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Sierra Leone

Kufuma Wikipedia

Charu cha Sierra Leone
Flag
Mbendela Coat of arms
Chiluso: "Unity, Freedom, Justice"
Nyimbo: "High We Exalt Thee, Realm of the Free"
Makhalilo gha  Sierra Leone  (dark green)
Makhalilo gha  Sierra Leone  (dark green)
Makhalilo gha  Sierra Leone  (dark green)
Msumba Waboma
kweneso Msumba Usani
Freetown
Chiyowoyelo chaboma English
Viyowoyelo vyaboma Krio
Mitundu ya Ŵanthu (2015[1])
Vipembezo Islam (78.5%)
Christianity (20.4%)
Others (1.1%)
Mwenecharu Sierra Leonean
Mtundu wa Boma Unitary presidential republic
 -  President Julius Maada Bio
 -  Vice-President Mohamed Juldeh Jalloh
 -  Chief Minister Jacob Jusu Saffa[2]
 -  Speaker of Parliament Abass Chernor Bundu
Independence from the United Kingdom
 -  Dominion 27 April 1961 
 -  Republic 19 April 1971 
Ukulu wa Malo
 -  Malo 71,740 km2 (117th)
27,699 sq mi
 -  Maji (%) 1.1
Chiŵelengelo cha ŵanthu
 -  2023 estimate 8,908,040[3] (100th)
 -  Density 112/km2 (114tha)
291/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2022 estimate
 -  Total Decrease$16.4  billion [4] (152nd)
 -  Per capita Decrease$1,972[4] (185th)
GDP (nominal) 2022 estimate
 -  Total Increase$4.1  billion[4] (170th)
 -  Per capita Increase$494[4] (193th)
Gini (2018)35.7[5]
medium
HDI (2021)Increase 0.477[6]
low ·181st
Ndalama Leone (SLL)
Mtundu Wanyengo GMT (UTC )
Kalembelo kasiku dd/mm/yyyy
Woko la galimoto right
Intaneti yacharu .sl
a. Rank based on 2007 figure

Sierra Leone,[note 1] mwalamulo Charu cha Sierra Leone, ni chalo icho chili ku mpoto kwa Africa. Kumwera kwa charu ichi kuli Liberia, ndipo kumpoto kwake kuli charu cha Guinea. Malo ghose agho ghakukwana 71,740 km2 (27,699 sq mi),[10] Ku Sierra Leone kuli mphepo yakotcha, ndipo kuli malo ghakupambanapambana. Ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mu charu ichi ŵakaŵa 7,092,113.[11] Msumba wa Freetown ndiwo ni msumba ukuru chomene. Charu chili na vigaŵa vinkhondi, ndipo vigaŵa ivi vili mu vigaŵa 16.[12][13]

Sierra Leone ni charu icho chili na dango lakuyana na malango ndipo chili na nyumba yimoza ya maparamendi. Pulezidenti wa sono ni Julius Maada Bio. Sierra Leone ni caru ico cikulondezga yayi visambizgo vya boma. Ŵasilamu ŵalipo pafupifupi vigaŵa vitatu pa vigaŵa vinayi vya ŵanthu wose ŵa mu charu ichi. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ku Sierra Leone ŵakutemwa kusopa mwakufwatuka, ndipo ichi ntchimanyikwiro cha ŵanthu ŵa mu charu ichi.[14][15]

Chigaŵa ichi chikaŵa na ŵanthu kwa vyaka vinandi, kweni Sierra Leone, nga umo charu ichi na mphaka zake vikumanyikwira mazuŵa ghano, chikazengeka na ufumu wa Britain mu vigaŵa viŵiri: chakwamba, Sierra Leone Colony mu 1808 (pakuti ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ŵakawelera kwawo chifukwa cha kulekeska wuzga); chachiŵiri, Protectorate mu 1896 (pakuti ufumu ukakhumbikwiranga kuwusa chomene mu charu chifukwa cha ivyo vikachitika pa ungano wa ku Berlin mu 1884-1885). Lekani charu ichi chikachemekanga Sierra Leone Colony and Protectorate panji British Sierra Leone.[16][17] Sierra Leone yikamba kujiyimira pawekha pa 27 Epulero, 1961, ndipo yikazgoka chigaŵa cha Commonwealth pa zuŵa lenelili. Milton Margai wakaŵa nduna yikuru yakwamba ya Sierra Leone.[18]

Mu vyaka vyakumasinda, Sierra Leone yikaŵa na masuzgo gha ndyali, kusinthika kwa vinthu, vivulupi, kweniso masuzgo gha vya ŵanthu. Charu ichi chikaŵa na mavoti ghakwamba pa 27 May 1961. Chipani cha Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP) cha Margai chikapokera vithuzithuzi vinandi mu Nyumba ya Malamulo ndipo wakasankhikaso kuŵa nduna yikuru. Mu 1971, pakaŵa dango liphya ilo likawovwira kuti Sierra Leone waŵe charu cha demokilase. Stevens wakasunga udindo uwu kwa virimika 14 (m'paka 1985) mu boma la chipani cimoza ilo likaŵa na fundo zakususkana na malango gha mu 1978. Ndipouli, Joseph Saidu Momoh, uyo wakasankhika na Stevens, wakalayizga kuti wazamuwezgera caru ku ndondomeko ya vyaru vinandi. [19]Mu chaka chenechichi, pakawuka nkhondo ya pawenenawene iyo yikatora vyaka 11. Mu 1992, pati pajumpha waka cilimika cimoza nkhondo yati yayamba, Pulezidenti Momoh wakawuskika pa udindo mu boma na kugalukira boma. Nyengo yikati yajumphapo, mulara wa ŵasilikari, Julius Maada Bio, wakawuskapo Strasser pa udindo wake cifukwa wakatondeka kusintha vinthu mwaluŵiro. Bio wakaweleraso ku boma la demokilase mu 1996 kwizira mu maungano gha chalo.[19]

Kuuyambiro wa 1996, nangauli caru cikaŵa mu nkhondo ya cikaya, kweni ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Sierra Leone ŵakaŵa na cilindizga ciwemi cakuti ŵazakawelere ku boma la demokilase. Paumaliro, fundo yakuti, "Visola pambere mtende undaŵeko" ndiyo yikaluska. Mu 1996, Ahmad Tejan Kabbah ndiyo wakathereska mavoti ndipo wakaŵa pulezidenti wakwamba wa Sierra Leone uyo wakasankhika na maboma ghanandi. Kufuma waka pa nyengo iyi, ŵanthu ŵakuluta ku maungano mwakukolerana. Mu 1997, Kabbah wakawuskika pa udindo mu boma na mulara wa ŵasilikari wa Sierra Leone, Johnny Paul Koroma. Kabbah wakaluta ku charu cha Guinea. Wakawezgekeramo mu uteŵeti wake pamanyuma pa myezi yinkhondi na umoza cifukwa ca kunjilirapo kwa ŵasilikari ŵa ECOMOG. Mulimo wa Kabbah ukaŵa wakwamba kwa Sierra Leone yiphya, iyo yikaŵa na umaliro wa nkhondo ya pa cikaya mu 2002, kughanaghanira comene za kukhozga umoza na kuphemana, kugomezga boma, mtende na kukhazikika, kusintha ubwezi na vyaru vinandi, na kuwuskapo ŵasilikari ŵa Sierra Leone.[20][21]

Ku Sierra Leone kuli mafuko pafupifupi 18. Pa ŵanthu wose ŵa mu charu ichi, ŵanthu ŵaŵiri pa ŵaŵiri ŵali mu mtundu wa Creole. Chingelezi ndicho chikuyowoyeka pa sukulu na mu boma. Chiyowoyero cha Krio ndicho chikuyowoyeka chomene mu Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone njakuzura na vinthu vyakuthupi, comenecomene dayamondi, golide, bauxite na aluminiyamu. Charu ichi chili mu wupu wa United Nations, African Union, Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Mano River Union, Commonwealth of Nations, IMF, World Bank, WTO, African Development Bank, na Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Ku Sierra Leone ndiko kuli yunivesite yakwamba ya ku Western ku sub-Saharan Africa: Fourah Bay College (iyo yikambika mu 1827).[22]

Zina[lemba | kulemba source]

Zina la charu ichi lili kufuma ku mapiri gha Lion Mountains agho ghali kufupi na Freetown. Mu 1462, Pedro de Sintra, uyo wakaŵa mulendo wa ku Portugal, wakambiska chigaŵa ichi, ndipo wakachichema kuti Sierra Leoa..[23]

Mbili[lemba | kulemba source]

Mbiri yakwambilira[lemba | kulemba source]

Vigaŵa vya dongo lakale kufuma ku Kamabai Rock Shelter
Cirwa ca Bunce, 1805, mu nyengo iyo fakitare ya ŵazga yikendeskekanga na John na Alexander Anderson
Cithuzithuzi ca mu 1835 ca ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakiza ku Sierra Leone
Msumba wa Freetown mu 1856
Nyumba za ku Sierra Leone (Meyi 1853, X, p. 55)[24]

Ivyo ŵanthu ŵakufukura vinthu vyakale ŵasanga vikulongora kuti ŵanthu ŵa ku Sierra Leone ŵakukhalapo vyaka 2,500. Mu vyaka vya m'ma 900 C.E., ŵanthu ŵakamba kugwiliskira ntchito visulo, ndipo mu 1000 C.E., ŵalimi ŵakamba kulima mumphepete mwa nyanja. Nyengo yikati yajumphapo, nyengo yikasintha comene, ndipo mphaka pakati pa malo ghakupambanapambana zikasintha.[25]

Nkhorongo ya Sierra Leone na malo ghake ghakubinkha ghakawonekanga kuti munthu wangakanjiramo yayi. Malo agha ghakavikiliranga ŵanthu ŵake ku ŵanthu ŵa ku Mandinka na maufumu ghanyake gha ku Africa, ndipo ghakaŵa na mazaza gha Ufumu wa Mali. Chisilamu chikapharazgika na ŵamalonda ŵa ku Susu, na awo ŵakasamukira ku vyaru vya kumpoto na kumafumiro gha dazi.[26][25][27]

Kuguliska vinthu ku Europe[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1400, ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ndiwo ŵakamba kufika ku Sierra Leone. Mu 1462, Pedro de Sintra, uyo wakafumanga ku Portugal, wakalemba mapu gha mapiri agho ghali kuzingilizga Freetown Harbour. Mu Cisipanishi, zina ili ŵali kung'anamura kuti Sierra Leone, ndipo pamasinda ŵakasintha zina ili na kulemba mwakubudika. Nangauli Pulofesa C. Magbaily Fyle, ivi vingaŵa kuti vikaŵa viheni waka. Pulofesa Fyle wakati, pali ukaboni wakuti ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakachemanga chigaŵa ichi kuti Serra Lyoa pambere chaka cha 1462 chindafike. Ichi chikung'anamura kuti uyo wakalemba zina la Sierra Leone tikumanya yayi. Pakati pajumpha nyengo yicoko waka kufuma apo Sintra wakendera, ŵamalonda ŵa ku Portugal ŵakamba kwiza ku dowoko ili. Kuzakafika mu 1495, ŵakaŵa kuti ŵazenga malo ghakukhora gha malonda mumphepete mwa nyanja.

Ŵamalonda ŵakufuma ku vyaru vya ku Europe nga ni Netherlands, England, na France nawo ŵakamba kwiza ku Sierra Leone na kukhazikiska malo ghakuguliskirako. Mwaluŵiro, malo agha ghakamba kuguliska ŵazga, awo ŵakiza na ŵamalonda ŵakufuma mu vyaru vinyake. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakapelekanga ndalama za renti, msonkho, na malonda kwa fumu ya mu cigaŵa. Ŵamalonda ŵa ku Africa na ku Europe ndiwo ŵakagwiliskiranga ntchito nga ni ŵimiliri. Sir Francis Drake wakafika ku Sierra Leone pa Julayi 22, 1580. Chirwa cha Bunce, icho chili mumphepete mwa Mlonga wa Sierra Leone, ndicho ŵakaguliskanga ŵazga ku Europe. Kufikira apo dango la malonda gha ŵazga likakhazikiskikira mu 1807, cirwa ici cikendeskekanga na kampani ya ku London yakucemeka Grant, Oswald & Company, iyo yikakhalanga pa cirwa ici mu 1748.[28][29][30]

Ŵakavu ŵa ku London[lemba | kulemba source]

Kuumaliro wa vyaka vya m'ma 1800, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Africa na America ŵakakhumbanga kuvikilirika na boma la Britain. Pakaŵa vikwi na vikwi vya ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Black Loyalists, ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakanjira usilikari wa Britain pa nyengo ya Nkhondo ya ku America. Ŵanandi mwa ŵanthu aŵa ŵakaŵa ŵazga awo ŵakachimbira kuti ŵakateŵetere ku Britain. Buku la ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Negro likulongosora za ŵazga ŵanandi awo ŵakafwatuka ku wuzga ku United States.

Awo ŵakakolerananga na wuzga ŵakasuskanga ŵanthu ŵakavu ŵa mtundu wa Black kuti ndiwo ŵakapangiska vigeŵenga vinandi ku London. Nangauli mu muzi uwu mukaŵa ŵanakazi ŵanandi, kweni ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mu chigaŵa ichi ŵakaŵa ŵanalume pera. Edward Long, uyo wakaŵa mweneko wa ŵazga, wakasuskanga nthengwa za ŵanalume ŵazungu na ŵanakazi ŵazungu. Ndipouli, pa ulendo wa pakati pa Plymouth, England, na Sierra Leone, ŵanakazi na ŵawoli 70 ŵa ku Europe ŵakaluta nawo.

Ŵanandi ku London ŵakaghanaghananga kuti para ŵangaluta ku Sierra Leone mbwenu ŵazamuleka ukavu. Nkhwantha yinyake yakuchemeka Henry Smeathman ndiyo yikalemba ndondomeko iyi ndipo yikakondweska ŵanthu nga ni Granville Sharp. Nyengo yichoko waka, ŵalara ŵa boma nawo ŵakamba kunjilirapo pa ndondomeko iyi, nangauli ŵakakondwa comene cifukwa cakuti ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakavu ŵakeneranga kusamira kunyake. William Pitt Muwukirano, nduna yikuru ndiposo mulongozgi wa chipani cha Tory, wakakhumbanga comene kuti ndondomeko iyi yikwendere makora cifukwa wakawonanga kuti ni nthowa yakuwezgera ŵakavu ku Africa, cifukwa "ŵakaŵa ŵakukhumbikwa kuti ŵatumizgike ku malo ghanyake, mwakuti ŵaleke kutangwanika comene mu misewu ya London".[31]

Chigaŵa cha Ufulu[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu Janyuwale 1787, sitima ya Atlantic na ya Belisarius zikanyamuka kuluta ku Sierra Leone, kweni nyengo yiheni yikapangiska kuti ŵalute ku Plymouth. Ŵanyake 24 ŵakafumiskika, ndipo ŵanyake 23 ŵakacimbira. Paumaliro, mu Epulero 1787, ŵanthu 411 ŵakaluta ku Sierra Leone. Pa ulendo wa pakati pa Plymouth na Sierra Leone, ŵanthu 96 ŵakafwa.[31][32][33][34]

Mu 1787, boma la Britain likakhazikiska malo ghanyake mu Sierra Leone agho ghakachemekanga "Chigaŵa cha Wanangwa". Pa Meyi 15, 1787, ŵanthu pafupifupi 400 ŵa mitundu yinyake na 60 ŵa mitundu yinyake ŵakafika ku Sierra Leone. Ŵakati ŵakhazikiska tawuni ya Granville, ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakakhalanga mu tawuni iyi ŵakafwa chifukwa cha matenda na nkhondo izo ŵakachitanga na ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa (Temne). Apo ngaraŵa zikafumanga mu Seputembala, unandi wawo ukaŵa "ŵanthu 276, ŵanalume ŵaŵisi 212, ŵanakazi ŵaŵisi 30, ŵanalume ŵazungu 5 na ŵanakazi ŵazungu 29".

Ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalako ŵakacicizga mulongozgi munyake wa ku Africa kuti waŵapoke caru, kweni iyo wakawezgera, wakawukira cigaŵa ici, ico cikaŵa na ŵanthu 64 pera. Ŵamalonda ŵambura mahara ŵakakoranga ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake na kuŵaguliska nga mbazga. Ŵanthu 64 awo ŵakakhalako ŵakakhazikiska tawuni yaciŵiri ya Granville.[35][36]

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Nova Scotia[lemba | kulemba source]

Pamanyuma pa Nkhondo Yakwamba ya ku America, ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 3,000 awo ŵakaŵa ŵakugomezgeka ku ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake ŵakakhalanga ku Nova Scotia. Ŵakazenga tawuni ya Birchtown, kweni ŵakasuzgika na nyengo yakuzizima ya ku mpoto kweniso kusankhana mitundu. Thomas Peters wakapempha boma la Britain kuti liŵawovwire; pamoza na John Clarkson, uyo wakawovwirapo pa nkhani ya kuswa malango, ŵakakhazikiska kampani ya Sierra Leone Company kuti yikawovwire ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Black Loyalists awo ŵakakhumbanga kuluta ku West Africa. Mu 1792 ŵanthu pafupifupi 1,200 ŵakufuma ku Nova Scotia ŵakambuka Nyanja ya Atlantic kuti ŵakazenge cigaŵa caciŵiri ca Sierra Leone. Ku Sierra Leone ŵakacemekanga kuti New Scotian Settlers, New Scotians, panji Settlers. Pakwamba Clarkson wakazomerezga yayi kuti ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalapo mu tawuni ya Granville ŵanjire mu tawuni yiphya iyi. Ŵanthu aŵa ŵakazenga msumba wa Freetown mwakuyana na umo ŵakachitiranga kumwera kwa America. Kweniso ŵanthu ŵanandi mu Freetown ŵakalutilira kusopa ŵa Methodist.

