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Guinea-Bissau

Coordinates: 12°N 15°W / 12°N 15°W / 12; -15
Kufuma Wikipedia

Charu cha Guinea-Bissau
República da Guiné-Bissau (Portuguese)
𞤘𞤭𞤲𞤫 𞤄𞤭𞤧𞤢𞥄𞤱𞤮 (Fula)
ߖߌߣߍ ߺ ߓߌߛߊߥߏ߫ (Mandinka)
Mbendela Emblem
Chiluso: 
Unidade, Luta, Progresso
"Unity, Struggle, Progress"
Nyimbo: 
Esta É a Nossa Pátria Bem Amada
"This is Our Beloved Homeland"
Makhalilo gha  Guinea-Bissau  (dark blue) – in Africa  (light blue & dark grey) – in the African Union  (light blue)
Makhalilo gha  Guinea-Bissau  (dark blue)

– in Africa  (light blue & dark grey)
– in the African Union  (light blue)

Makhalilo gha  Guinea-Bissau  (dark blue)

– in Africa  (light blue & dark grey)
– in the African Union  (light blue)

Msumba Waboma
kweneso Msumba Usani
Bissau
Chiyowoyelo chaboma Portuguese
Spoken languages
Mitundu ya Ŵanthu (2019)
Vipembezo
Mwenecharu Bissau-Guinean[1]
Guinea-Bissauan
Mtundu wa Boma Unitary semi-presidential republic
 -  President Umaro Sissoco Embaló
 -  Prime Minister Nuno Gomes Nabiam
Independence from Portugal
 -  Declared 24 September 1973 
 -  Recognized 10 September 1974 
 -  Independence 5 July 1975 
Ukulu wa Malo
 -  Malo 36,125 km2 (134th)
13,948 sq mi
 -  Maji (%) 22.4
Chiŵelengelo cha ŵanthu
 -  2023 estimate 2,078,820[2] (150th)
 -  Density 46.9/km2 (154th)
121.4/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate
 -  Total $3.8 billion[3]
 -  Per capita $1,950[3]
GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate
 -  Total $1.480 billion[3]
 -  Per capita $850[3]
Gini (2010)Negative increase 50.7[4]
high
HDI (2021)Steady 0.483[5]
low ·177th
Ndalama West African CFA franc (XOF)
Mtundu Wanyengo GMT (UTC )
Woko la galimoto right
ISO 3166 code GW
Intaneti yacharu .gw

Guinea-Bissau (/ˌɡɪni bɪˈs/ (pulikizgani machemelo) ; Portuguese: Guiné-Bissau; Mandinka: Gine-Bisawo), mwalamulo Charu cha Guinea-Bissau (Portuguese: República da Guiné-Bissau [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ ðɐ ɣiˈnɛ βiˈsaw]), ni chalo icho chili ku West Africa ndipo chili na malo ghakukwana 36,125 square kilometres (13,948 sq mi) ndipo chili na ŵanthu 2,026,778. Charu ichi chili kumpoto kwa Senegal ndipo kumwera chakumafumiro gha dazi kwake ni Guinea.[6]

Nyengo yinyake caru ca Guinea-Bissau cikaŵa cigaŵa ca ufumu wa Kaabu, kweniso cigaŵa ca Ufumu wa Mali. Vigaŵa vinyake vya ufumu uwu vikaŵako m'paka m'ma 1700, ndipo vinyake vikaŵa pasi pa muwuso wa Ŵaphwitikizi kufuma waka m'ma 1500. Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1800, charu ichi chikachemekanga kuti Portuguese Guinea.[7] Boma la Portugal likaŵa na mazaza ghacoko ndipo likaŵavya mazaza mpaka kukwambilira kwa vilimika vya m'ma 1900. Nkhondo yaumaliro ya Ŵaputukezi iyo yikachitika mu 1915, apo ŵasilikari ŵa ku Portugal ŵakathereska ŵasilikari ŵa Papel awo ŵakakhalanga ku Bissau. Ŵasilikari aŵa ŵakathereskeka na msilikari wa ku Wolof zina lake Abdul Injai.[8] Virwa vya Bissagos, ivyo vili kufupi na Guinea-Bissau, vikathereskeka mu 1936, ndipo vikawovwira kuti Portugal yiŵe na mazaza pa virwa na charu chose. Ŵakati ŵajiyimira paŵekha mu 1973, ndipo mu 1974 ŵakazomera kuti boma ili lili na wanangwa, zina lakuti Bissau likasazgikaso ku zina la caru ici kuti ŵaleke kutimbanizga zina ili na la Guinea (uyo kale wakacemekanga French Guinea). Charu cha Guinea-Bissau chili na mdauko wa masuzgo gha ndyali kufuma waka apo chikapokelera wanangwa, ndipo pali pulezidenti yumoza pera uyo wali kuteŵeterapo kwa vyaka vinkhondi. Purezidenti wamakono ndi Umaro Sissoco Embaló, yemwe adasankhidwa pa 29 December 2019.[9][10][11]

