndondomeko iyi yikamba pa Janyuwale 1, 2005, ndipo yikeneranga kumara pa Janyuwale 1, 2007. Kufumira mu 2011, manambara ghose 13 ghakwamba na 978. Pakuwona kuti nambala ya ISBN ya 978 yili kumara, ŵakalemba 979. Chigaŵa chimoza cha code 979 chikugwiliskirika ntchito na code ya Musicland pa sumu izo zili na ISMN. Makhodi gha ISMN gha manambara 10 ghakaŵa ghakupambana chifukwa ghakambanga na "M". Ma ISMN ghose sono ghali na manambara 13 agho ghakwamba na Template:Not a typo; Template:Not a typo to Template:Not a typo.

Nambara ya chigaŵa cha chiyowoyero ichi yikuyana yayi na nambala ya chigaŵa cha chiyowoyero chinyake. Kweniso, nambara ya ISBN ya manambara 10 yikuyana yayi na nambara ya ISBN ya manambara 13. Chifukwa chakuti GTIN-13 ntchigaŵa cha Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) system (iyo yikusazgapo GTIN-14, GTIN-12, na GTIN-8), ISBN ya manambara 13 yili na manambara 14.[37]

Wonaniso[lemba | kulemba source]

  • ASIN (Amazon Standard Identification Number)
  • BICI (Book Item and Component Identifier)
  • Book sources search – a Wikipedia resource that allows search by ISBNs
  • CODEN (serial publication identifier currently used by libraries; replaced by the ISSN for new works)
  • DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
  • ESTC (English Short Title Catalogue)
  • ISAN (International Standard Audiovisual Number)
  • ISRC (International Standard Recording Code)
  • ISTC (International Standard Text Code)
  • ISWC (International Standard Musical Work Code)
  • ISWN (International Standard Wine Number)
  • LCCN (Library of Congress Control Number)
  • License number (East German books) [de] (Book identification system used between 1951 and 1990 in the former GDR)
  • List of group-0 ISBN publisher codes
  • List of group-1 ISBN publisher codes
  • List of ISBN registration groups
  • SICI (Serial Item and Contribution Identifier)
  • VD 16 (Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachbereich erschienenen Drucke des 16. Jahrhunderts, "Bibliography of Books Printed in the German Speaking Countries of the Sixteenth Century")
  • VD 17 (Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachraum erschienenen Drucke des 17. Jahrhunderts, "Bibliography of Books Printed in the German Speaking Countries of the Seventeenth Century")

Vinandi[lemba | kulemba source]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named conversion
  2. Some books have several codes in the first block: e.g. A. M. Yaglom's Correlation Theory..., published by Springer Verlag, has two ISBNs, 0-387-96331-6 and 3-540-96331-6. Though Springer's 387 and 540 codes are different for English (0) and German (3); the same item number 96331 produces the same check digit for both (6). Springer uses 431 as the publisher code for Japanese (4), and 4-431-96331-? also has a check digit of 6. Other Springer books in English have publisher code 817, and 0-817-96331-? would also have a check digit of 6. This suggests that special considerations were made for assigning Springer's publisher codes, as random assignments of different publisher codes would not be expected to lead by coincidence to the same check digit every time for the same item number. Finding publisher codes for English and German, say, with this effect would amount to solving a linear equation in modular arithmetic.[original research?]
  3. The International ISBN Agency's ISBN User's Manual says: "The ten-digit number is divided into four parts of variable length, which must be separated clearly, by hyphens or spaces", although omission of separators is permitted for internal data processing. If present, hyphens must be correctly placed.[6] The actual definition for hyphenation contains more than 220 different registration group elements with each one broken down into a few to several ranges for the length of the registrant element (more than 1,000 total). The document defining the ranges, listed by agency, is 29 pages.

Ukaboni[lemba | kulemba source]