Mu ma 1790, ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mu tawuni iyi, kusazgapo ŵanakazi, ŵakavota kakwamba. Mu 1792, mu Britain, ŵanakazi ndiwo ŵakamba kuŵa na wanangwa wa kuvota. Ŵanthu ŵafipa awo ŵakakhalanga ku Sierra Leone ŵakaŵa na wanangwa ukuru kuluska ŵazungu awo ŵakakhalanga ku Europe. Ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake ŵakasankhanga ŵimiliri ŵa ndyali ŵa vigaŵa vyakupambanapambana, awo ŵakamanyikwanga kuti 'ŵanthu ŵa chakhumi,' awo ŵakimiranga ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakakhalanga mu charu ichi. Mu Nova Scotia mukaŵavya ndondomeko iyi. Pakwamba, chikaŵa chakusuzga chomene kuti ŵanthu ŵaŵe mu Freetown. Boma likapeleka yayi vinthu vyakukhumbikwa pa umoyo wa ŵanthu, ndipo ŵakukhalamo ŵakasuzgikanga comene na malonda gha ŵazga na uheni wa kuzgoka ŵazga.[37]

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Jamaica na Ŵafrika Awo Ŵakafwatuka[lemba | kulemba source]

Wupu wa Sierra Leone Company, uwo ukendeskekanga na ŵanthu ŵakufuma ku London, ukakana kuzomerezga ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mu charu ichi kuti ŵatore malo agha. Mu 1799, ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakagaluka. Boma la Jamaica likathereska ŵanthu awo ŵakagalukira boma ili, ndipo likaŵawovwira na ŵasilikari ŵakujumpha 500 awo ŵakafuma ku Cudjoe's Town (Trelawny Town) na kuluta ku Nova Scotia mu 1800. Pakulongozgeka na Koloneli Montague James, mbumba iyi yikawovwira ŵasilikari kuti ŵamazge chigaluka.

Pa 1 Janyuwale, 1808, Thomas Ludlam, kazembe wa Sierra Leone Company na munthu wakulongozga pa nkhani ya kufumiska vigeŵenga, wakapeleka chikalata cha kampani iyi. Ici cikapangiska kuti ŵaleke kwendeska koloni kwa vilimika 16. Boma la Britain likambaso kuzenga kampani ya Sierra Leone Company kuti yiŵe wupu wakuwona vya ku Africa. Ŵabali ŵake ŵakaŵa ŵa ku Britain, awo ŵakakhumbanga kukhuŵilizga ŵamalonda ŵa ku Sierra Leone, kweniso awo ŵakakhumbanga kuti ŵagwirenge ntchito mu kampani ya Macauley & Babington Company.

Pa nyengo yeneyira (panyuma pakuti malonda gha ŵazga ghalekeskeka mu 1807), ŵasilikari ŵa Royal Navy ŵakaluta na ŵazga ŵanandi ŵa ku Africa ku Freetown. Ŵanthu aŵa ŵakaŵaguliskanga ndalama zakukwana madola 20 pa munthu yumoza. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakafwatuka ŵakaŵacitiranga nkhaza comene cifukwa ŵanji awo ŵakakhalanga mu caru ici ŵakaŵawonanga kuti mbanthu ŵawo. Ŵakati ŵafumako ku vyaru vyawo na mitheto yawo, ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ŵakacicizgika kuzgoŵerana na ŵanthu ŵa ku Western. Mwaciyelezgero, ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵa ku Africa ŵakacicizgika kusintha zina lawo na kulizunura ku ŵanthu ŵa ku Western. Nangauli ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakakondwa chomene na kusintha uku chifukwa ŵakawonanga kuti ntchigaŵa cha ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga nawo, kweni ŵanyake ŵakakondwa yayi na kusintha uku ndipo ŵakakhumbanga kulutilira kuŵa ŵekha. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakafwatuka ku wuzga ŵakaŵa ŵambura kukondwa mwakuti ŵakaleka Sierra Leone na kuwelera ku vikaya vyawo. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakafwatuka, ŵakasintha mitheto yawo kuti yikolerane na ya ŵanthu ŵa ku Nova Scotia, Maroons, na ŵa ku Europe. Apo ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakafwatuka ku wuzga ŵakendanga makora na kuthandazga Chikhristu mu vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Africa, ŵakatorana na ŵanthu ŵa ku Nova Scotia na Maroons.

Ŵanthu aŵa ŵakafuma ku vigaŵa vinandi vya mu Africa, kweni comene ŵakaŵa ŵa ku mizi ya kumanjiliro gha dazi. Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1800, ŵanthu ŵakufuma ku vyaru vya ku Africa na ku Liberia awo ŵakaŵa ŵakufwatuka ku wuzga, kweniso ŵanthu ŵakufuma ku vyaru vya ku Caribbean, chomenechomene ŵa ku Jamaica, nawo ŵakaluta ku Freetown. Ŵanthu aŵa pamoza ndiwo ŵakapangiska mtundu wa Krio na chiyowoyero cha Cireole chakuchemeka English (Krio), icho ni chiyowoyero icho ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakuyowoya mu charu ichi.[38][39][40][41]

Nyengo ya Chikoloni (1800-1961)[lemba | kulemba source]

Bai Bureh, Mulongozgi wa Temne wa Nkhondo ya msonkho ya mu 1898 yakususkana na boma la Britain

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Sierra Leone awo ŵakakhalanga mu charu ichi m'ma 1800, ŵakaŵa ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakiza mu charu ichi mu 1807. Para ŵafika ku Sierra Leone, waliyose ŵakapelekanga nambara yake ya kulembeska, ndipo uthenga wakukhwaskana na umo waliri ukalembekanga mu buku la ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakafwatuka. Kanandi mabuku agha ghakaŵanga gha ŵanthu yayi ndipo ghakaŵanga na malemba ghambura kwenelera. Kweniso, mphambano pakati pa Register of Liberated Africans of 1808 na List of Captured Negroes of 1812 (iyo yikayananga na chikalata cha 1808) yikulongora kuti pakaŵa mphambano pakati pa mazina gha ŵanthu awo ŵakakoleka; ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakakoleka ŵakasankha kusintha mazina ghawo kuti ghaŵe gha Chingelezi.

Kukwambilira kwa vyaka vya m'ma 1800, Freetown yikaŵa malo ghakukhala kazembe wa Britain uyo wakalamuliranga chigaŵa cha Gold Coast (lero ni Ghana) na Gambia. Sierra Leone ndiyo yikaŵa likuru la masambiro mu Britain West Africa. Mu 1827, ŵa ku Britain ŵakambiska koleji ya Fourah Bay, iyo yikatora ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakayowoyanga Chingelezi. Kwa vyaka vyakujumpha 100, yunivesite iyi ndiyo yikaŵa ya ku Europe pera ku Africa. Samuel Ajayi Crowther wakaŵa musambiri wakwamba ku Fourah Bay. Nyengo yichoko waka, kholeji la Fourah Bay likakopa ŵanthu ŵa ku Sierra Leone na ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakakhumbanga kusambira masambiro ghapachanya ku British West Africa. Ŵanthu aŵa ŵakaŵa ŵa ku Nigeria, Ghana, Ivory Coast na ŵanyake ŵanandi, comenecomene awo ŵakasambiranga vya cisopa na masambiro. Msumba wa Freetown ukuchemeka "Athens wa ku Africa" chifukwa cha masukulu ghanandi ghawemi agho ghakaŵa mu msumba uwu.[42]

Mulongozgi wa Temne, Bai Bureh, wakuwoneka apa mu 1898 wati wajipeleka, wakukhala mwakufwasa mu munjilira wake wa cikaya na thumba mu mawoko, apo msilikari wa Sierra Leone West African Frontier Force wakwimilira pafupi nayo

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Britain ŵakenderananga chomene na ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Krio awo ŵakakhalanga ku Freetown. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Krios awo ŵakaŵa ŵasambizgi, ŵakaŵa na maudindo ghanandi mu boma la ku malo agha, ndipo ŵakaŵanga na maudindo ghapacanya. Pamanyuma pa ungano wa ku Berlin wa mu 1884-1885, ŵa ku Britain ŵakaghanaghana kuti ŵakwenera kuwusa vigaŵa vya mukati mwa charu kuti ŵafiske ivyo ŵamazaza ŵa ku Europe ŵakavizunura kuti "kuwusa makora". Mu 1896, charu ichi chikamba kulamulira vigaŵa ivi na kuvizgora vigaŵa vya Sierra Leone. Ntheura, Ŵanung'una ŵakamba kusazgirako mazaza ghawo mu chigaŵa ichi. Ŵakalembapo ŵanthu ŵa ku Britain kuti ŵateŵeterenge mu maofesi agha.

Pa nyengo iyo ŵasilikari ŵa Britain ŵakatoranga Sierra Leone, ŵalongozgi ŵanandi ŵa kumpoto na kumwera kwa charu ichi ŵakasuskanga "msonkho wa nyumba" uwo ŵakakolerana nawo. Ku mpoto, kwambira mu 1820 m'paka mu 1906, kukaŵa mulongozgi wa Limba zina lake Almamy Suluku uyo wakalamuliranga chigaŵa chake kwa vyaka vinandi, wakarwa kuti wavikilire chigaŵa chake, uku wakuchita vinthu mwauryarya kuti wapusike ŵalongozgi ŵa boma apo wakatumanga ŵasilikari kuti ŵawovwire Bai Bureh, mulongozgi wakuzirwa wa Temne mu Kasseh uyo wakarwa na "msonkho wa nyumba" wa ŵalongozgi ŵa vyaru. Nkhondo iyi yikamanyikwa kuti Nkhondo ya Msonkho. Munthu munyake wakumanyikwa mu mbiri ya Sierra Leone ni Bai Sherbro (c. 1830–1912). Bai Sherbro wakaŵa mulongozgi wa ŵasilikari ndipo wakakhalanga pa cirwa ca Bonthe, kumwera ca kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa caru ici. Nga ni Bai Bureh, nayo wakalimbana na ŵa ku Britain. Sherbro wakatumaso ŵasilikari ŵake kuti ŵawovwire Bai Bureh pakurwa nkhondo na ŵa ku Britain. Sherbro wakaŵa wankhongono comene ndipo Ŵanandi ŵakamopanga comene. Bai Sherbro ŵakamukora ndipo pamoza na Bai Bureh, ŵakaluta ku Gold Coast (uko sono ni Ghana).

Nyagua (c. 1842-1906), uyo wakumanyikwaso kuti "Traking King", wakaŵa fumu yankhongono iyo yikapoka vigaŵa vinandi ndipo ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakiza kuti ŵamuvikilire. Nyagua nayo wakalimbana na Ŵanandi. Pakumanya kuti wakaŵa na nkhongono yayi, wakacita uryarya. Pa nyengo yeneyiyo pera, wakatuma ŵasilikari ŵake kuti ŵakawovwire Bai Bureh kulimbana na Ŵabritani. Nyengo yikati yajumphapo, ŵa ku Britain ŵakapoka msumba wa Nyagua, ndipo nayo ŵakamujalira ku Gold Coast. Madam Yoko (c. 1849-1906) wakaŵa mwanakazi wa maluso ndiposo wakujiŵikamo. Wakagwiliskira nchito luso lake la kuyowoyeskana makora na ŵanthu kuti waŵakhorweske kuti ŵamupe mazaza gha Kpaa Mende. Wakagwiliskira ntchito vyamaseŵera kuti wayowoye na ŵalongozgi ŵanandi ŵa mu chigaŵa ichi awo ŵakagomezganga yayi kuti wali paubwezi na Ŵanandi. Cifukwa cakuti Madam Yoko wakawovwira ŵa ku Britain, ŵalongozgi ŵanyake ŵakagaluka, ndipo Yoko wakabisama mu nyumba za ŵapolisi. Chifukwa cha kugomezgeka kwake, Fumukazi Victoria yikamupa mendulo ya siliva. M'paka mu 1906, Madam Yoko ndiyo wakaŵa mulongozgi mu ufumu uphya wa Britain. Vikuwoneka kuti wakajikoma apo wakaŵa na vilimika 55, panji cifukwa cakuti ŵanthu ŵakwake ŵakamovwira yayi.

Mlonga wa Moa, Sierra Leone. Ŵabali Lisk-Carew, ku Freetown, Sierra Leone

Ŵanji awo ŵakakhalanga mu vigaŵa ivi ŵakasuzgikanga chomene chifukwa chakuti Ŵamboni ŵa ku Britain ŵakakanizganga ŵalongozgi ŵa vigaŵa ivi. Ŵakapanga ŵalongozgi kuti ŵaŵe ŵamazaza, m'malo mwa kucita nawo mwakudumura nga umo ŵakacitiranga kale. Ŵakalutilira yayi kukolerana na ŵabwezi ŵawo, nga ni Bai Bureh, uyo pamasinda ŵakamuzunura kuti ndiyo wakambiska nkhondo ya msonkho.[43]

Ŵasilikari ŵa Britain ŵa ku West Africa ku Freetown, 1914-1916. Mazgu gha pa kapepara aka ghakuti: "Ŵasilikari ŵa ku Britain ŵakunozgekera kunjira mu Freetown kuti ŵarwe na ŵa German Cameroons, ndipo chiŵiya chikuru cha nkhondo iyi chikaŵa dowoko la Duala. Ŵalwani ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito ŵasilikari ŵa ku Africa".

Mu 1898, Koloneli Frederic Cardew, kazembe wa ŵasilikari ŵa ku Britain, wakaŵika msonkho uphya pa nyumba ndipo wakapempha ŵalongozgi kuti ŵagwiliskirenge ntchito ŵanthu ŵawo pakunozga misewu. Kanandi misonkho yikaŵanga yikuru kuluska mtengo wa nyumba izo ŵakakhalanga, ndipo ŵalongozgi 24 ŵakalemba chikalata ku Cardew, kulongora kuti ivi vikaŵa vyakupweteka chomene. Ŵanthu ŵakakhalanga mu mizi iyi ŵakakhalanga yayi. Ŵakakananga kupeleka msonkho, ŵakamba kukayikira awo ŵakaŵalongozganga, ndipo ivi vikapangiska kuti paŵe nkhondo ya msonkho ya mu 1898. Ŵabali ŵa ku Britain ndiwo ŵakamba kuwombera. Gulu la kumwera ilo likaŵa na ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Mende, likamba kurwa nkhondo pamanyuma pa nkhondo iyi.

Kwa myezi yinandi, ŵasilikari ŵa Bureh ŵakaluska ŵasilikari ŵa Britain awo ŵakaŵa ŵankhongono comene, kweni wose ŵakafwa. Bureh wakajipeleka pa Novembala 11, 1898, kuti wamazge kuparanyika kwa malo na nyumba za ŵanthu ŵake. Nangauli boma la Britain likakhumbanga kuti ŵasilikari ŵaleke kuŵachitira nkhaza, kweni Cardew wakalutilira kutuma mulongozgi na ŵabwezi ŵake ŵaŵiri ku caru ca Gold Coast. Bureh wakazomerezgeka kuwelera mu 1905, apo wakambiraso kuwusa Kasseh. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Temne na Mende ŵakati ŵathereskeka mu nkhondo ya Hut Tax, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakamba kulimbana na boma la Colonial, kweni nyengo zinyake kukaŵanga vivulupi na vivulupi. Mu 1955 na 1956, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Sierra Leone ŵakakhwaskika na vivulupi.[44]

Ŵalongozgi ŵa ŵasilikari ŵa ku Africa ŵakiza kwa kazembe wa Sierra Leone, Sir Hubert Stevenson.

Mu 1928, ŵazga awo ŵakakhalanga mu nyumba za ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ŵakamara.[45]Cinthu cinyake ico cikacitika mu 1935, nchakuti De Beers wakapeleka wanangwa wa kunozga vinthu vyakuthupi ku Sierra Leone Selection Trust. Iyo wakakhumbanga kuti boma ili liŵepo kwa vyaka 98. Ku chigaŵa cha kumafumiro gha dazi, ŵanthu ŵakamba kuguliska dayamondi na vinthu vinyake vyakuthupi.

Mu 1924, boma la Britain likagaŵa charu cha Sierra Leone kuŵa vigaŵa viŵiri. Malo agha ghakaŵa Freetown na chigaŵa cha mumphepete mwa nyanja. Mu 1947, ŵanthu ŵakamba kudumbiskana chomene nkhani za ndyali pakati pa vyaru viŵiri ivi. Ŵalongozgi ŵanandi ŵa boma ili ndiwo ŵakaŵaphalira kuti ŵanozge nthowa iyi. Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Krio, awo ŵakalongozgekanga na Isaac Wallace-Johnson, ŵakasuska fundo izi, cifukwa mphanyi zikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Krio ŵaleke kuŵa na mazaza pa ndyali.

Mu 1951, Lamina Sankoh (wakubabika Etheldred Jones) wakakolerana na ŵalongozgi ŵakusambira ŵa vigaŵa vyakupambanapambana, kusazgapo Sir Milton Margai, Siaka Stevens, Mohamed Sanusi Mustapha, John Karefa-Smart, Kande Bureh, Sir Albert Margai, Amadu Wurie na Sir Banja Tejan-Sie ŵakakolerana na ŵalongozgi ŵankhongono mu vigaŵa ivi kuti ŵapange chipani cha Sierra Leone People's Party panji SLPP nga ni chipani cha vigaŵa ivi. Ŵalongozgi ŵa SLPP, awo ŵakalongozgekanga na Sir Milton Margai, ŵakadumbiskana na ŵa ku Britain na ŵa ku Krio awo ŵakakhalanga ku Freetown kuti ŵaŵe na wanangwa. Cifukwa ca ndyali za Milton Margai, ŵanthu ŵakusambira comene ŵa mu caru ca Protectorate ŵakakolerana na ŵalongozgi ŵacikulu comene ŵa mu caru ici. Pamasinda, Margai wakagwiliskira nchito maluso agha kuti wapusike ŵalongozgi ŵa visopa vyautesi na ŵanthu ŵa Krio kuti ŵaŵe ŵakujiyimira pawekha.

Mu Novembala 1951, Margai wakawoneseska kuti palembeke dango liphya, ilo likakolerana na maboma ghaŵiri, la Colonial na Protectorate. Mu 1953, boma la Sierra Leone likapika mazaza gha ŵalara ŵa boma ndipo Margai wakasankhika kuŵa nduna yikuru ya boma. Ndondomeko yiphya ya malango yikawovwira kuti Sierra Leone yiŵe na boma laparamende. Mu Meyi 1957, ku Sierra Leone kukachitika chisankho chakwamba. Gulu la SLPP ndilo likaŵa la ndyali lakutchuka chomene mu Sierra Leone kweniso likaŵa na ŵakaronga ŵankhongono mu vigaŵa.