Pafupifupi ŵanthu 2 pera pa ŵanthu 100 ŵaliwose ndiwo ŵakuyowoya Ciphwitikizi, ciyowoyero ca boma, ndipo 33 pa ŵanthu 100 ŵaliwose ndiwo ŵakuyowoya Ciphwitikizi nga ni ciyowoyero caciŵiri. Ndipouli, ciyowoyero ca ku Guinea-Bissau, ico cikayowoyeka na ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal, ndico cikuyowoyeka mu caru cose ici, ndipo cikulongoraso umoza. Kafukufuku uyo wakachitika mu 2012, wakalongora kuti ŵanthu 54 pa ŵanthu 100 ŵaliwose ŵakuyowoya Chikiliyo, ndipo ŵanthu 40 pa ŵanthu 100 ŵaliwose ŵakuyowoya chiyowoyero chinyake.[12] Ŵanyake wose ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero vyakupambanapambana vya mu Africa. Charu ichi chili na ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakulondezga chisopa cha Chisilamu, Chikhristu, na visopa vinyake, nangauli palije gulu la chisopa ilo likulongozga ŵanthu ŵanandi.[13][14] Pa caru cose pa caru pali vinthu vyambura kuzirwa comene ivyo vikucitikira waliyose.

Guinea-Bissau ni membala wa wupu wa United Nations, African Union, Economic Community of West African States, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Community of Portuguese Language Countries, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, na South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, ndipo wakaŵa mu gulu ilo pasono kulije Latin Union.

Mbili

Pre-European contact

People and society

Ŵasayansi ŵakutondeka kulongosora makora umo vinthu vikaŵira ku Guinea-Bissau. Mu 1000 AD, kukaŵa ŵanthu awo ŵakasankhanga vyakurya mu cigaŵa ici, pamanyuma pa vilimika vikwi vinandi kufuma apo ŵakambukira mu vigaŵa vinyake vya mu Africa. Ŵakufukura vinthu vyakale ŵakasanga kuti ŵanthu awo ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito vyakununkhira ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito visulo.[15]

Mulimo wa ku Guinea-Bissau ukaŵa wakukhwaskana na vyaru vya ku Sudan. 18).[16] Malibwe ghanyake agho ŵakasanga ku Guinea Bissau ghakaŵa ghakuyana waka na ivyo ŵakajambura mu mapiri gha Sahara, ivyo vikaŵa na ŵakavalo na ngamila, kweniso vinthu vyakale vya golide (p. 19).

Ŵanthu aŵa ŵakafumanga mu vigaŵa vya mukati mwa caru, ndipo ŵakasuzgikanga comene na maboma gha ku Sudan. (p.19, 25) Ŵanthu ŵakwambilira awo ŵakakhalanga mu tawuni iyi ŵakaŵa ŵa fuko la Jolas, Papels, Manjaks, Balantas, Biafadas, na Bijagos. [17]Pamasinda ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Mandinka na Fulani ŵakasamira ku malo agha. 20). Ŵanthu ŵa Mandinka ŵakasamukira ku malo ghanyake mu vyaka vya m'ma 1300, chifukwa cha kuwukira na kukolerana kwa Senegambia na Ufumu wa Mali na General Tiramakhan Troare, uyo wakapangiska kuti Kaabu yiŵe chigaŵa cha Mali. Ŵanthu ŵachoko waka ŵa mtundu wa Mandinka ŵakaŵako mu cigaŵa ici mu vilimika vya m'ma 1000 C.E. [18]Ŵakaŵa ŵalovi, ŵalovi, na ŵamalonda awo ŵakasamukira ku Senegambia. Ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha ŵakazomera ndipo ŵakamba "kulondezga visambizgo vya Mandinki". 6). Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Fulani ŵakafika mu cilimika ca m'ma 1200 C.E. ndipo ŵakakhalanga na viŵeto, kweni mu vilimika vya m'ma 1400 C.E., ŵanthu ŵakasazgikira.[19]

Ŵapapel ŵakakhalanga mu chigaŵa cha Biombo, Balanta mu chigaŵa cha Oio, Manjaks mu chigaŵa cha Cacheu, Ŵamandinka ŵakakhalanga mu chigaŵa cha Bafata, Biafada mu chigaŵa cha Quinara, Ŵajagos mu chigaŵa cha Bijagos, ndipo Ŵafulani ŵakakhalanga mu chigaŵa cha Gabu, nangauli Ŵamandinka na Ŵafulani ŵakakhalanga mu chigaŵa cha Oio. (p. 23). Ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakayowoya kuti ŵanthu ŵa ku Buramos ŵakayowoyanga viyowoyero vyawo, ivyo vikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵayowoye kuti ŵanthu ŵa ku Buramos ŵakayowoyanga viyowoyero vyawo. 6).[20]