  1. "The International ISBN Agency". Archived from the original on 24 February 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  2. "Emery Koltay, David Whitaker Named NISO Fellows" (PDF), Information Standards Quarterly, National Information Standards Organization, 8 (3): 12–13, July 1996, archived from the original (PDF) on 4 August 2014
  3. US ISBN Agency. "Bowker.com – Products". Commerce.bowker.com. Archived from the original on 19 December 2003. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  4. Gregory, Daniel. "ISBN". PrintRS. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  5. 5.0 5.1 TC 46/SC 9. "Frequently Asked Questions about the new ISBN standard from ISO". lac-bac.gc.ca. Library and Archives Canada. Archived from the original on 10 Juni 2007.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  6. "ISBN Ranges". International ISBN Agency. 2014. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
  7. "ISBN Canada". www.bac-lac.gc.ca. LAC. 17 April 2013. Archived from the original on 21 April 2020. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
  8. "Find an agency – International ISBN Agency". isbn-international.org. Archived from the original on 20 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  9. "About the Australian ISBN Agency". THORPE-Bowker. Archived from the original on 16 April 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  10. "Bowker – ISBN". Thorpe-Bowker. 5 January 2009. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
  11. "Tabela de preços dos serviços" [Table of service prices] (in Portuguese). Biblioteca Nacional do Brasil. Archived from the original on 18 October 2019. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Changes in arrangements for ISBN in Brazil". Archived from the original on 28 October 2021. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  13. "ISBN Brasil" (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 8 May 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  14. "Introduction to Books Registration". HKPL. Archived from the original on 20 April 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  15. "Union HRD Minister Smt. Smriti Zubin Irani Launches ISBN Portal". MHRD. 7 April 2016. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
  16. "What is an ISBN ?". ICL – מרכז הספר והספריות. 7 April 2015. Archived from the original on 13 January 2019. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  17. "ISBN – Chi siamo e contatti" [ISBN – Who we are and contacts] (in Italian). EDISER srl. Archived from the original on 24 May 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
  18. "ISBN – Tariffe Servizi ISBN" [ISBN Service Tariffs] (in Italian). EDISER srl. Archived from the original on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
  19. "ISBN". Kunsill Nazzjonali tal-Ktieb. 2016. Archived from the original on 23 October 2016.
  20. Manwal ghall-Utenti tal-ISBN (PDF) (in Maltese) (6th ed.). Malta: Kunsill Nazzjonali tal-Ktieb. 2016. pp. 1–40. ISBN 978-99957-889-4-0. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  21. "Gazzetta tal-Gvern ta' Malta" (PDF). Government Gazette. 23 January 2015. p. 582. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 November 2016.
  22. "ISBNs, ISSNs, and ISMNs". National Library of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 23 April 2020. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
  23. "International Standard Book Number". NLP. Archived from the original on 19 April 2020. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  24. "ISBN – Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Kütüphaneler ve Yayımlar Genel Müdürlüğü OS". ekygm.gov.tr. Archived from the original on 19 April 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  25. "Nielsen UK ISBN Agency". Nielsen UK ISBN Agency. Archived from the original on 29 October 2019. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
  26. Manwal ghall-Utenti tal-ISBN (PDF) (in Maltese) (6th ed.). Malta: Kunsill Nazzjonali tal-Ktieb. 2016. p. 5. ISBN 978-99957-889-4-0. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  27. "Bowker – ISBN". R. R. Bowker. 8 March 2013. Archived from the original on 31 March 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
  28. International ISBN Agency (5 December 2014). "International ISBN Agency – Range Message (pdf sorted by prefix)" (PDF). isbn-international.org. p. 29. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 December 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
  29. Splane, Lily (2002). The book book : a complete guide to creating a book on your computer (2nd ed.). San Diego, Calif.: Anaphase II. ISBN 0-945962-14-2. OCLC 54527545.
  30. "ISBN Ranges". isbn-international.org. International ISBN Agency. 15 September 2014. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  31. For example, I'saka: a sketch grammar of a language of north-central New Guinea. Pacific Linguistics. ISBN "0-85883-554-4".
  32. ISBN Users' Manual, International Edition (PDF) (7th ed.). London: International ISBN Agency. 2017. ISBN 978-92-95055-12-4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 December 2019. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  33. Lorimer, Rowland; Shoichet, Jillian; Maxwell, John W. (2005). Book Publishing I. CCSP Press. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-9738727-0-5.
  34. "020 – International Standard Book Number (R) – MARC 21 Bibliographic – Full". Library of Congress. September 2013. Archived from the original on 5 January 2018. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  35. "xISBN (Web service)". Xisbn.worldcat.org. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  36. "The Myth of the eISBN Why Every eBook Edition Needs a Unique Number – Publishing services for self publishing authors and businesses". Publishing services for self publishing authors and businesses (in American English). 28 June 2013. Archived from the original on 10 October 2022. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
  37. "Are You Ready for ISBN?", Standards, ISBN, archived from the original on 31 August 2008, retrieved 14 October 2005

Vigaŵa vya kuwaro[lemba | kulemba source]