Ungano wa 1960[lemba | kulemba source]

Pa Epulero 20, 1960, Milton Margai wakalongozga gulu la ŵanthu 24 ŵa ku Sierra Leone pa ungano wa malango uwo ukachitikira ku London pamoza na Queen Elizabeth II na Secretary of Colonial Affairs Iain Macleod.[46][47]

Paumaliro wa kudumbiskana ku London pa 4 Meyi 1960, United Kingdom yikazomera kupeleka wanangwa ku Sierra Leone pa 27 Epulero 1961.[46][47]

Kujiyimira pawekha (1961) na Margai Administration (1961~1964)[lemba | kulemba source]

Pa Epulero 27, 1961, Milton Margai wakalongozga Sierra Leone kuti wapoke wanangwa kufuma ku Britain ndipo wakaŵa nduna yikuru yakwamba ya charu ichi. Sierra Leone yikaŵa na nyumba yake ya malango na nduna yikuru, ndipo yikaŵa na wanangwa wa kupanga malango ghake, kweni nga ni vyaru nga ni Canada na Australia, Sierra Leone yikaŵa "Dominion" ndipo Fumukazi Elizabeth yikaŵa Fumukazi ya Dominion ya Sierra Leone.[48][49] Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Sierra Leone ŵakiza mu misewu kuti ŵakondwe. Charu cha Sierra Leone chikaŵa na boma laparamendi ndipo chikaŵa mu wupu wa Commonwealth of Nations. Mulongozgi wa chipani cha All People's Congress (APC), Siaka Stevens, pamoza na Isaac Wallace-Johnson, uyo nayo wakususka boma la SLPP, ŵakakakika na kuŵikika mu jele ku Freetown, pamoza na ŵanthu ŵanyake 16 awo ŵakapika mulandu wa kunanga viphikiro vya wanangwa.

Mu Meyi 1962, ku Sierra Leone kukachitika chisankho chakwamba. Chipani cha Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP) chikapokera vithuzi vinandi mu nyumba ya malango, ndipo Milton Margai wakasankhikaso kuŵa nduna yikuru.

Mu nyengo iyo Margai wakaŵa na mazaza, ŵanthu ŵa ku Sierra Leone ŵakamutemwanga chomene. Wakacitanga vimbundi yayi nesi kujilongora kuti wali na nkhongono. Iyo wakambiska boma lakwendera dango na kugaŵikana kwa maufumu, na maboma gha vyaru vinandi na mawupu ghakwimira ŵanthu. Margai wakagwiliskira nchito maghanoghano ghake kuti walongozge Sierra Leone. Wakimika ŵalara ŵa boma kuti ŵimilire mafuko ghakupambanapambana. Margai wakagwiliskiranga ntchito ndyali, kugaŵana mazaza pakati pa magulu gha ndyali na magulu gha vyakukhumba vya ŵanthu; comenecomene ŵakaronga ŵankhongono mu vigaŵa, awo ŵanandi ŵakaŵa ŵabwezi ŵa boma lake.

Pamanyuma pa nyifwa ya Milton Margai na Albert Margai (1964-1967)[lemba | kulemba source]

Milton Margai wakati wafwa mwamabuci mu 1964, nyumba ya boma yikamusankha kuti waŵe nduna yikuru. Ulongozgi wa Sir Albert ukasuskika na nduna ya vyaru vya kuwaro John Karefa-Smart, uyo wakadandawura kuti Sir Albert ndiyo wakeneranga kulongozga SLPP. Karefa-Smart wakalongozga chipani chichoko chomene mukati mwa chipani cha SLPP pakususkana na Albert Margai pakuŵa Prime Minister. Ndipouli, Karefa-Smart wakatondeka kusanga wovwiri ukuru mukati mwa SLPP mu kuyezga kwake kufumiska Albert Margai nga ni mulongozgi wa SLPP na Prime Minister. Ŵabali ŵanandi ŵa SLPP ŵakakolerana na Albert Margai kuluska Karefa-Smart. Mwaluŵiro Albert Margai wakati walapa kuŵa Nduna Yikuru, wakachimbizga ŵalaraŵalara ŵanandi ŵa boma awo ŵakateŵeteranga mu boma la mukuru wake, Sir Milton.

Sir Albert wakachitanga vinthu mwakukolerana na ivyo ŵanthu ŵakayowoyanga, ndipo wakapangiska malango ghanandi kuti wakanizge chipani cha All People's Congress.[46][47] Sir Albert wakasuskanga fundo yakuti ŵalara ŵa boma ndiwo ŵaŵe na mazaza gha kuwusa, ndipo ŵanandi mwa iwo ŵakaŵa ŵabwezi ŵa mukuru wake Milton. Ntheura, ŵakamba kuwona kuti Sir Albert ni munthu uyo wangatimbanizga maboma gha mu caru cose. Margai wakasora ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakaŵa ŵa mtundu wa Creole yayi kuti ŵateŵeterenge boma mu Freetown. Ntheura, ŵanthu ŵa ku Creole ŵakamutemwanga yayi Albert Margai. Margai ŵakamupusikizgira kuti wakutemwa ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wake wa Mende.

Mu 1967, mu Freetown mukawuka vivulupi chifukwa cha ivyo Margai wakachitanga. Sir Albert ŵakamusanga na mulandu wa vimbundi kweniso wa kutemwera mtundu wa Mende. Sir Albert Margai wakatora mazaza ndipo wakakhumbanga kuti ŵasilikari ŵa Mende ŵaŵe ŵakukolerana. Kweniso wakayezga kusintha Sierra Leone kufuma ku boma la demokilase kuya ku boma la chipani cimoza. Nangauli wakaŵa na wovwiri wose wa ŵasilikari ŵa caru ici, kweni wakacema kuti paŵe maungano ghakufwatuka na ghakugomezgeka.[50][51]

1967 Masankhiro gha Wupu Wakulongozga na vimbundi vya ŵasilikari (1967~1968)[lemba | kulemba source]

Chipani cha APC, pamoza na mulongozgi wake Siaka Stevens, chikapokera vithuzithuzi vinandi mu Nyumba ya Malamulo kuluska chipani cha SLPP mu 1967 pa mavoti gha mavoti gha mavoti. Stevens wakalapa kuŵa nduna yikuru pa March 21, 1967.

Pakati pajumpha maora ghacoko waka kufuma apo wakambira kuwusa, Stevens wakawuskika pa udindo mu boma mwa kuwukira boma kwambura kuthiska ndopa. Wakaŵa mubwezi wa Albert Margai, uyo wakamusankha mu 1964. Lansana wakamujalira Stevens mu nyumba yake ku Freetown ndipo wakakhumbanga kuti nduna yikuru yilindilire pambere ŵandyali ŵa fuko ili ŵandaŵepo pa maungano. Pamanyuma pake Steven wakafwatuka ndipo wakafumamo mu caru ici na kuluta ku caru ca Guinea. Ndipouli, pa March 23, 1967, gulu la ŵasilikari ŵa ku Sierra Leone Army awo ŵakalongozgekanga na Brigadier General Andrew Juxon-Smith, ŵakachita chipani chakususkana na Mulara Lansana. Ŵakapoka boma, ŵakakora Lansana, na kukanizga dango la boma. Gulu ili likambiska National Reformation Council (NRC), ndipo Andrew Juxon-Smith ndiyo wakaŵa mulongozgi wake kweniso mulongozgi wa boma.

Pa 18 Epulero 1968 gulu la ŵasilikari ŵa pasi mu gulu la ŵasilikari la Sierra Leone awo ŵakajichemanga kuti Anti-Corruption Revolutionary Movement (ACRM), awo ŵakalongozgekanga na Brigadier General John Amadu Bangura, ŵakawuskapo boma la NRC. Boma la ACRM likakaka ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa mu NRC. Ŵakawezgerapo malango gha boma na kuwezgera mazaza kwa Stevens, uyo paumaliro wakaŵa nduna yikuru.

Mu 1970, Stevens wakakaka Bangura na kumupa mulandu wa uryarya. Wakasangika na mulandu na kweruzgika kuti wakomeke, nangauli wakaŵa Bangura uyo wakacitiska kuti Stevens wawelere ku mazaza. Brigadier Lansana na Hinga Norman, ŵalara ŵa ŵasilikari awo ŵakacitako nkhondo yakwamba (1967), ŵakafumiskika mu usilikari ndipo ŵakakakika. Norman wakaŵa msilikari wa kazembe mukuru, Sir Henry Lightfoot-Boston. Nyengo yikati yajumphapo, Lansana wakeruzgika ndipo ŵakamusanga na mulandu wa upusikizgi, ndipo ŵakamuphalira kuti wakomeke mu 1975.[18]

Boma la chipani cimoza na kwamba kwa "Republic" (1968-1991)[lemba | kulemba source]

Msonkhano wa ndale wa APC kumpoto kwa tawuni ya Kabala kunja kwa nyumba ya othandizira chipani cha SLPP mu 1968

Mu 1968, Stevens wakambaso kuwusa nga ni nduna yikuru, pamanyuma pa vimbundi vinandi. Ŵanthu ŵakamugomezganga comene cifukwa cakuti wakacitanga ndyali. Stevens wakacitanga kampeni ya kuwunjika mafuko ghose pamoza mwakuyana na fundo za cisopa. Mu vyaka 10 vyakwambilira apo wakaŵa na mazaza, Stevens wakambiraso kudumbiskana vinthu vinyake ivyo wakavichema kuti "ndondomeko zambura ntchito" izo ŵakamuteŵeterapo, Albert Margai wa SLPP na Juxon-Smith wa NRC. Maboma ghanyake gha SLPP na NRC ghakayowoya kuti ghapangiska kuti caru ciŵe mu suzgo.[18]

Stevens wakambaso kunozga malo ghakupangira mafuta, hotelo ya Cape Sierra iyo yikaŵa ya boma, na fakitare ya simenti. Wakakanaso mulimo wa Juxon-Smith wa kuzenga tchalitchi na mosque pa malo gha Victoria Park (lero ghakumanyikwa kuti Freetown Amusement Park) kwambira mu 2017. Nyengo yikati yajumphapo, Stevens wakamba kovwira kuti ŵanthu ŵende makora pakati pa vigaŵa ivi na msumba wa Freetown. Ŵakazenga misewu na vipatala mu vigaŵa ivi, ndipo ŵalongozgi na ŵanthu ŵa mu vigaŵa ivi ŵakaŵa na mazaza chomene mu Freetown.

Pakuti ŵanthu ŵakayezga kumugalukira, Stevens wakalutilira kuŵa na mazaza, ndipo ubwezi wake na ŵanthu ŵanyake awo ŵakamukhozganga ukakhora. Ŵanyake ŵakagomezganga kuti wakawuskapo chipani cha SLPP mu ndyali mwa kugwiliskira nchito nkhaza na kucitiska wofi. Kuti ŵasilikari ŵalutilire kumovwira, Stevens wakasankha John Amadu Bangura kuŵa mulongozgi wa ŵasilikari ŵa Sierra Leone.

Pamanyuma pakuti boma la ŵanthu ŵambura mulandu lawelera ku boma, mavoti ghacigaŵa ghakacitika (kwamba mu 1968), ndipo boma la APC likimikika. Kweni pakaŵavya mtende. Mu Novembala 1968, masuzgo agho ghakaŵapo mu vigaŵa vikuruvikuru vikapangiska Stevens kuti wapharazge kuti mu charu chose muli suzgo. Ŵalaraŵalara ŵanandi ŵa ŵasilikari ŵa Sierra Leone ŵakakhuŵara chomene na ivyo Stevens wakachitanga kweniso umo wakachitiranga na ŵasilikari ŵa Sierra Leone, kweni pakaŵavya uyo wakalimbana nayo. Mulara wa ŵasilikari, Bangura, uyo wakawezgerapo Stevens kuŵa nduna yikuru, wakawonekanga kuti ndiyo yekha wangawusa Stevens. Gulu la ŵasilikari likaŵa lakujipeleka comene kwa Bangura, ndipo ici cikapangiska kuti waŵe wakofya comene kwa Stevens. Mu Janyuwale 1970, Bangura ŵakamukora na kumupa mulandu wa kuwukira boma la Stevens. Bangura wakati wapika mulandu kwa myezi yicoko waka, ŵakamusanga na mulandu ndipo ŵakamuphalira kuti wakomeke. Pa Malichi 29, 1970, Brigadier Bangura wakakomeka mu Freetown.

Bangura wakati wakomeka, gulu la ŵasilikari awo ŵakagomezgeka kwa mulara wa ŵasilikari uyo wakakomeka, ŵakagalukira boma la Stevens mu Freetown na mu vigaŵa vinyake. Ŵasilikari ŵanandi ŵakakakika na kweruzgika na khoti la ku Freetown chifukwa cha kunjilirapo pa kuwukira pulezidenti. Pakati pa ŵasilikari awo ŵakakakika pakaŵa mulara wa ŵasilikari uyo wakamanyikwanga viŵi yayi, Foday Sankoh, uyo wakaŵa wakugomezgeka kwa Bangura, ndipo pamanyuma pake wakambiska gulu la Revolutionary United Front (RUF). Kaboni Sankoh wakasangika na mulandu ndipo wakakakika vyaka vinkhondi na viŵiri mu jele la Pademba Road mu Freetown.

Mu Epulero 1971, ŵakalemba dango liphya ilo likazomerezga kuti Stevens waŵe pulezidenti. Mu ma 1972 by-elections, chipani cha opposition SLPP chikadandaula kuti chipani cha APC na chipani cha militia vikamuwopsya na kumukanizga. Masuzgo agha ghakaŵa ghakofya comene mwakuti SLPP yikasuskanga mavoti gha mu 1973; ntheura APC yikasanga vithuzithuzi 84 pa vithuzithuzi 85.

Mu 1974, ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakakhumbanga kuwuskapo pulezidenti Stevens, kweni ŵakatondeka ndipo ŵalongozgi ŵake ŵakakomeka. Pakati pa 1974, ŵasilikari ŵa ku Guinea ŵakaŵikika mu charu ichi kuti ŵawovwirepo pa mazaza ghake, pakuti Stevens wakaŵa mubwezi wa pulezidenti wa ku Guinea, Ahmed Sékou Touré. Mu Malichi 1976, Stevens wakasankhika kuŵa pulezidenti kwa nyengo yaciŵiri. Pa 19 Julayi, 1975, ŵalaraŵalara ŵa boma na ŵasilikari ŵakukwana 14, kusazgapo David Lansana, nduna yakale ya boma Mohamed Sorie Forna (wiske wa mulembi Aminatta Forna), Brigadier General Ibrahim Bash Taqi na Lieutenant Habib Lansana Kamara ŵakakomeka pamanyuma pakususka kuti ŵakayezga kutimbanizga boma la pulezidenti Stevens.

In 1977, a nationwide student demonstration against the government disrupted Sierra Leone politics. The demonstration was quickly put down by the army and Stevens' own personal Special Security Division (SSD), a heavily armed paramilitary force he had created to protect him and maintain his hold on power.[52] SSD officers were loyal to Stevens and were deployed across the country to clamp down on any rebellion or protest against Stevens' government. A general election was called later that year in which corruption was again endemic; the APC won 74 seats and the SLPP 15. In 1978, the APC-dominant parliament approved a new constitution making the country a one-party state. The 1978 constitution made the APC the only legal political party in Sierra Leone.[53] Ivi vikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵambe kususka boma mu vigaŵa vinandi vya charu ichi, kweni ŵasilikari na gulu la Stevens la SSD ŵakaŵakoma.

Stevens wakususkika cifukwa ca maluso ghake gha ucigaluka na vimbundi vya mu boma, kweni wakawovwira kuti caru ciŵe cakukhora ndiposo kuti cileke kunjira mu nkhondo. Wakambiska maboma ghanandi agho ghachali kugwira ntchito m'paka sono. Stevens wakachepeskaso mphatukano wa mafuko mu boma mwa kunjizga ŵanthu ŵa mafuko ghakupambanapambana mu boma lake la APC.

Siaka Stevens wakafumapo pa ndyali mu Novembala 1985 wati waŵa na mazaza vyaka 18. Pa ungano waumaliro wa ŵimiliri wa chipani ichi, uwo ukachitikira ku Freetown mu Novembala 1985, chipani ichi chikimika munthu munyake kuti wanjire mu malo gha Stevens. Munthu uyo wakasankhika wakaŵa Major General Joseph Saidu Momoh, mulongozgi wa ŵasilikari ŵa Sierra Leone. Pakuŵa mulongozgi wa ŵasilikari, Jenerale Momoh wakaŵa wakugomezgeka kwa Stevens, uyo wakamusankha. Nga ni Stevens, Momoh nayo wakaŵa wa fuko la Limba.

Pakuŵa uyo wakaŵa yekha, Momoh wakasankhika kuŵa pulezidenti kwambura kususkika ndipo wakalapizga kuŵa pulezidenti wachiŵiri wa Sierra Leone pa Novembala 28, 1985 ku Freetown. Mu Meyi 1986, pakaŵa chisankho cha chipani chimoza pakati pa ŵa APC. Pulezidenti Momoh wakasora mulara wa ŵasilikari na mubwezi wake, Major General Mohamed Tarawalie kuti waŵe mulongozgi wa ŵasilikari ŵa Sierra Leone. Jenerale Tarawalie nayo wakaŵa wakugomezgeka comene ndipo wakawovwiranga comene Momoh. Pulezidenti Momoh wakimika James Bambay Kamara kuŵa mulara wa ŵapolisi ŵa Sierra Leone. Bambay Kamara nayo wakaŵa wakugomezgeka comene kwa Momoh. Momoh wakapatukana na pulezidenti wakale Siaka Stevens mwa kunjizga gulu lankhongono la SSD mu polisi ya Sierra Leone nga ni gulu lapadera la ŵasilikari. Pa nyengo ya Pulezidenti Stevens, gulu la SSD likaŵa lankhongono comene ndipo likagwiliskiranga nchito nkhongono zake kuti liŵe na mazaza. Ŵapolisi ŵa Sierra Leone awo ŵakalongozgekanga na Bambay Kamara ŵakasuskika kuti ŵakachitiranga nkhaza ŵanthu awo ŵakasuskanga boma la Pulezidenti Momoh.

Chifukwa cha kukolerana na ŵasilikari kweniso kususka vimbundi, pulezidenti Momoh wakamba kukhozgeka na ŵanthu ŵa ku Sierra Leone. Chifukwa cha kusoŵa kwa visko viphya mu nduna ziphya za APC pasi pa purezidenti Momoh na kuwelera kwa visko vinandi vya kale kufuma mu boma la Stevens, mwaluŵiro ŵanthu ŵakamba kumususka kuti Momoh wakalutilira waka kuwusa kwa Stevens.

Vyaka vichoko waka vyakulondezgapo mu muwuso wa Momoh vikaŵa na vimbundi, ndipo Momoh wakawuskapo vimbundi ivi mwa kufumiska nduna zinandi. Kuti walongore kuti wakulimbana na vimbundi, Pulezidenti Momoh wakapharazga za "Ndondomeko ya Makhaliro ya Ŵalongozgi ŵa Ndyali na Ŵateŵeti ŵa Boma". Pamanyuma pa kuyezga kuwuskapo pulezidenti Momoh mu Malichi 1987, ŵalongozgi ŵa boma ŵakujumpha 60 ŵakakakika, kusazgapo Francis Minah, wachiŵiri kwa pulezidenti, uyo wakawuskika pa udindo wake, wakasangika na mulandu wa kunozga chiwukirano, ndipo wakakomeka na kukakika mu 1989, pamoza na ŵanyake ŵankhondi.

Nkhondo ya ku Sierra Leone (1991-2002) na boma la NPRC (1992-1996)[lemba | kulemba source]

Sukulu yinyake ku Koindu yikanangika pa nyengo ya Nkhondo ya pa Mbumba; masukulu ghakwambilira 1,270 ghakanangika pa nyengo ya nkhondo.[54]

Mu Okutobala 1990, cifukwa ca kukhuŵilizgika comene na ŵanthu ŵa mu caru na ŵakuwaro kuti ŵanozge ndyali na vya cuma, pulezidenti Momoh wakimika komiti ya kunozgaso malango gha boma kuti yilanje malango gha boma la chipani cimoza. Pakugwiliskira nchito ulongozgi wa komiti iyi, dango la boma ilo likakhazikiskaso ndondomeko ya vyaru vinandi likapokelereka na Nyumba ya Malamulo ya APC. Pakaŵa kukayika kukuru kuti pulezidenti Momoh wakakhumbanga yayi kusintha vinthu pa ndyali, cifukwa boma la APC likalutilira kusuzgika na mazaza.

Nkhondo ya pawenenawene iyo yikaŵa mukati mu charu cha Liberia ndiyo yikapangiska kuti ku Sierra Leone kuŵe nkhondo. Charles Taylor uyo pa nyengo iyo wakaŵa mulongozgi wa National Patriotic Front of Liberia, vikayowoyeka kuti wakawovwira kupanga Revolutionary United Front (RUF) pasi pa muwuso wa Foday Saybana Sankoh, uyo wakaŵa mulara wa ŵasilikari ŵa Sierra Leone. Sankoh wakaŵa mulara wa ŵasilikari wakale wa ku Britain uyo wakasambizgikaso nkhondo ku Libya. Cakulinga ca Taylor cikaŵa cakuti RUF yikome ŵasilikari awo ŵakakhalanga mu Sierra Leone.

Pa 29 Epulero 1992, gulu la ŵasilikari ŵawukirano ŵa ku Sierra Leone Army, awo ŵakalongozgekanga na ŵasilikari 7 ŵa ku Sierra Leone, Lt. Sahr Sandy, Captain Valentine Strasser, Lt. Solomon "SAJ" Musa, Captain Komba Mondeh, Lt. Tom Nyuma, Captain Julius Maada Bio na Captain Komba Kambo, ŵakachitiska chivundungwele cha ŵasilikari icho chikapangiska kuti pulezidenti Momoh wapelekeleke ku Guinea. Wupu wa NPRC ukayimiska mwaluŵiro dango la boma, kukanizga vipani vyose vya ndyali, kukanizga wanangwa wa kuyowoya na wa manyuzipepara, ndipo ukakhazikiska dango lakuti ŵasilikari ŵaŵikenge mu jele kwambura mulandu panji kweruzgika.

SAJ Musa, mubwezi wa Strasser wa pa ubonda, wakazgoka wachiŵiri wa pulezidenti na mulongozgi wa boma la NPRC. Strasser wakaŵa mulongozgi wa boma muwukirano comene pa caru cose apo wakayamba kuwusa mazuŵa ghatatu pera kufuma apo wakafiskira vilimika 25. Boma la NPRC likakhazikiska National Supreme Council of State nga ni boma la ŵasilikari na mazaza ghaumaliro pa vinthu vyose ndipo likaŵa na ŵasilikari ŵa NPRC ŵankhongono comene, kusazgapo Strasser na ŵasilikari ŵakwambilira awo ŵakathereska pulezidenti Momoh.[55]

Yumoza wa ŵasilikari ŵakuzirwa comene ŵa NPRC Junta, Lt. Sahr Sandy, mubwezi wakugomezgeka wa Strasser, wakakomeka na Major S.I.M. Turay, uyo wakaŵa wakugomezgeka kwa pulezidenti Momoh. Gulu la ŵasilikari ilo likaŵa na vilwero vikuru vikapenja munthu uyo wakakoma Mulara Sandy. Ndipouli, wakukayikiska comene ni Major S.I.M. Turay wakabisama na kucimbira mu caru ca Guinea, cifukwa wakawopanga umoyo wake. Ŵasilikari ŵanandi ŵakugomezgeka kwa pulezidenti Momoh ŵakakakika, kusazgapo Colonel Kahota M. Dumbuya na Major Yayah Turay. Mulara wa ŵasilikari, Lt. Sandy, ŵakamusunga pa dindi la boma ndipo ŵasilikari ŵanandi ŵa NPRC ŵakaluta ku dindi ili.

Boma la NPRC likalutilira kukolerana na wupu wa ECOWAS ndipo likakhozga wovwiri wa ŵasilikari ŵa ECOMOG awo ŵakakhalanga ku Sierra Leone. Pa 28 Disembala 1992, boma likayezga kupoka boma kwa boma la NPRC la Strasser, pakukhumba kufwatura Colonel Yahya Kanu, Colonel Kahota M.S. Dumbuya na uyo kale wakaŵa Inspector General wa ŵapolisi Bambay Kamara, ŵakakanizgika. Ŵalaraŵalara ŵa ŵasilikari ŵaciŵiri awo ŵakalongozgekanga na Sergeant Mohamed Lamin Bangura ŵakamanyikwa kuti ndiwo ŵakapangiska chiŵembu ici. Ŵasilikari 17 ŵakakomeka chifukwa cha chiŵembu ichi. Ŵanyake mwa ŵanthu awo ŵakakomeka ni Colonel Kahota Dumbuya, Major Yayah Kanu na Sergeant Mohamed Lamin Bangura. Ŵalaraŵalara ŵanandi ŵa boma la Momoh awo ŵakaŵa mu jele la Pa Demba Road, kusazgapo uyo kale wakaŵa mulara wa ŵapolisi Bambay Kamara, nawo ŵakakomeka.

Pa 5 Julayi 1994 SAJ Musa, uyo wakaŵa wakutemweka comene pakati pa ŵanthu, comenecomene mu Freetown, wakakakika na kutumizgika ku caru cinyake pamasinda pakuti wakasoleka kuti wakakhumbanga kuwuskapo Strasser. Strasser wakasintha Musa kuŵa wachiŵiri wa pulezidenti wa NPRC na Captain Bio, uyo nyengo yeneyiyo Strasser wakamukwezga kuŵa brigadier.

Ntchito ya NPRC yikaŵa yambura ntchito chifukwa boma la Momoh likathereskeka. Kuzakafika mu 1994, ŵasilikari ŵa RUF ŵakamba kuwusa chigaŵa chikuru cha chigaŵa cha kumafumiro gha dazi icho chikaŵa na malibwe gha dayamondi ghanandi. Pakuzgora, NPRC yikagwiriska nchito Executive Outcomes, kampani ya ŵasilikari ya ku South Africa, kuti yigeziske ŵasilikari ŵakugwilira nchito ŵankhondo ŵakukwana mahandiredi ghanandi. Pakati pajumpha mwezi umoza, ŵasilikari aŵa ŵakachimbizga ŵasilikari ŵa RUF mu vigaŵa ivyo vikaŵa kufupi na mphaka za Sierra Leone.

Chifukwa chakuti ŵasilikari ŵaŵiri ŵa NPRC, Lt. Sahr Sandy na Lt. Solomon Musa ŵakaŵavya mwaŵi wa kumuvikilira, utsogoleri wa Strasser mukati mwa NPRC ukaŵa wambura nkhongono. Pa 16 January 1996, pamanyuma pa vilimika vinayi pa mazaza, Strasser wakakakika mu nyumba ya boma iyo yikapangika na ŵasilikari ŵanyake ŵa NPRC awo ŵakalongozgekanga na Brigadier Bio ku likuru la Defence ku Freetown. Nyengo yeneyiyo, Strasser wakatolekera ku Conakry, ku Guinea. Mu nkhani yake yakwamba ya pa wumba pamanyuma pa boma kuwukira mu 1996, Brigadier Bio wakayowoya kuti wovwiri wake wa kuwezgerapo Sierra Leone.[56]

Nyengo ya Kabbah: boma, "kuwuka kwa boma liphya", AFRC na umaliro wa Nkhondo Yachiŵeniŵeni (1996~2007)[lemba | kulemba source]

Bio wakafiska ivyo wakalayizga kuti wazamuwusa ŵanthu. Pambere mavoti ghandambe, ŵanthu ŵa ku Sierra Leone na ŵanyakhe ŵa pa caru cose ŵakadumbiskana usange chalo ici cikwenera kumazga nkhondo ya pawenenawene iyo yikalutilira kwa nyengo yitali, panji usange cikwenera kucita mavoti na kuwezgeraso muwuso ku boma la ŵanthu na ndondomeko ya vyaru vinandi. Pamanyuma pa ungano wa 1995 wa National Consultative Conference ku Bintumani Hotel ku Freetown, wakucemeka "Bintumani I", uwo ukaŵa upharazgi wa Strasser, ungano unyake wa National Consultative Conference ku Bintumani Hotel ku Freetown, wakucemeka "Bintumani II", ukambiska na boma la Bio ilo likakhwaska ŵanyakhe ŵa ku charu na ŵanyakhe ŵa ku vyaru vinyake, mu kuyezga kusanga nthowa yakufumiskirapo masuzgo agho ghakuwira chalo. "Mtende pambere mavoti ghandambe na mavoti pambere mtende undafike" ghakazgoka nkhani yikuru ya kudumbiskana ndipo nkhani iyi yikamba kudumbiskana pa caru cose. Paumaliro, ŵakadumbiskana na ŵanthu ŵanandi, kusazgapo boma la Bio na UN, ndipo ŵakakolerana kuti apo ŵakuyezgayezga kusanga nthowa ya mtende yakumazgira nkhondo, ŵakwenera kuchitiska mavoti mwaluŵiro. Bio wakapeleka mazaza kwa Ahmad Tejan Kabbah wa SLPP, pamanyuma pa mavoti agho ghakacitika kuuyambiro wa chaka cha 1996 agho Kabbah wakathereska. Pulezidenti Kabbah wakatora mazaza na cilato cakuti wamalizge nkhondo ya pa cikaya. Wakati wapokera mazaza, Pulezidenti Kabbah mwaluŵiro wakamba kudumbiskana na RUF ndipo wakacemera mulongozgi wawo Foday Sankoh kuti wazakadumbiskane za mtende.[20]

Pa 25 Meyi 1997, ŵasilikari 17 mu gulu la ŵasilikari ŵa Sierra Leone awo ŵakalongozgekanga na Corporal Tamba Gborie, ŵakugomezgeka kwa Major Johnny Paul Koroma uyo wakaŵa mu jele, ŵakambiska boma la nkhondo ilo likatuma Pulezidenti Kabbah ku ukapolo ku Guinea ndipo ŵakambiska wupu wa Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC). Kaboni Gborie wakaluta mwaluŵiro ku ofesi yikuru ya Sierra Leone Broadcasting Services ku New England, Freetown, kuti wakapharazge vya boma ilo likapoka mazaza na kucenjezga ŵasilikari wose ŵa mu caru kuti ŵize kuzakavikilira. Mwaluŵiro ŵasilikari ŵakamufumiska Koroma mu jere na kumwimika kuŵa pulezidenti wawo na mulongozgi wa boma.

Koroma wakayimiska dango la chalo, wakakanizga viwoneskero, wakajarapo mawayilesi ghose gha palekha mu chalo ichi ndipo wakacemera RUF kuti wanjire mu boma liphya la junta, na mulongozgi wake Foday Sankoh kuŵa Vice-Chairman wa boma liphya la AFRC-RUF. Pakati pajumpha mazuŵa ghachoko waka, ŵasilikari ŵanandi ŵa RUF ŵakiza mu msumba wa Freetown. Gulu la ŵasilikari awo ŵakakhalanga mu vigaŵa vya kumwera kwa Sierra Leone, awo ŵakalongozgekanga na Samuel Hinga Norman, ŵakalutilira kugomezgeka kwa Pulezidenti Kabbah.

Pakati pajumpha myezi yinkhondi na umoza, ŵasilikari awo ŵakalongozgekanga na boma la Nigeria ŵakawuskapo boma ili. Pa 19 Okutobala 1998, ŵasilikari ŵa Sierra Leone 24 (mwakusazgapo Gborie, Brigadier Hassan Karim Conteh, Colonel Samuel Francis Koroma, Major Kula Samba na Colonel Abdul Karim Sesay) ŵakakomeka na gulu la ŵasilikari ŵa boma ku Freetown.

Mu Okutobala 1999, wupu wa United Nations ukazomera kutuma ŵasilikari kuti ŵakhazikiske mtende na kufumiska vilwero ku ŵakugaluka. Gulu lakwamba la ŵasilikari 6,000 likamba kwiza mu Disembala, ndipo mu Febuluwale 2000, wupu wa UN Security Council ukazomerezga kusazgirako ŵasilikari aŵa kufika pa 11,000. Kweni mu Meyi, apo pafupifupi ŵasilikari wose ŵa ku Nigeria ŵakafumako ndipo ŵasilikari ŵa UN ŵakayezga kuti ŵaleke kuvikilira RUF ku mafumiro gha dazi kwa Sierra Leone, ŵasilikari ŵa Sankoh ŵakakumana na ŵasilikari ŵa UN, ndipo ŵasilikari 500 ŵakakoleka nga mbanthu awo ŵakakanizgika. Nkhondo iyi yikapangiska kuti paŵe nkhondo zinandi pakati pa RUF na boma apo ŵasilikari ŵa UN ŵakambiska ntchito ya Khukri kuti ŵamalizge nkhondo iyi. Ntchito iyi yikaŵa yakukondweska comene, ndipo ŵasilikari ŵa ku India na Britain ndiwo ŵakalongozganga.

Vinthu vikafika paheni comene mu caru ici mwakuti ŵasilikari ŵa ku Britain ŵakatumika kuti ŵafumiske ŵanthu ŵa ku vyaru vinyake. Kweni ŵasilikari ŵa ku Britain ŵakaleka mulimo wawo ndipo ŵakamba nkhondo kuti ŵathereske ŵakugaluka. Ŵanalume ŵa ku Britain ndiwo ŵakapangiska kuti nkhondo yimare. Ŵasilikari ŵa boma la Britain, pamoza na ŵalara ŵa boma na ŵandyali, ŵakakhalapo kuti ŵasambizge ŵasilikari, kunozga vinthu vya mu caru, na kupeleka wovwiri wa ndalama na vinthu vinyake. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Sierra Leone ŵakuwona kuti Tony Blair, uyo wakaŵa nduna yikuru ya Britain pa nyengo iyo ŵasilikari ŵa Britain ŵakanjilirapo, ni munthu wankhongono.

Kufuma mu 1991 m'paka mu 2001, ŵanthu pafupifupi 50,000 ŵakafwa pa nkhondo ya pawenenawene ku Sierra Leone. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakachimbizgika mu nyumba zawo ndipo ŵanandi ŵakachimbilira ku Guinea na Liberia. Mu 2001, ŵasilikari ŵa UN ŵakanjira mu vigaŵa ivyo ŵakugaluka ŵakakhalanga na kwamba kuwuskamo vilwero vya ŵasilikari aŵa. Mu Janyuwale 2002, nkhondo yikamara. Mu Meyi 2002, Kabbah wakasankhikaso kuŵa pulezidenti. Mu 2004, mulimo wa kufumiska vilwero ukaŵa kuti wamara. Kweniso mu 2004, khoti lakuvikilirika na wupu wa UN likamba kweruzga ŵalongozgi ŵa vigaŵa vyose viŵiri vya nkhondo. Mu Disembala 2005, ŵasilikari ŵa UN ŵakafumamo mu Sierra Leone.

Chisankho cha 2007 ndi kubwereranso kwa APC[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu Ogasiti 2007, ku Sierra Leone kukachitika chisankho cha pulezidenti na chaparamendi. Ndipouli, palije uyo wakatora mazaza gha 50% pamoza na kura yimoza iyo yikaŵa mu dango la boma. Chisankho chachiwiri chinachitika mu Seputembala 2007, ndipo Ernest Bai Koroma, woyimira chipani chachikulu chotsutsa cha APC, adasankhidwa kukhala purezidenti. Koroma wakasankhika kuŵa purezidenti kachiŵiri mu Novembala 2012.

Kulimbana na nthenda ya Ebola (2014~2016)[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu 2014, ku Sierra Leone kukabuka nthenda ya Ebola iyo yikatimbanizga vinthu mu charu chose. Kuumaliro wa 2014, ku Sierra Leone kukafwa ŵanthu pafupifupi 3,000 ndipo ŵanthu 10,000 ŵakaŵa na nthenda iyi. Kweniso nthenda iyi yikapangiska kuti mu Seputembala 2014, ŵanthu ŵaŵikike mu charu chose kwa mazuŵa ghatatu. Nthenda iyi yikamba chifukwa cha Ebola iyo yikathandazgika chomene ku West Africa. Mu Ogasiti 2014, charu cha Sierra Leone chikaleka kuseŵera maseŵera gha mpira chifukwa cha Ebola. Pa Malichi 16, 2016, wupu wa vyaumoyo pa charu chose (WHO) ukati Sierra Leone njambura Ebola.[57][58][59][58]

14 August 2017 mudslides[lemba | kulemba source]

Pa August 14, 2017, mu msumba wa Freetown na kufupi na msumba uwu mukachitika chivundungwele.

2018 General election[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu 2018, ku Sierra Leone kukaŵa maungano gha chigaŵa. Pa maungano gha ku malo gha boma, palije uyo wakafika pa 55%, ndipo maungano ghaciŵiri ghakacitika.[60]

Makhalilo gha charu[lemba | kulemba source]

A map of Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone map of Köppen climate classification

Charu cha Sierra Leone chili kumwera cha kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Africa. Charu ichi chili na mphaka na Guinea kumpoto na kumafumiro gha dazi, Liberia kumwera kwa kumafumiro gha dazi, na Atlantic Ocean kumanjiliro gha dazi na kumwera kwa kumanjiliro gha dazi.

Sierra Leone yili na malo ghakukwana 71,740 km2 (27,699 sq mi), ndipo yili kugaŵika mu malo ghakukwana 71,620 km2 (27,653 sq mi) na maji ghakukwana 120 km2 (46 sq mi). Charu ichi chili na vigaŵa vinayi. Ku chigaŵa cha kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Sierra Leone, phiri ili lili na mapiri ghatali, ndipo Phiri la Bintumani lili na m'paka mamita 1,948. Chigaŵa chakunena cha mlonga wa Moa chili kumwera kwa chigaŵa ichi.

Pakati pa charu ichi pali malo gha chipalamba agho ghali na makuni, vivwati, na malo ghakurya. Chigaŵa chakumpoto cha charu ichi chili kugawika na wupu wa World Wildlife Fund kuŵa chigaŵa cha nkhorongo ya ku Guinea, apo chigaŵa chakumwera chili na makuni ghakututuŵa na minda.

Kumanjiliro gha dazi, Sierra Leone yili na mtunda wa makilomita pafupifupi 400 kufuma ku Atlantic Coastline, ndipo yili na vinthu vinandi vya mu nyanja. Ku mumphepete mwa nyanja kuli vyakumera vya mangrove. Msumba ukuru wa Freetown uli mumphepete mwa nyanja pafupi na dowoko la Sierra Leone.

Nyengo ya mu charu ichi njakotcha, ndipo nyengo ziŵiri zikupangiska kuti kulimilirenge: nyengo ya vula kufuma mu Meyi m'paka Novembala, kweniso nyengo ya chihanya kufuma mu Disembala m'paka Meyi, apo mphepo yakuzizima yikuputa kufuma ku mapopa gha Sahara. Pa avereji, mu charu muli kutentha kwapakati pa 26 °C na 36 °C.[61][62]

Biodiversity[lemba | kulemba source]

Ku Sierra Leone kuli vyaru vinayi: nkhorongo za ku Guinea, nkhorongo za ku Western Guinea, nkhorongo za ku Guinea, na makuni gha mangrove.

Vinthu ivyo ŵanthu ŵakuyowoya kuti ndivyo vikupangiska kuti charu cha Sierra Leone chiheni chomene panji kuti vikupangiska kuti charu chiheni chomene, ni vyakurya vyambura kukhazikika, kusamalira makora yayi dongo na maji, kudumulizga makuni, kusisita vyakumera, kurya nkhuni, kweniso kulimilira chomene viŵeto na kuzenga misumba.

Kutowa kwa makuni, cifukwa ca makuni gha malonda ndiposo cifukwa ca vyakurya, ni suzgo likuru comene ndipo kukupangiska kuti caru ciŵe na uheni ukuru. Kuzenga migodi, kudumura na kotcha malo kuti ghazgoke malo ghakuliskako viŵeto, kwapangiska kuti makuni ghachepe chomene mu Sierra Leone kwambira m'ma 1980. Charu ichi chili na nkhorongo zinandi chifukwa cha kuchepa kwa makuni. Ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakopa kuti makuni ghanandi ghachali kukomeka mu malo ghakuchemeka Tama-Tonkoli Forest Reserve kumpoto. Awo ŵakuguliska makuni ŵasazgirako ntchito yawo ku Nimini, District ya Kono, Eastern Province; Jui, Western Rural District, Western Area; Loma Mountains National Park, Koinadougu, Northern Province; ndipo ŵali na mapulani ghakwamba kugwira ntchito mu Kambui Forest reserve mu Kenema District, Eastern Province. Charu ichi chili na chiŵerengero cha 2.76/10 pa charu chose pa vyaru 172.

Mu Sierra Leone, ŵanthu ŵakuloŵa comene somba.

Ntcheŵe yakucemeka Lycaon pictus ya ku Africa yikanangika comene mwakuti yikuwoneka kuti yili kumara mu Sierra Leone.

M'paka mu 2002, Sierra Leone yikaŵavya ndondomeko yakwendeskera nkhorongo chifukwa cha nkhondo ya pawenenawene iyo yikakoma ŵanthu ŵanandi. Kufuma waka apo nkhondo ya pawenenawene yikamalira, makuni agho ghakuparanyika ghasazgikira na 7.3%. Mu 2003, mu Sierra Leone mukaŵa malo ghakuvikilirika 55. Mu caru ici muli vyakumera vinandi, vinyama 147, viyuni 626, vinyama vyakukhwaŵa 67, vinyama vyakukhala pasi na pasi 35, na somba 99.

Wupu wa Environmental Justice Foundation ukulongora kuti mu vyaka vyasonosono apa, unandi wa maboti agho ghakuloŵa mwambura kuzomerezgeka mu maji gha ku Sierra Leone wawonjezeka comene. Ŵalwani ŵa visomba ŵamba kukora visomba vinandi chomene. Vinthu vyafika paheni comene cifukwa cakuti somba ndizo zikovwira ŵanthu ŵanandi mu caru ici kusanga ndalama.

Mu Juni 2005, wupu wa Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) na BirdLife International ŵakakolerana kuti ŵawovwirepo pa ntchito ya kunozga nkhorongo ya Gola Forest ku Sierra Leone.[63][64][65]

Boma na ndale[lemba | kulemba source]

Sierra Leone ni charu icho chili na boma ilo likusankhika na ŵanthu. Ndondomeko ya boma ya Sierra Leone yikukolerana na Dango la Sierra Leone la 1991. Sierra Leone yili na boma likuru ilo likulamulira ndipo boma lakunjilirapo ndambura nkhongono. Boma la Sierra Leone, ilo likulongozgeka na pulezidenti, lili na mazaza ghanandi. Pulezidenti ni munthu wankhongono comene mu Sierra Leone.

Kuyana na Dango la mu 1991, boma la Britain ndilo lili na mazaza ghakulongozga vinthu. Boma likuru comene lili na pulezidenti na mamembara gha boma lake, kweniso ŵeruzgi.

Pulezidenti ni mulara wa boma, mulara wa boma, ndiposo mulongozgi wa ŵasilikari ŵa Sierra Leone. Pulezidenti wakusora na kulongozga nduna izo zikwenera kuzomerezgeka na Nyumba ya Malango. Pulezidenti wakusankhika na ŵanthu wose kuti waŵepo nyengo ziŵiri. Pulezidenti ndiyo wali na mazaza ghakuru chomene mu boma la Sierra Leone.

Kuti munthu wasankhike kuŵa pulezidenti wa Sierra Leone, wakwenera kusanga mavoti pafupifupi 55 peresenti. Usange palije uyo wapokera 55%, paŵenge chigaŵa chachiŵiri pakati pa ŵalongozgi ŵaŵiri.

Pulezidenti wa sono wa Sierra Leone ni Julius Maada Bio, uyo wakaŵa mulongozgi wa gulu la ŵasilikari. Bio wakathereska Samura Kamara wa chipani cha All People's Congress (APC) mu chisankho cha purezidenti cha 2018. Bio wakasintha pulezidenti Ernest Bai Koroma pamanyuma pakuti Bio wakalapizga pa 4 April 2018 na Chief Justice Abdulai Cham. Bio ni mulongozgi wa chipani cha Sierra Leone People's Party, chipani icho chili na mazaza mu Sierra Leone.

Pamanyuma pa pulezidenti pakuŵa wachiŵiri kwa pulezidenti, uyo ni mulara waciŵiri mu boma la Sierra Leone. Nga umo Dango la Sierra Leone likulongolera, wachiŵiri wa pulezidenti ndiyo wakuŵa pulezidenti wa Sierra Leone para pulezidenti wafwa, wafumapo, panji wafumiskika.[66]

Parliament[lemba | kulemba source]

Nyumba ya Malamulo ya Sierra Leone njimoza pera, ndipo yili na mipando 146. Chigaŵa chilichose mwa vigaŵa 14 vya charu ichi chili na ŵimiliri mu nyumba ya malango. Nyumba ya malango ya Sierra Leone yikulongozgeka na Mulara wa Nyumba ya Malamulo, uyo ni mulongozgi wa Nyumba ya Malamulo ndipo wakusankhika na ŵanthu awo ŵalipo. Mulara wa sono wa nyumba ya malango ya Sierra Leone ni Abass Bundu, uyo wakasankhika na mamembala gha nyumba ya malango pa 21 January 2014.

Ŵabali awo ŵalipo sono mu Nyumba ya Malamulo ya Sierra Leone ŵakasankhika pa mavoti gha mu 2012. Pasono chipani cha APC chili na vithuzithuzi 68 pa vithuzithuzi 132 ivyo vili mu nyumba ya malango ndipo chipani cha Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP) chili na vithuzithuzi 49 pa vithuzithuzi 132. Maphwando awiri opambana kwambiri ku Sierra Leone, APC ndi SLPP, pamodzi adagonjetsa mipando yonse yosankhidwa ku Nyumba Yamalamulo mu chisankho cha nyumba yamalamulo ku Sierra Leone cha 2012. Kuti munthu waŵe mu Nyumba ya Malamulo, wakwenera kuŵa mwenekaya wa Sierra Leone, wakwenera kuŵa na vyaka vyakujumpha 21, wakwenera kuyowoya, kuŵazga na kulemba Cingelezi mwakuti waŵe na mwaŵi wakucitako milimo ya mu Nyumba ya Malamulo; ndipo wakwenera kuŵa na mulandu yayi.

Kufuma apo Sierra Leone yikapokera wanangwa mu 1961, vyaru ivi vili na vipani vikuruvikuru viŵiri: SLPP na APC. Pakaŵaso magulu ghacoko waka agho ghakaŵavya ŵanthu ŵanandi.[67]

Judiciary[lemba | kulemba source]

The Sierra Leone Supreme Court in the capital Freetown, the highest and most powerful court in the country

Boma la Sierra Leone lili na ŵeruzgi awo ŵakulongozgeka na Chief Justice of Sierra Leone. Makhoti ghanyake ni Khoti Likuru la Vyamalango, Khoti la Apilu, makhoti gha ŵeruzgi, na makhoti gha ku mizi. Pulezidenti wakusora na kuzomerezga ŵeruzgi ŵa makhoti ghose ghatatu. Ŵeruzgi ŵali na mazaza pa milandu yose ya ŵanthu wose ndiposo ya milandu ya milandu mu caru cose. Mulara wa milandu wa sono wa Sierra Leone ni Desmond Babatunde Edwards

Foreign relations[lemba | kulemba source]

Unduna wa Vyalo vya ku Sierra Leone na Wupu Wakovwira Ŵanthu ŵa ku vyaru Vinyake ndiwo ukuwona vya ndyali za ku Sierra Leone. Charu cha Sierra Leone chili paubwezi na vyaru nga ni China, Russia, Libya, Iran, na Cuba.

Sierra Leone wali na ubwezi uwemi na vyaru vya ku Western Europe, na United States. Kufuma waka apo boma la United Kingdom likakanira nkhondo ya pawenenawene mu 2000, likawovwira chomene charu ichi.

Boma la pulezidenti wakale Siaka Stevens likakhumbanga kukolerana na vyaru vinyake vya kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Africa mu wupu wa Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Sierra Leone, pamoza na Liberia, Ivory Coast na Guinea, ni vyaru ivyo vikukolerana na vyaru vinyake. Ntchito yake yikuru njakuti yikhazikiske mapulojekiti ghakovwira kuti vinthu vyende makora mu vyaru vinayi ivi.

Sierra Leone nayo njumoza wa wupu wa United Nations na wupu unyake, African Union, African Development Bank (AFDB), Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), na Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). Sierra Leone njumoza wa ŵeruzgi ŵa International Criminal Court awo ŵali kukolerana kuti ŵasilikari ŵa United States ŵavikilirikenge (kulingana na ndime 98).[68][69][70][71]

Military[lemba | kulemba source]

Gulu la ŵasilikari la Sierra Leone, ilo likucemeka Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF), ni gulu la ŵasilikari la Sierra Leone ilo likuvikilira vigaŵa vya Sierra Leone na kuvikilira vyandulo vya Sierra Leone. Gulu la ŵasilikari ili likapangika pamanyuma pa kujithemba mu 1961, kufuma ku British Royal West African Frontier Force. Gulu la ŵasilikari la Sierra Leone lili na ŵanthu pafupifupi 15,500, ndipo lili na ŵasilikari ŵanandi chomene ŵa Sierra Leone.

Pulezidenti wa Sierra Leone ndiyo ni mulara wa ŵasilikari, ndipo nduna ya vya kuvikilira ndiyo yikulaŵilira vya kuvikilira caru na kupanga ŵasilikari. Nduna ya vya kuvikilira ya Sierra Leone ni Major Alfred Paolo Conteh. Gulu la ŵasilikari la Sierra Leone lili na Chief of the Defence Staff, uyo ni mulara wa ŵasilikari uyo wakuŵa na udindo wa kwendeska na kwendeska ŵasilikari ŵa Sierra Leone. Brigadier General Alfred Nelson-Williams uyo wakasankhika na President Koroma wakasintha Major General Edward Sam M'boma pa 12 September 2008 pakuŵa Chief of Defence Staff wa Army.

Apo Sierra Leone yikapokera wanangwa mu 1961, ŵasilikari ŵa Royal Sierra Leone Military Force ŵakapangika kufuma ku Sierra Leone Battalion of the West African Frontier Force. Mu 1968, ŵasilikari ŵakamba kuwusa, ndipo ŵakaŵika wupu wa National Reformation Council. Pa 19 Epulero 1971, apo Sierra Leone yikazgoka charu, Royal Sierra Leone Military Forces yikasintha zina kuŵa Republic of Sierra Leone Military Force (RSLMF).[72][73] Wupu wa RSLMF ukalutilira kuŵa na gulu limoza m'paka mu 1979, apo boma la Sierra Leone likakhazikiska mawumba gha ŵasilikari ŵa nkhondo. Mu 1995, likuru la ŵasilikari likakhazikiskika, ndipo gulu la ŵasilikari la Sierra Leone Air Wing likapangika. Gulu la RSLMF likasinthika zina kuŵa Armed Forces of the Republic of Sierra Leone (AFRSL).

Law enforcement[lemba | kulemba source]

Boma la Sierra Leone likulongozgeka na ŵapolisi awo ŵakwimikika na pulezidenti. Ŵapolisi ŵa ku Sierra Leone ŵakakhazikiskika na Britain mu 1894. Likovwira kugega vigeŵenga, kuvikilira umoyo wa ŵanthu na katundu wawo, kusanga na kweruzga ŵakuswa malango, kukhazikiska bata na mtende, kuvikilira umoyo na chivikiliro, kweniso kovwira ŵanthu kuti ŵeruzgike makora. Wapolisi wa ku Sierra Leone ni Inspector General of Police, uyo ni mulongozgi wa ŵapolisi ŵa ku Sierra Leone.

Chigaŵa chilichose cha vigaŵa 14 vya Sierra Leone chili na mulara wa ŵapolisi uyo ni mulara wa chigaŵa. Ŵapolisi aŵa ŵakuteŵetera ku ofesi ya ŵapolisi ya ku Freetown. Mulaŵiliri wa ŵapolisi sono ni Brima Acha Kamara, uyo wakasankhika na pulezidenti wakale Ahmad Tejan Kabbah.

Wanangwa wa ŵanthu[lemba | kulemba source]

Male same-sex sexual activity is illegal under Section 61 of the Offences against the Person Act 1861, and imprisonment for life is possible.[74][75]

Ŵapolisi ŵakusuzga comene ŵanthu. Ŵalwani ŵakomeka na ŵasilikari, kweniso ŵanthu awo ŵakachitanga vivulupi mu jele (mu jele la Pademba Road, ŵakayidi 30 na msilikari yumoza ŵakafwa). Pa nyengo ya COVID-19, ŵapolisi ŵakawukira ŵanthu awo ŵakakhumbanga kusanga vinthu vyakukhumbikwa.[76]

Administrative divisions[lemba | kulemba source]

The 14 districts and 2 areas of Sierra Leone

Chigaŵa cha Sierra Leone chili na vigaŵa vinkhondi: chigaŵa cha kumpoto, chigaŵa cha kumpoto cha kumanjiliro gha dazi, chigaŵa cha kumwera, chigaŵa cha kumafumiro gha dazi, na chigaŵa cha kumanjiliro gha dazi. Vigaŵa vinayi vili kugaŵika vigaŵa 14.

Vigaŵa vya vigaŵa ivi vili kugaŵika mu vigaŵa 186, ivyo kanandi vikulongozgeka na ŵalongozgi ŵakuchindikika, awo boma la Britain likaŵamanya mu 1896. Ŵalongozgi aŵa ŵali na mazaza comene, comenecomene mu mizi na matawuni ghacoko. Ŵalongozgi ŵa mafuko wose ŵakaŵa na mafuko agho ghakamanyikwanga pa nyengo iyo. Kanandi ŵalongozgi ndiwo "ŵakupeleka misonkho, ŵeruzgi, na kugaŵa malo, agho ngakukhumbikwa chomene ku mizi".

Mu vigaŵa vya boma, vigaŵa vikulamulirika nga ni malo. Chigaŵa chilichose chili na wupu wa chigaŵa uwo ukusankhika mwakudunjika.[77][78] Pafupifupi, pali maboma 19: maboma 13 gha vigaŵa, limoza pa vigaŵa 12 na limoza pa vigaŵa vya kumanjiliro gha dazi. Mu matawuni agha muli Freetown, ilo ni boma la Western Area Urban District, kweniso Bo, Bonthe, Kenema, Koidu, na Makeni.[77][79][80]

Nangauli makonsili gha vigaŵa ghakulongozgeka na maboma gha vigaŵa, kweni maboma agha ghakwendeskeka na Unduna wa Vyaru na Wupu Wakulongozga.

District Capital Area (km2) Province Population
(2004 census)[81]
Population
(2015 census)[82]
Bombali District Makeni 7,985 Northern
Province
408,390 606,183[83]
Koinadugu District Kabala 12,121 265,758 408,097[84]
Port Loko District Port Loko 5,719 453,746 614,063[84]
Tonkolili District Magburaka 7,003 347,197 530,776[85]
Kambia District Kambia 3,108 270,462 343,686[86]
Kenema District Kenema 6,053 Eastern
Province
497,948 609,873[87]
Kono District Koidu Town 5,641 335,401 505,767[88]
Kailahun District Kailahun 3,859 358,190 525,372[88]
Bo District Bo 5,219 Southern
Province
463,668 574,201[89]
Bonthe District Mattru Jong 3,468 139,687 200,730[90]
Pujehun District Pujehun 4,105 228,392 345,577
Moyamba District Moyamba 6,902 260,910 318,064
Western Area Urban District Freetown 13 Western
Area
772,873 1,050,301
Western Area Rural District Waterloo 544 174,249 442,951

Chuma[lemba | kulemba source]

Historical GDP per capita development
A proportional representation of Sierra Leone exports, 2019

Kuzakafika m'ma 1990, vinthu vikamba kunangika chomene mu vyaru ivi. Mu vyaka 10 vyakulondezgapo, vinthu vinandi vya mu charu ichi vikamara chifukwa cha nkhondo. Kufuma waka apo nkhondo yikamalira mu Janyuwale 2002, wovwiri ukuru wakufuma ku vyaru vinyake wawovwira kuti Sierra Leone yambe kunozgeka.

Kuti vinthu viŵeko makora pa charu, boma likwenera kulimbana na vimbundi. Cinthu cimoza ico cikulongora kuti caru ici cizamuŵa cakukondwa ni umo boma likwendeskera makora vyakupangira dayamondi.

Pali ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵambura nchito, comenecomene ŵawukirano na awo kale ŵakaŵa ŵasilikari. Ŵalara ŵa boma ŵakutondeka kufiska makora ndondomeko ya kunozga vinthu mu boma, ndipo ndondomeko ya kupanikizgira vinthu ku boma nayo yikucepa.

Ndalama izo ŵakugwiliskira nchito ni leone. Banki yikuru ni Banki ya Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone yili na ndondomeko ya kusintha ndalama, ndipo ndalama za caru cinyake zingasinthika pa banki yiliyose, maofesi gha visulo vya visulo na mu mahotelo ghanandi. Ku Sierra Leone, ŵanthu ŵakugwiliskira ntchito makadi gha ngongoli bweka yayi, nangauli ŵakugwiliskira ntchito mu mahotelo na malo ghanyake ghakurya. Mu Freetown muli mashini ghapachanya agho ghakupokelera makadi gha Visa.

Agriculture[lemba | kulemba source]

A farmer with his rice harvest in Sierra Leone. Two-thirds of Sierra Leone's population are directly involved in subsistence agriculture.[91]

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Sierra Leone ŵakukwana vigaŵa viŵiri pa vigaŵa vitatu. Mu 2007, vyakurya vikaŵa 58 peresenti ya GDP.

Vyaru ni vyeneivyo vikugwilira nchito ŵanthu ŵanandi comene. Mpunga ndiwo ni vyakurya vyakuzirwa comene mu Sierra Leone, ndipo ŵalimi 85 pa 100 ŵali na mpunga mu nyengo ya vula, ndipo munthu yumoza wakurya makilogiramu 76 pa caka.[92][93][94][95]

Mining[lemba | kulemba source]

Charu cha Sierra Leone chili na vinthu vinandi vyakuthupi. Charu ichi chili pakati pa vyaru 10 ivyo vikupanga dayamondi zinandi chomene. Vinthu vyakuzirwa comene ivyo vikusangika pa caru capasi ni vyakununkhira. Charu cha Sierra Leone ndicho chikupanga dayamondi zinandi. Nangauli charu ichi chili na dayamondi zinandi, kweni kanandi chikuŵa na suzgo la kupanga na kutumizga dayamondi.

Sierra Leone yikumanyikwa cifukwa ca malibwe gha ndopa agho ghakasangika na kuguliskika ku mabungwe gha malibwe gha ndopa mu nyengo ya nkhondo ya pawenenawene. Mu ma 1970, na kukwambilira kwa ma 1980, vinthu vikamba kwenda makora yayi pa charu chifukwa cha kunangika kwa migodi kweniso vimbundi ivyo vikachitikanga na ŵalara ŵa boma.[96]

Percentage of GDP by sector (2007)[95]
Rank Sector Percentage
of GDP
1 Agriculture 58.5
2 Other services 10.4
3 Trade and tourism 9.5
4 Wholesale and retail trade 9.0
5 Mining and quarrying 4.5
6 Government Services 4.0
7 Manufacturing and handicrafts 2.0
8 Construction 1.7
9 Electricity and water 0.4

Malibwe gha daimondi gha ku Sierra Leone ghakupangika pa chaka pa ndalama zakukwana madola 250 miliyoni na 300 miliyoni. Vinyake mwa ndalama izi ŵakuvipeleka mwakubisilizga, ndipo vingaŵa kuti ŵakugwiliskira nchito pakuguliska ndarama panji kupeleka ndalama. Kufuma waka pa nyengo ya nkhondo ya pawenenawene, vyakurya ivyo vikutolekera ku vyaru vinyake vyasintha comene. Mu Okutobala 2000, wupu wa UN ukazomerezga vyakupimira ma diamondi agho ghakuguliskika ku vyaru vinyake. Mu 2001, boma likapangiska kabungwe kakuwona vya kusambizga ŵanthu vya migodi (DACDF), ako kakuwezgera chigaŵa cha misonkho iyo ŵanthu ŵakupeleka ku migodi. Ndalama iyi yikapangika kuti ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha ŵagulire malibwe gha dayamondi.

Ku Sierra Leone kuli malibwe ghanandi chomene gha rutile, agho ghakugwiliskirika ntchito pa kupanga utoto.

Transport infrastructure[lemba | kulemba source]

The road from Kenema to Kailahun District

Ku Sierra Leone kuli nthowa zinandi zakwendeskera vinthu. Mu Sierra Leone muli misewu ya makilomita 11,300 (7,000 miles), ndipo misewu ya makilomita 904 (562 mi) njakukhoma. Misewu yikuruyikuru ya ku Sierra Leone yikukolerana na ya ku Conakry, Guinea, na Monrovia, Liberia.

Sierra Leone yili na dowoko likuru chomene pa charu cha Africa, ndipo likovwira ŵanthu kuti ŵende pa dowoko la Queen Elizabeth II Quay mu chigaŵa cha Cline Town, kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Freetown. Mu Sierra Leone muli misewu ya maji ya makilomita 800, ndipo 600 mwa misewu iyi njakwenda chaka chose. Matawuni ghakurughakuru agho ghali na dowoko ni Bonthe, Freetown, Sherbro Island, na Pepel.

Ku Sierra Leone kuli ma eyapoti 10 gha chigaŵa na ya charu chose. Ndege ya Freetown International Airport, iyo yili mu tawuni ya Lungi kumpoto kwa Sierra Leone, ndiyo yikwendeskeka na ŵanthu ŵa ku Sierra Leone. Awo ŵakwenda ŵakwambuka mlonga uwu kuluta ku Aberdeen Helicopters mu Freetown na ndege, boti, panji ndege. Kweniso pali ndege zakufumira ku chiŵanja cha ndege kuluta ku misumba yinyake yikuruyikuru ya mu charu ichi. Malo agha ghali na misewu yitali yakujumpha mamita 3,047. Malo ghanyake gha ndege ghali na misewu yambura kujintha, ndipo ghankhondi na ghaŵiri ghali na misewu ya mamita 914 m'paka 1,523 mu utali.

Sierra Leone wali pa ndandanda wa vyaru ivyo vikukanizgika kupeleka vyakupharazga ku ndege. Ichi chikung'anamura kuti palije ndege iyo yili kulembeka mu charu cha Sierra Leone iyo yingachita uteŵeti uliwose mu charu cha Europe. Ici nchifukwa cakuti malango ghakwendeskera vinthu ghakwenda makora yayi.

Kufumira mu Malichi 2023, chiŵanja chimoza pera cha vyaru vya pasi pose mu charu ichi chikaŵa na ndege zakuluta ku Istanbul, Paris, Brussels na misumba yikuruyikuru ya ku West Africa.

Mu Seputembala 2014 kukaŵa vigaŵa vinandi ivyo vikakanizgika kwenda nga ni Kailahun, Kenema, Bombali, Tonkolili, na Port Loko chifukwa cha Ebola.[97]

Energy in Sierra Leone[lemba | kulemba source]

Sierra Leone electricity production by source

Overview[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu 2016, ŵanthu pafupifupi 12% mu Sierra Leone ŵakaŵa na magesi. Pa ŵanthu 12 aŵa, 10 ŵakaŵa mu msumba wa Freetown, ndipo ŵanthu 90 awo ŵakakhalako ŵakagwiliskiranga ntchito magesi gha 2 peresenti. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakugwiliskira ntchito makuni na malasha kuti ŵasange vyakukhumbikwa zuŵa na zuŵa. Ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakuti para ŵanakazi na ŵana ŵakumalira nyengo yinandi pa moto uwu, ŵakuŵa na matenda. Kafukufuku munyake uyo wakachitika mu 2012, wakalongosora umo matenda gha nthenda ya kupumura ghakugwilira ntchito pa nyumba. Ŵakasanga kuti pa ŵana awo ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito vyoto vya nkhuni, 64% ŵakaŵa na ARI, ndipo awo ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito vyoto vya makara ŵakaŵa 44%. Kugwiliskira nchito malasha na nkhuni kwapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵaleke kughanaghanira comene vya cilengiwa, cifukwa vyose vikuyana yayi na umo ŵanthu ŵakughanaghanira vya kusanga nkhongono zakukwana. Pa cifukwa ici, ŵanthu ŵakususkana comene na awo ŵakupeleka wovwiri na mawupu gha boma nga ni Unduna wa vya Magesi na Maji na Dipatimenti ya Vipinda. Ŵanthu ŵakukhumba kuti nkhongono ya dazi na nkhongono ya maji viŵe vyakukhumbikwa chomene ku Sierra Leone chifukwa cha vilato vya Wupu wa United Nations pa nkhani ya vyamunthazi. Pakuti ku Sierra Leone kuli mphepo yakotcha, vula yikuru yikulokwa chaka chilichose, kweniso kuli milonga yinandi, nchiwemi kuti ŵanthu ŵagwiliskirenge nchito nkhongono za dazi na za maji.[98][99][100]

Solar energy[lemba | kulemba source]

Sierra Leone pamoza na Dipatimenti ya vya Vyakusazgirako Vyaru ya ku UK (DFID), ŵali na cilato cakuti mu 2025, ŵanthu wose ŵa mu caru ici ŵazakaŵe na magesi gha dazi. Chilato chikuru ichi chagaŵika mu vigaŵa vichoko. Cakwamba nchakuti mu 2016, nyumba 50,000 zizakapike nkhongono ya dazi. Caciŵiri, kuzakapeleka nkhongono ya dazi ku nyumba 250,000 mu 2017, ndipo caumaliro kuzakapeleka nkhongono ya dazi ku ŵanthu 1,000,000 mu 2020. Ndondomeko iyi yikukolerana na ndondomeko ya Energy Africa Access Campaign iyo yikukhumba kupeleka magesi ku vyaru 14 vya mu Africa m'paka mu 2030. Pambere ndondomeko iyi yindakhazikiskike, boma la Sierra Leone likaŵa na nkhongono yichoko pa nkhani ya magesi gha dazi. Chifukwa chimoza ntchakuti ŵakaŵavya malango ghakwendeskera vinthu. Kuti viwovwire kukwaniska chilato cha Energy Africa, charu cha Sierra Leone chazomera kuwuskapo msonkho pa vinthu ivyo vikupangika na nkhongono ya dazi. Kusintha uku kukovwira kuti ŵanthu ŵa ku vyaru vinyake ŵagwiliskirenge ntchito nkhongono ya dazi. Ŵakuwona kuti para palije msonkho na misonkho, mtengo wa vinthu vya zuŵa ungakhira na 30 panji 40 peresenti.[101]

Hydroelectric power[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu 2012, Sierra Leone wakaŵa na magesi ghakukwana 3. Yachiŵiri ni ya Dodo iyo yili mu chigaŵa cha kumafumiro gha dazi, ndipo yaumaliro ni ya Bumbuna. Kweniso pali vyalo vinandi ivyo vingazenga magesi pa mlonga wa Sewa, Pampana, Seli, Moa, na Little Scarcies. Pa milimo yose iyi, iyo yili kumalizgika na iyo yikwenera kucitika, damu la Bumbuna ndilo lichali likuru comene pa maofesi gha maji mu Sierra Leone. Malo agha ghali pafupi na Mlonga wa Seli na Freetown, ndipo ghakupanga magesi pafupifupi 50 megawati. Mu 2017, ŵakakhumbanga kusazgirako nkhongono ya sitima iyi kufika pa ma megawati 400. Ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakughanaghana kuti chiziŵa cha Bumbuna chingachepeska ndalama izo ŵanthu ŵakugwiliskira ntchito pakugura mafuta kufuma ku vyaru vinyake. Kale, nchito iyi yikapokera ndalama zakujumpha madola 200 miliyoni kufuma ku Banki ya Caru Cose, Banki ya vya Vyakusazgirako ya ku Africa, na kampani ya ku Italy yakucemeka Salini Impregilo.[102][98]

Ŵanthu[lemba | kulemba source]

Sierra Leone's total population, from 1961 to 2013

Mu 2019 Sierra Leone yikaŵa na ŵanthu 7,813,215 ndipo yikakuranga 2.216% pa chaka. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa mu charu ichi mbawukirano, ndipo ŵanthu 41.7% ŵali na vyaka vyakukwana 15. Chifukwa cha kusamukira ku misumba, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakukhala mu matawuni, ndipo ŵanthu ŵakuwona kuti matawuni agha ghakusazgikira na 2.9% pa chaka.[103][104]

Mu Sierra Leone, ŵanthu ŵakupambana chomene. Chigaŵa cha Western Area Urban District, icho chikusazgapo Freetown, msumba ukuru na ukuru chomene, chili na ŵanthu 1,224 pa km2. Chigaŵa chikuru chomene cha Koinadugu chili na ŵanthu ŵachoko chomene, ŵanthu 21.4 pa km2.

Cingelezi ni ciyowoyero ca boma, ndipo cikuyowoyeka mu masukulu, mu boma na mu vyakupharazga. Chiyowoyero cha Krio (chakufuma ku Chingelezi na viyowoyero vinyake vya ku Africa, kweniso chiyowoyero cha ŵanthu ŵa ku Sierra Leone) ndicho chikuyowoyeka chomene mu vigaŵa vyose vya Sierra Leone. Pakuti chiyowoyero cha Krio chikayowoyeka na ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 90 peresenti, chikovwira kuti ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yose ŵakoleranenge.

Pamanyuma pa wovwiri wa gulu la United Nations Peacekeeping Force la ku Bangladesh mu Nkhondo ya ku Sierra Leone, boma la Ahmad Tejan Kabbah likati chibengali ni chiyowoyero chakuzirwa mu Disembala 2002.

Kuyana na lipoti la World Refugee Survey 2008, ilo Komiti ya ku United States yakuwona vya ŵanthu ŵakuchimbira kwawo na awo ŵiza mu charu ichi yikalemba, ku Sierra Leone kukaŵa ŵanthu 8,700 awo ŵakachimbilira ku charu ichi. Mu 2007, ŵanthu pafupifupi 20,000 ŵakufuma ku Liberia ŵakawelera ku Liberia. Pa ŵanthu wose awo ŵakakhalako mu Sierra Leone, pafupifupi wose ŵakaŵa ŵa ku Liberia.[105]

 
Misumba panji matauni ghakulu mu charu cha Sierra Leone
Government of Sierra Leone 2004 Census[106]
Mndandanda District Ŵanthu
Freetown
Freetown
Bo
Bo
1 Freetown Western Area Urban District 853,651 Kenema
Kenema
Makeni
Makeni
2 Bo Bo District 149,957
3 Kenema Kenema District 128,402
4 Makeni Bombali District 82,940
5 Koidu Town Kono District 80,025
6 Lunsar Port Loko District 24,450
7 Port Loko Port Loko District 23,195
8 Pandebu-Tokpombu Kenema District 20,219
9 Kabala Koinadugu District 19,074
10 Waterloo Western Area Urban District 18,579

Ŵanthu awo ŵali mu misumba yikuruyikuru yinkhondi ŵali kupendeka mu 2004. Chiŵelengero cha Freetown chikulongora chigaŵa cha Western Urban Area (Greater Freetown). Viŵelengero vinyake ni ivyo vyafuma ku ŵanthu awo ŵakuzunulika. Ŵanthu ŵakuyowoya vyakupambanapambana. Ŵanyake ŵakuti Magburaka wakwenera kuŵikika pa ndondomeko iyi, kweni pali mphambano yikuru pakati pa mabuku agha. Buku linyake likuti ŵanthu aŵa ŵalipo 14,915, apo linyake likuti ŵalipo 85,313. "Pandebu-Tokpombu" panji ni tawuni ya Torgbonbu, iyo yikaŵa na ŵanthu 10,716 pa kalembera wa 2004. Mu tawuni iyi mukaŵa ŵanthu 12,139. Kuyana na kalembera wa mu 2004, mu tawuni ya Waterloo mukaŵa ŵanthu 34,079.[107][108]

Chisopo[lemba | kulemba source]

Religion in Sierra Leone (2020)[109]
Religion percent
Islam
78.5%
Christianity
20.4%
Other faiths
1.1%
A mosque and a church in Sierra Leone

Ku Sierra Leone kulije visopa. Chisilamu na Chikhristu ni visopa vikuruvikuru mu caru ici. Dango la Sierra Leone likuti ŵanthu ŵaŵenge na wanangwa wakusopa, ndipo boma likuwuvikilira. Boma la Sierra Leone likukanizgika na dango kwamba chisopa cha boma, nangauli ŵanthu ŵa chisopa cha Chisilamu na Chikhristu ŵakutemwa kulomba pa nyengo ya viphikiro vikuruvikuru vya ndyali.

Ŵanthu ŵa visopa vyakupambanapambana mu Sierra Leone, nangauli Ŵasilamu ndiwo ŵanandi. Ku Sierra Leone, ŵanthu 77% mbasilamu, 22% Mbakhristu, ndipo 1% ŵakusopa chisopa cha ku Africa.

Kuyana na kafukufuku wa Pew Research Center wa mu 2020, 78.5% ya ŵanthu ŵa ku Sierra Leone mba Chisilamu (kanandi Ŵasuni), 20.4% mba Chikhristu (kanandi Ŵaprotesitanti) ndipo 1.1% ŵali mu chisopa cha ku Africa. Wupu wa Inter-Religious Council of Sierra Leone ukati ŵanthu 77% ku Sierra Leone Mbakhristu, 21% Mbasilamu, ndipo 2% Mbalondezgi ŵa visopa vya ku Africa. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Sierra Leone mba Chislamu, kusazgapo ŵanthu ŵa mitundu ya Mende na Temne.

Charu cha Sierra Leone chili na ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakutemwa kusopa.[110][111][112] Maholide ghanandi gha Cisilamu na Cikhristu ni maholide gha caru, ndipo nkhondo za cisopa zikucitika viŵi yayi.

Ku Sierra Leone kuli wupu wa Inter-Religious Council, uwo uli na ŵalongozgi ŵa visopa vya Chikhristu na Chisilamu, ndipo ukovwira kuti mu charu chose muŵe mtende.[113][114][115] Maholide gha Chisilamu gha Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha na Maulid-un-Nabi (Zuŵa lakubabikira nchimi ya Chisilamu Muhammad) ghakuwoneka nga ni maholide gha chalo mu Sierra Leone. Maholide gha Chikhristu gha Khisimasi, Boxing Day, Good Friday na Easter nagho ni maholide gha charu cha Sierra Leone. Pa nkhani za ndyali, ŵanthu ŵanandi ku Sierra Leone ŵakuvotera munthu munyake, kwali ni Muslamu panji Mkhristu. Ŵalongozgi wose ŵa boma la Sierra Leone ŵakaŵa Ŵakristu padera pa Ahmad Tejan Kabbah, uyo wakaŵa Musilamu.

Ŵasilamu ŵanandi ŵa ku Sierra Leone ŵakulondezga chisopa cha Sunni. Masisiteri ghanandi na masukulu gha Cisilamu mu Sierra Leone ghali na visopa vya Cisilamu. Ŵasilamu ŵa Ahmadiyya ŵalipo pafupifupi 10 peresenti. Mu Sierra Leone muli ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa chisopa cha Ahmadiyya, chomenechomene mu tawuni ya Bo, iyo yili kumwera kwa charu ichi. Mu Sierra Leone mose muli masisiteri 500 gha Ahmadiyya. Mu Sierra Leone mulije chisopa cha Chishiya, ndipo mu charu ichi mulije Ŵasilamu. Ŵasilamu ŵanandi ŵa ku Sierra Leone ŵa chisopa cha Sunni na Ahmadiyya ŵakulombera lumoza mu mzikiti umoza.[116][117] Ŵasilamu ŵanandi ku Sierra Leone ŵakulondezga chisopa cha Maliki. Sukulu ya Maliki ndiyo yikuluska mu vyaru vyose vya Sierra Leone. Ŵasilamu ŵanandi ŵa Ahmadiyya mu Sierra Leone ŵakulondezga fundo za Maliki.

Wupu wa Islamic Supreme Council wa Sierra Leone ni wupu wa chisopa cha Chisilamu ku Sierra Leone. Sheikh Muhammad Taha Jalloh ni purezidenti wa Supreme Islamic Council ya Sierra Leone. Wupu wa United Council of Imams, ni wupu wa cisopa wa Islamic mu Sierra Leone, uwo uli na ŵaliska wose ŵa masisiteri mu Sierra Leone. Mulongozgi wa United Council of Imam ni Sheikh Alhaji Muhammad Habib Sheriff. Masisiteri ghaŵiri ghakuru chomene mu Sierra Leone ni Freetown Central Mosque na Gaddafi Central Mosque (ghakazengeka na Muammar Gaddafi), ghose ghali mu msumba wa Freetown.

Ŵakhristu ŵanandi ŵa ku Sierra Leone Mbaprotesitanti, ndipo ŵa mpingo wa Wesleyan ndiwo mbanandi comene.[118][119][120][121][122] Matchalitchi ghanyake gha Cikhristu gha Ciphwitikizi agho ghalipo comene mu caru ici ni Presbyterians, Baptists, Seventh-day Adventists Anglicans, Lutherans, na Pentecostals. Wupu wa Council of Churches ni wupu wa cisopa wa Cikhristu uwo uli na matchalitchi gha Ciphwitikizi mu Sierra Leone. Sonosono apa, matchalitchi gha Pentekoste ghakusazgikira, comenecomene mu Freetown.

Mu Seputembala 2017, muliska Wachikhristu wa ku Sierra Leone wakuchemeka Victor Ajisafe wakakakika na ŵapolisi ŵa ku Sierra Leone ndipo ŵakamujalira mu jele pamanyuma pakuti wakayowoya mazgu ghakwimikana na Chisilamu na Ŵasilamu ŵa ku Sierra Leone. Ajisafe wakwenera kuti wakakwiya comene cifukwa Mufti Menk, muliska wa cisopa ca Ciislamu wa ku Zimbabwe, wakaluta ku Sierra Leone na kupharazga ku ŵanthu ŵanandi. Magulu ghanandi gha Chikhristu mu Sierra Leone, kusazgapo Wupu wa Matchalitchi, ghakakanizga nkhani ya Ajisafe yakususkana na Chisilamu na Ŵasilamu. Boma la Sierra Leone likajara tchalitchi la Ajisafe ndipo likalekeskaso kusopa. Nkhani iyi yikapangiska kuti mu Sierra Leone muŵe masuzgo gha visopa, chifukwa ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Sierra Leone awo Mbasilamu, ŵakakhumbanga kuti Ajisafe wawelere ku Nigeria. Muliska uyu apo wakaŵa mu jele wakaphepiska ku Ŵasilamu ŵa ku Sierra Leone na ku boma la Sierra Leone. Wakati wakhala mu jele mazuŵa ghanandi, Ajisafe ŵakamufumiska, ndipo ŵakamuwezgera layisensi ya mpingo wake.

Ŵaprotesitanti awo ŵali mu visopa vinyake ndiwo mbanandi chomene mu Sierra Leone. Ŵanthu ŵanandi awo Mbakhristu ku Sierra Leone mbakatolika. Ŵakaboni ŵa Yehova na ŵa Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints ndiwo Mbakhristu ŵakumanyikwa chomene mu Sierra Leone. Mu msumba wa Freetown mukukhala Ŵakhristu ŵa Orthodox.[123][124][125][126][127][128]

Ethnic groups[lemba | kulemba source]

The distribution of major ethnic groups within Sierra Leone
Ethnic groups
of Sierra Leone
[11]
Temne 32.5%
Mende 30.2%
Fula 12.4%
Limba 4.4%
kono 3.4%
Susu 2.9%
Loko 2.9%
Koranko 2.8%
Sherbro 2.6%
Mandingo 2.4%
Krio 1.3%

Mu Sierra Leone muli mitundu pafupifupi 16 ndipo yimoza yili na chiyowoyero chake. Yikulu chomene na yakukhora chomene ni Temne, iyo yili na 35.5% ndipo Mende, iyo yili pafupi na 33.2%.

Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Temne mbasilamu, 85%; ndipo Ŵakhristu mbanandi chomene. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Mende nawo mbasilamu pafupifupi 70%, nangauli ŵali na Ŵakhristu ŵanandi chomene.[129]

Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Mende awo ŵakugomezga kuti mbana ŵa mtundu wa Mane, ndiwo ŵakakhalanga mu charu cha Liberia. Ŵakamba kwiza ku Sierra Leone mwakuzika kweniso mwamtende mu vyaka vya m'ma 1800. Ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakuti Ŵatemne ŵakafuma ku Futa Jallon, uko sono ni Guinea.

Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Limba ndiwo ŵali pa nambara yacitatu pa ŵanthu wose ŵa mu caru ici. Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Limba ŵakukhala ku Sierra Leone. Ŵanthu aŵa ŵalije mitheto yakulongora kuti ŵakafuma ku vyaru vinyake, ndipo ŵakugomezga kuti ŵakakhalanga ku Sierra Leone pambere ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵandafike. Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Limba ŵakukhala ku Northern Sierra Leone, chomenechomene ku Bombali, Kambia na Koinadugu District. Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Limba ŵalipo 60 peresenti Mbakhristu ndipo 40 peresenti Mbasilamu. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Limba ŵakukolerana comene na ŵa ku Temne.

Kufuma waka apo charu cha Sierra Leone chikapokera wanangwa wake, Ŵalimba ŵakulongozga ndyali pamoza na Ŵamende. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Limba ŵakukolerana na chipani cha All People's Congress (APC). Pulezidenti wakwamba na wachiŵiri wa Sierra Leone, Siaka Stevens na Joseph Saidu Momoh, wose ŵakaŵa ŵa fuko la Limba. Alfred Paolo Conteh, uyo wakaŵa nduna ya vya kuvikilira Sierra Leone, ni wa fuko la Limba.

Gulu linyake la ŵanthu ŵachoko chomene ni Ŵafula, awo ŵalipo 3.8%. Ŵanthu aŵa ŵali kufuma ku Fula awo ŵakakhalanga mu chigaŵa cha Fouta Djalon ku Guinea. Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Fula ŵalipo 99 peresenti awo Mbasilamu. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa mtundu wa Fula mbazamalonda, ndipo ŵanandi ŵakukhala mu nyumba za ŵanthu ŵakuzirwa. Chifukwa cha malonda ghawo, Ŵafula ŵakusangika pafupifupi mu vigaŵa vyose vya charu ichi.

Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu uwu ni Mandingo (awo ŵakuchemekaso kuti Mandinka). Iwo mbana ŵa ŵamalonda kufuma ku Guinea awo ŵakasamira ku Sierra Leone mu vyaka vya m'ma 1900.

Ŵanyake mwa ŵanthu awo ŵakukhala mu chigaŵa ichi ni Kono, awo ŵakukhala chomene mu chigaŵa cha Kono ku Sierra Leone. Ŵanyake mwa iwo ni Kono, ndipo ŵali kufuma ku Guinea.

Ŵanthu ŵachoko chomene awo ŵali mu gulu la ŵanthu ŵa ku Creole panji Krio (ŵeneawo ni ŵazga ŵa ku Africa, West Indies, na Free African Slaves awo ŵakakhalanga mu Freetown pakati pa 1787 na 1885) ŵali pa ŵanthu pafupifupi 3%.

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Sierra Leone ndiwo ŵakalongozganga chomene boma la Sierra Leone kweniso ŵanthu ŵa ku Freetown. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Creole ndiwo ŵakamba kusambizgika ku vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi.

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Oku mbana ŵa ŵanthu ŵa ku Nigeria, awo ŵakafuma ku maufumu gha ku Southwest Nigeria ndipo ŵakasamira ku Sierra Leone nga mbanthu ŵa ku Africa. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Okun ŵakukhala mu vigaŵa vya Fourah Bay, Fula Town, na Aberdeen.

Ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵa mitundu iyi ni Ŵakurankoko, awo ŵali na mbumba ya ku Mandingo ndipo ni Ŵasilamu. Ŵanthu aŵa ŵakamba kufika ku Sierra Leone kufuma ku Guinea mu 1600 ndipo ŵakakhazikika kumpoto, chomenechomene mu chigaŵa cha Koinadugu. Ŵakurankolo ni ŵalimi; ŵalongozgi pakati pawo ŵali na maudindo ghanandi mu ŵasilikari.

Loko kumpoto ni ŵanthu ŵakwambilira ŵa Sierra Leone, awo ŵakugomezga kuti ŵakakhala mu Sierra Leone kufuma nyengo ya kukumana kwa Europe. Nga ni Temne, Ŵagineya Bissau, na Guinea Conakry, awo ŵakukhala kumpoto kwa Sierra Leone. Ŵasusu na Yalunka awo ŵakukolerana nawo mbamalonda. Magulu ghose ghaŵiri ghakusangika kumpoto chomene ku Kambia na chigaŵa cha Koinadugu kufupi na mphaka na Guinea. Iwo ni Ŵasulumane wose. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Jonkeka, Jonkeka , Djissa, Djilima, panji kuti Jankeka, ŵakukhala ku chigaŵa cha kumpoto kwa Guinea. Ŵasekuru ŵa ŵanthu ŵa ku Jankeka na Jankeka ŵakukhala ku Northern Guinea.

Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Kissi ŵakukhala mu chigaŵa cha kumwera kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Sierra Leone. Ŵakufuma ku chigaŵa cha Koindu na vigaŵa vya kunthazi kwa chigaŵa cha Kailahun. Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu uwu mbanandi chomene. Ŵanthu ŵa mitundu ya Vai na Kru ŵakusangika chomene mu chigaŵa ichi.

Ku chigaŵa cha Bonthe kumwera kuli Sherbro. Ŵakufuma ku Sierra Leone, ŵakukhala pa Chirwa cha Sherbro kufuma apo chikaŵikika. Ŵakuŵa ŵalimi na ŵalovi, ndipo ŵanandi ŵakuŵako mu chigaŵa cha Bontee.

Ŵanthu ŵachoko waka ŵa ku Sierra Leone mba fuko la ku Lebanon, awo mbana ŵa ŵamalonda awo ŵakamba kwiza ku Lebanon mu vyaka vya m'ma 1900.

Gender equality[lemba | kulemba source]

Household[lemba | kulemba source]

Nangauli mu Sierra Leone ŵanakazi ndiwo ŵali na ciŵelengero ca ŵanthu pafupifupi 50 pa ŵanthu 100, kweni 28 pera pa ŵanthu 100 ŵaliwose ndiwo ŵakulongozga mbumba. Nga umo viliri mu vyaru vinyake, masambiro ngakukhumbikwa comene kuti munthu waŵe na nchito yiwemi na nyumba. Mu vigaŵa vya mizi ndimo ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakutondeka kusambira, ndipo ŵanalume pera ndiwo ŵali na masambiro ghapachanya.

Mu Sierra Leone, ŵanalume ndiwo ŵakuŵa mitu ya mbumba, ndipo ŵakuŵa ŵambura kutengwa nangauli nthengwa yawo yingasintha. Ndipouli, mbumba ya ŵanakazi yikusintha kuyana na umo nthengwa yawo yiliri. Mwanakazi wangaŵa mutu wa mbumba pekha usange waŵenge wambura kutengwa umoyo wake wose. Kweni para mwanakazi watora, wakuŵa na mazaza yayi pa nyumba. Ŵanakazi ndiwo ŵangaŵa mutu wa mbumba usange ŵafumu ŵawo ŵafwa panji ŵapatika.

Pa nkhani ya ntchito, ŵanthu ŵakukhazga kuti mbumba ndiyo yivikilirenge mbumba. Ndipouli, ŵanakazi ŵakusuzgika cifukwa ca kusankhana mitundu. Ŵanakazi ndiwo ŵakupokera malipiro ghanandi kuluska ŵanalume (15.2).[130]

War[lemba | kulemba source]

Ku Sierra Leone, ŵana awo ŵakakanizgika kurwa nkhondo ŵakusuzgika maghanoghano na maghanoghano. Ndipouli, uheni wa nkhondo na umo ŵangamazgira vikuthemba pa mtundu wa ŵana. Ŵanalume na ŵanakazi wose ŵakacitikanga nkhaza zinandi. Ŵanakazi awo ŵakacizgika comene, ŵakamba kusuzgika maghanoghano na kwenjerwa comene. Kweni ŵanalume ndiwo ŵakafipanga mtima comene na vinthu ivi. Ŵanalume nawo ŵakusuzgika chomene maghanoghano para munthu uyo wakuŵapwelelera wafwa.[131]

Female economy[lemba | kulemba source]

Ŵanakazi ŵakutambuzgika para ŵakukhumba wovwiri wa ndalama, wovwiri wa ŵanthu, na wovwiri wakukhwaskana na kakhaliro ka ŵanthu. Ntchakusuzga kugega suzgo la vyachuma mu Sierra Leone cifukwa cakuti ŵanakazi ndiwo ŵakupanga hafu ya ŵanthu wose mu caru ici. Cifukwa cakuti ŵanakazi ŵakutondeka kusambira masambiro ghapacanya, ndiwo ŵakumanya makora yayi umo ŵangapokera makalata gha bizinesi, kulembeska mazina ghawo, panji kupanga mapangano. Kuleka kuŵa na ndalama zakukwana kuti ŵambe bizinesi yiphya ni suzgo likuru comene ku ŵanakazi. Chifukwa cha kusoŵerwa kwa vinthu vya tekinoloje, comenecomene mu Sierra Leone mose, nchakusuzga kovwira bizinesi kuti yendenge makora.[51]

Education[lemba | kulemba source]

A secondary school class in Pendembu, Kailahun District

Ku Sierra Leone, dango likuti ŵana wose ŵasambirenge vyaka vinkhondi na cimoza vya pulayimale (P1-P6) na vyaka vitatu vya sekondare. Kweni chifukwa cha kusoŵa kwa masukulu na ŵasambizgi, sukulu izi zingachitika yayi. Ŵanandi awo ŵakukhala mu charu ichi ŵakumanya yayi kuŵazga na kulemba.

Nkhondo ya pawenenawene ya ku Sierra Leone yikapangiska kuti masukulu gha pulayimare 1,270 ghasakazgike, ndipo mu 2001, ŵana 67 pa ŵana 100 ŵaliwose awo ŵakaŵa ku sukulu ŵakaluta yayi ku sukulu. Kufuma waka pa nyengo iyi, vinthu vikwenda makora chomene, ndipo chiŵelengero cha ŵana ŵa sukulu ŵakwamba chikukwera kaŵiri kufuma mu 2001 m'paka mu 2005, kweniso sukulu zinandi zili kuzengekaso kufuma apo nkhondo yikamalira. Ŵana ŵa sukulu za pulayimale kanandi ŵakuŵa na vyaka vyapakati pa 6 na 12. Masukulu gha boma ghakupeleka masambiro ghapachanya kwambura kulipira.

Charu ichi chili na ma yunivesite ghatatu: Fourah Bay College, ilo likakhazikiskika mu 1827 (yunivesite yakale chomene ku West Africa), University of Makeni (iyo yikakhazikiskika mu Seputembala 2005 nga The Fatima Institute, yunivesite iyi yikapika udindo wa yunivesite mu Ogasiti 2009, ndipo yikatora zina la University of Makeni, panji UNIMAK), na Njala University, iyo yili mu chigaŵa cha Bo. Yunivesite ya Njala yikamba mu 1910 ndipo yikazgoka yunivesite mu 2005. Mu vigaŵa vinandi vya caru ici muli masukulu ghakusambizgira ŵasambizgi na masukulu gha cisopa.[132][54][54][133]

Umoyo[lemba | kulemba source]

Wupu wa CIA ukati ŵanthu ŵa ku Sierra Leone ŵakukhala vyaka 57,39.

Ŵanandi ŵakulwara nthenda ya HIV/AIDS pa charu chose, ndipo ŵali na nthenda ya 1.6%.

Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakukhala mu mizi iyo mulije ŵadokotala panji vipatala. Nangauli mu mizi yinyake ŵanthu ŵakupokera wovwiri wa munkhwala kwambura kulipiliska, kweni ŵadokotala ŵakupokera malipiro ghacoko comene ndipo nyengo zinyake ŵakulipiska ndalama.

Israyeli wakapeleka makina ghakovwira ŵanthu kuti ŵaleke kurya chomene.

Kuyana na lipoti la Overseas Development Institute, ndalama izo ŵanthu ŵakugwiliskira nchito pa umoyo ni 85.7% ya ndalama izo ŵanthu ŵakugwiliskira nchito pa umoyo.[134][135][136]

Emergency medical response[lemba | kulemba source]

Pakuti pakwamba pakaŵavya wupu wakupeleka wovwiri wa munkhwala, wupu wa First Responder Coalition of Sierra Leone (FRCSL) ukapangika mu Juni 2019 ku Makeni kuti uwovwire kuti pa charu chose paŵe maungano gha wovwiri wa munkhwala. Wose awo ŵakambiska wupu uwu ni Sierra Leone Red Cross Society (bungwe lakwamba), LFR International (uyo wakapangiska wupu uwu), University of Makeni, Agency for Rural Community Transformation, na Holy Spirit Hospital. Wupu uwu ukapangika pamoza na ungano waciŵiri na ciŵiri wa wupu wa vyaumoyo wa pa caru cose uwo ukati wovwiri wa munthazi ngwakuzirwa comene kuti ŵanthu wose ŵapone. Pakati pa Juni na Julayi 2019, FRCSL yikasambizga ŵanthu 1,000 ŵa ku Makeni kuti ŵaŵe ŵantchito ŵakwamba ndipo yikapeleka chiŵiya chakovwira chakwamba kwa waliyose uyo wakusambira.[137][138][139][139]

Endemic and infectious diseases[lemba | kulemba source]

Ku Sierra Leone kuli nthenda zinandi, nga ni yellow fever, cholera, Ebola, lassa fever, na meningitis. Ku Sierra Leone kuli nthenda ya yellow fever na maleriya.[140]

Maternal and child health[lemba | kulemba source]

Ku Sierra Leone ndiko kuli ŵana ŵanandi chomene pa charu. Pa ŵana 100 awo ŵakubabika ŵamoyo, mama yumoza wakufwa cifukwa ca masuzgo agho ghakuŵapo para wababika.

Pa kafukufuku uyo UNICEF yikachita mu 2012, ukaboni ukulongora kuti ŵanakazi 94 pa 100 ŵali mu Sierra Leone ŵakukomeka. Mu 2014, Sierra Leone yikaŵa pa nambara 11 pa vyaru ivyo vili na ŵana ŵanandi chomene ŵakufwa.

Cimoza mwa masuzgo agho ŵanakazi ŵa ku Sierra Leone ŵakukumana nagho para ŵababa kwa nyengo yitali ndiposo para ŵaleka kubaba. Kanandi ŵanakazi ŵakusuzgika cifukwa ca suzgo ili.

Chipatala cha ŵanakazi cha AWC-Aberdeen ku Freetown, ndicho chili pa chipatala chachiŵiri mu Sierra Leone, ndipo chaka chilichose chikubaba ŵana 3,000. Ŵanakazi awo ŵali na nthenda iyi ŵakuchita opareshoni kwaulere.

Wupu uwu ukupeleka wovwiri wa munkhwala wakovwira ŵanakazi na ŵana, ndipo ukuwovwirika na mawupu ghambura phindu nga ni Freedom from Fistula, The Aminata Maternal Foundation, na UNFPA.[141]

Mental health[lemba | kulemba source]

Ku Sierra Leone kulije wovwiri wa munkhwala wakovwira ŵalwari ŵa maghanoghano. Ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakulwara matenda agha ŵakuyezga kujichizga ŵekha na wovwiri wa ŵanthu awo ŵakuchizga ŵalwari. Mu nyengo ya Nkhondo ya pa Caru na Caru (1991-2002), ŵasilikari ŵanandi ŵakacitanga nkhaza ndipo ŵana ŵanandi ŵakacicizgika kurwa nkhondo. Ici cikaŵapweteka comene, ndipo ŵanthu pafupifupi 400,000 (mu 2009) ŵakaŵa na suzgo la maghanoghano. Ŵana ŵanandi awo kale ŵakaŵa ŵasilikari ŵamba kumwa minkhwala yakutimbanizga wongo kuti ŵaleke kukumbuka.[142][143]

Potable water supply[lemba | kulemba source]

Ku Sierra Leone, maji ghakukhala pachoko waka. Nangauli boma na mawupu ghanandi ghakupambanapambana ghayezgayezga kuti ŵanthu ŵafike ku malo agha, kweni vinthu vikwenda makora yayi kufuma apo nkhondo ya ku Sierra Leone yikamalira mu 2002.[144] Ŵanthu ŵakugomezga kuti chizenga chiphya ku Orugu, icho China yikagwiliskira ntchito ndalama mu 2009, chizamovwira kuti maji ghaŵe ghanandi yayi.

Kuyana na kafukufuku wa pa charu chose uyo wakachitika mu 2006, 84% ya ŵanthu ŵa mu misumba na 32% ya ŵanthu ŵa ku mizi ŵakaŵa na maji ghakumwa mu nyumba zawo. Awo ŵakasanganga maji mu vigaŵa vya kumadera gha mizi ŵakasanganga malo ghakukhala waka. 68% ya ŵanthu ŵakukhala mu vigaŵa vyakupambanapambana awo ŵakasanganga yayi maji gha pa mtunda (50%), (9%) na (9%) ŵakasanganga vyakumera vyambura kutetezgeka (9%).

Mu 2004, boma likapeleka ndondomeko ya maji gha ku malo gha ŵanthu awo ŵakukhala kuwaro kwa msumba wa Freetown.

A situation map of the Ebola outbreak as of 8 August 2014

2014 Ebola outbreak[lemba | kulemba source]

Ebola yikulopwa comene mu Africa uko kuli masuzgo gha umoyo na vyachuma.

Mu 2014, ku West Africa kukaŵa nthenda ya Ebola. Kufika pa Okutobala 19, 2014, kukaŵa ŵanthu 3,706 ŵakufwa na nthenda ya ebola ku Sierra Leone, ndipo ŵanthu 1,259 ŵakafwa, kusazgapo dokotala munyake uyo wakayezga kuwoneseska nthenda iyi, Sheik Umar Khan. Kumayambiriro kwa Ogasiti 2014, Guinea yikajara mphaka zake na Sierra Leone kuti yikhozge kuthereska nthenda iyi.[145]

Culture[lemba | kulemba source]

Polygamy[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu 2019, ŵanakazi 30% na ŵanalume 14% ŵakaŵa mu vyaru vya ŵanthu ŵanandi mu Sierra Leone. "Ŵanakazi awo ŵali na muwoli yumoza panji ŵanandi ŵakakhalira waka kuchepa, kufuma pa 37% mu 2008 na 35% mu 2013 kufika pa 30% mu 2019".[146]

Food and customs[lemba | kulemba source]

Rice farming in Rolako

Mpunga ndiwo ukalyanga chomene ku Sierra Leone ndipo ukwenera kurya pa nyengo ya chakurya chilichose.

Mu misewu ya matawuni na misumba ya ku Sierra Leone, mungaŵa vyakurya vyakupambanapambana nga ni mango ghaphya, malalanje, ananasi, mabango, ŵabango, ŵangozi, mbatata, manicure na chithuzi cha oseveni, matumba gha matumba gha popcorn panji mbatata, chingwa, mbolo, panji nyama yakotcha.

Poyo ni chakumwa chakutchuka cha ku Sierra Leone. Ni vinyo la phamuli lakutowa, ilo likunozgeka kupangika mwakupepuka, ndipo likusangika mu mabara mu matawuni na vikaya mu charu chose. Mabara gha Poyo ni malo agho ŵanthu ŵakudumbiskana mwakujumphizga vya ndyali, mpira, basketball, vyakusanguluska na nkhani zinyake.[147]

Media[lemba | kulemba source]

A radio listener in Kailahun

Mu Sierra Leone, nkhani zayamba na kupangika kwa makina ghakudindiskira ghaŵiri mu Africa kumayambiriro kwa m'ma 1900. Mu 1860s, charu ichi chikaŵa malo ghakusindikizgira nkhani ku Africa, ndipo ŵanthu ŵakwendakwenda kufuma mu vyaru vyose vya mu Africa.

Mu 1934, boma la Sierra Leone likamba kuteŵetera pa TV na TV. Mu April 2010, SLBS yikapambana na siteshoni ya United Nations peacekeeping radio station ku Sierra Leone kuti yipange Sierra Leone Broadcasting Corporation, iyo njakovwira chomene pa charu chose.

Ndondomeko ya boma ya Sierra Leone yikovwira kuti ŵanthu ŵayowoyenge makora na kusindikizga.[148][149][150][151][152][153] Ŵanthu na ŵanthu ŵanyake awo ŵakutemwa vya ndyali ŵakuwona nkhani zinyake kuŵa zakubendera.[154][155]

Mu 1980, boma likapeleka dango lakuti manyuzipepara ghose ghalembeke na Wupu wa Vyaru vya Kupharazga na kulipira ndalama zinandi zakweruzgira.

Mu 2006, Pulezidenti Ahmad Tejan Kabbah wakajipeleka kusintha malango agho ghakwendeska nkhani na vyapa media kuti ŵafumiske ndondomeko ya wanangwa wa wanthu.

Mu Sierra Leone, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakuŵazga yayi nkhani za manyuzipepara, chomenechomene za kuwaro kwa Freetown na misumba yinyake yikuru, chifukwa cha kuchepa kwa kuŵerenga na kulemba mu charu. Mu 2007 mu charu mukaŵa nyuzipepara 15 za zuŵa lililose, kweniso izo zikupharazgika sabata yiliyose.[156]

Isata Mahoi wakulongoreka kuti wakunozga mapulogiramu gha pa wayilesi mu Talking Drum studio Freetown; wakugwiraso nchito ya kuvina mu opera wa pa wayilesi ya Sierra Leone Atunda Ayenda

Rediyo ndiyo yikupharazgika comene na ŵanthu ŵanandi ku Sierra Leone, ndipo ŵanthu 85 pa 100 ŵaliwose ŵali na wayilesi ndipo 72 pa 100 ŵaliose ŵakupulikira wayilesi zuŵa lililose.[156] Malo agha ghakupambana pakati pa vigaŵa vya charu, ndipo chigaŵa cha kumanjiliro gha dazi ndicho chili na malo ghakuru chomene ndipo chigaŵa chakumpoto ni Kailahun.

United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNIOSIL) yikaŵa siteshoni yakumanyikwa chomene mu charu ichi, ndipo yikapharazganga mu viyowoyero vinandi. Mu 2008, ntchito ya UN Radio yikapangika na kujumphiskika na SLBS kuti yikhazikike na Sierra Leone Broadcasting Corporation (SLBC).

Kunja kwa likulu Freetown na misumba yikuru yinyake, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakulaŵilira yayi TV, nangauli Bo, Kenema na Makeni ŵakugwiranga ntchito na ma relay ghawo gha ntchito yikuru ya SLBC. Mu Sierra Leone muli malo ghatatu gha pa caru gha pa caru ghakusungirako ma TV gha pa caru cose, limoza ni boma la SLBC ndipo ghanyake ghaŵiri ni malo gha pa caru ca Freetown, Star TV agho ghakusungilira mwenecho wa nyuzipepara ya Standard-Times na AYV - Africa Young Voices. Malo ghanandi gha pa caru capasi ghakusungiramo ma TV ghakusungilirako ndalama. Malo ghaŵiri gha pa caru cilicose gha pa caru (ABC na AIT) ghakasungikiranga nchito yayi. Mu 2007, GTV yikayambiska uteŵeti wa kulipira pa malo gha pa charu cose nga ni gulu la TV ya ku Africa yose.

Ku Sierra Leone kulije internet kweni yikukura chomene, chomenechomene kufuma apo pakambiska ntchito za foni ya 3G/4G mu charu chose. Pali ŵapeleka maofesi ghanandi gha pa Intaneti (ISP) mu charu ichi.

Arts[lemba | kulemba source]

Vinthu vya ku Sierra Leone vikusazga maluso gha ku Africa na gha ku Western.[157][158][159]

Vyamasebero[lemba | kulemba source]

National Stadium in Freetown.

Mpira wa mpira wa Association ndi masewera otchuka kwambiri ku Sierra Leone. Ana, achinyamata ndi achikulire amawoneka kawirikawiri kusewera mpira wamisewu ku Sierra Leone . Pali mipira ya mpira wa achinyamata ndi achinyamata yomwe imakonzedwa mdziko lonselo, ndipo pali masukulu osiyanasiyana oyambira ndi apakati omwe ali ndi magulu a mpira ku Sierra Leone konse.

Gulu la mpira wa Sierra Leone, ilo likucemeka kuti Leone Stars, likwimira charu mu vyakumenyana vya pa caru cose. Likasankha yayi kuti liŵe na malo gha kuzakawonelera nkhonya za caru vya caru cose vya Africa.

Ŵanandi mwa ŵasepuka ŵa Sierra Leone National Premier League ŵakamba kuseŵera ku Europe. Ŵasepuka ŵanandi ŵa Sierra Leone ŵakumanyikwa chomene mu charu chose cha Sierra Leone ndipo ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakuŵamanya makora. Ŵasepa ŵanyake ŵa Sierra Leone mba Mohamed Kallon, Mohamed Bangura, Rodney Strasser, Kei Kamara, Ibrahim Teteh Bangura, Mustapha Dumbuya, Christian Caulker, Alhassan Bangura, Sheriff Suma, Osman Kakayaru, Mohamed Kamara, Umaru Bangura na Julius Woobay.

The Sierra Leone National Premier League ni ligi yikuru chomene ya mpira wa ku Sierra Leone ndipo yikulongozgeka na Sierra Leone Football Association. Makirabu 14 gha mu charu chose ghakumanyikwa kuti ni Sierra Leone Premier League. Makirabhu ghaŵiri ghakuru na ghakuchita makora chomene gha mpira ni East End Lions na Mighty Blackpool. East End Lion na MightyBlackpool ŵakulondezga chomene ndipo para ŵakuseŵera, sitediyamu ya mu Freetown yikuguliskika ndipo ŵanthu ŵa makirabu ghose ghaŵiri ŵakukumana pambere maseŵera ghachitike.

Ŵawukirano ŵanandi ŵa ku Sierra Leone, ŵana na ŵanthu ŵalara ŵakulondezga matchalitchi gha ku Europe, chomenechomene English Premier League, Italian Serie A, Spanish La Liga, German Bundesliga na French Ligue 1.

Gulu la cricket la Sierra Leone likuyimira Sierra Leone mu mpikisano wa cricket wa pa charu chose ndipo lili pakati pa ŵabwezi ŵaŵiri ku West Africa. Likawungana na International Cricket Council mu 2002.

Mu 2009, gulu la Sierra Leone Under-19 likaŵa lachiŵiri pa African Under-19 Championship ku Zambia, ndipo likaluta ku World Cup ya Under-19 pamoza na magulu ghanyake 9.[160] Ndipouli, gulu ili likaŵa kuti lindakwaniske kusanga vhiza vya ku Canada kuti lizakaŵepo pa mpikisano uwu, uwo ukachitikira ku Toronto.[161]

Sierra Leone ndiyo ni caru cacokwamba ca ku Africa kunjira mu International Floorball Federation.

Tourism[lemba | kulemba source]

Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakutemwa kuluta ku Freetown, Sierra Leone. Nangauli nchito iyi yikakhwaskika comene pa nyengo ya Nkhondo ya Caru na Caru, kweni yasintha comene mu vilimika vyasonosono apa. Msumba uwu uli na vinandi vyakuti ukasangire ŵalendo. Pa chilumba cha Freetown pali maboma ghanandi. Mphepete mwa nyanja ya Lumley-Aberdeen yikwenda kufuma ku Cape Sierra Leone m'paka ku Lumley. Paliso malo ghanyake agho ŵanthu ŵakutemwa chomene nga ni Mlonga Nambara 2, Laka Beach, Tokeh Beach, Bureh Beach, na Mama Beach. Ku malo ghakuvikilirako viyuni gha Tacugama Chimpanzee Sanctuary, uko kuli nkhorongo yikuru ya viyuni vya mu chigaŵa ichi, makilomita ghachoko waka kufuma pakati pa msumba wa Freetown, kuli viyuni vinandi vya viyuni ivi. Malo ghanyake agho ŵanthu ŵakutemwa kuluta ghakaŵa Freetown Cotton Tree, ilo lili ku Central Freetown, ndipo ni malo ghakuzirwa chomene pa charu chose ndipo ghakaŵa pakwamba apo msumba uwu ukapangikanga. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakutemwa kuluta ku malo gha Aberdenn-Lumley uko kuli umoyo wa usiku.[162]

Wonaniso[lemba | kulemba source]

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Vyalulemba[lemba | kulemba source]

Ukaboni[lemba | kulemba source]

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