Kuyana na umo ŵanthu ŵakakhaliranga, ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Mandinka, Fula, Papel, Manjak, na Biafada ŵakaŵa na mitheto yakupambanapambana. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Balanta ŵakaŵavya ufumu uwo ukajintha pa katundu, mazaza, panji mazaza, kweni ŵakalongozgekanga na ŵalongozgi ŵa vikaya na mbumba. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Jola ŵakaŵa na mafumu, kweni ŵakaŵavya malango ghakudunjika ghakukhwaskana na mafumu. 64). Ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mu vigaŵa vyakupambanapambana ŵakalondezganga ndondomeko ya vigaŵa ivyo vikaŵa na ŵalongozgi, ndipo ŵalongozgi aŵa ŵakalondezganga fundo za mathemba. Ufumu wa Biafada ukaŵa na maufumu ghatatu agho ghakaŵa na ŵalongozgi ŵanandi. 65). Mafumu ghakaŵa na mitheto yakupambanapambana, maluso ghakupambanapambana, na vyakucitika vyakupambanapambana. 66, 67). Ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal ŵakawonanga kuti ŵanthu aŵa ŵakaŵa na ŵamazaza awo ŵakachemekanga kuti "meya", "ŵawusi", "ŵambasadara", na "ŵakaronga" (p. 68). Ŵanthu ŵakagaŵikana mu magulu gha mafumu, ŵalongozgi, ŵakuzirwa, na ŵanthu bweka (p. 73). Dango la caru likaŵa la themba ndipo dango ili likapelekekanga na themba na ŵeruzgi ŵake, ŵeruzgi awo wose ŵakafumanga ku ŵanthu ŵakuzirwa (p. 227). Ŵanthu ŵakumanyikwa ndiwo ŵakaŵa na mazaza ghakupoka ufumu, panji maudindo ghanyake ghapacanya mu ufumu. 74–76). Kweniso, ŵanthu ŵakavwaranga vyakuvwara vyamtundu unyake. Ŵakavu ŵakavwaranga minjilira ya utheka, ŵanthu ŵasambazi ŵakavwaranga vikumba vya mbuzi, mathemba na ŵanthu ŵakuzirwa ŵakavwaranga malaya na mathalauza gha thonje. Ŵakaronga na ŵanthu ŵakuzirwa ŵakavwaranga vingwe vyachisulo na mabelu kuti ŵapeleke malango. Ŵakaronga na ŵanthu ŵakuzirwa ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito ng'oma yakucemeka bombalon iyo yikagwiranga nchito pa kudumbiskana na ŵanthu. Ŵanthu ŵakawonanga kuti nyumba izo ŵakazenganga zikaŵa ziwemi kuluska izo ŵakazenganga mafumu na ŵanthu ŵakuzirwa. Pa malo agha pakaŵa mahachi gha mathemba na ŵanthu ŵakuzirwa, ndipo ŵanthu ŵakaŵagwiliskiranga nchito ng'ombe za ng'ombe kuti ŵendeskenge vinthu. 77, 78). Ŵanthu ŵa mitundu ya Mandinka, Fula, Papel, Manjaks, na Biafadas ku Guinea Bissau ŵakamba kuŵa na nyumba zawoŵene. Ndipouli, Ŵabalanta ŵakaŵa ŵakupambana cifukwa Ŵabalanta ŵakaŵa na malo ghakupambanapambana, ndipo ŵakagwiranga nchito zawo mwakugwiliskira nchito malipiro agho ŵakapokeranga cifukwa ca malo agho ŵakagwiranga nchito. Ŵanyake ŵakususkana na fundo ya Balanta, yakuti mulimo wakuzenga malo ukaŵa mu mawoko gha ŵanthu awo ŵakaŵa na ndalama zakukwana kuti ŵagwire nchito, ndipo malo ghakaŵanga nga ni malipiro yayi. (p. 75).[16]

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Balanta ŵakaŵa na luso lwa kulima, ntheura ŵanthu ŵa ku Beafada na Papels ŵakagomezganga chomene vyakurya vya ku Balanta. Kuleka kukolerana na ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe kukang'anamuranga kuti katundu wakafikanga ku ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe kwizira mu msewu wa Papel na Beafada, ndipo m'malo mwake wakafikanga ku ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe kwizira mu msewu wa Papel na Beafada. 69). Vinthu ivyo ŵakaguliskanga mu vigaŵa ivi vikaŵa vyakuti, ŵanthu ŵa ku Biafada ŵakaguliskanga chitowe na vipasi vya kola kufuma ku nkhorongo za kumwera, ŵanthu ŵa ku Papel, Felupe, na Banhun ŵakaguliskanga vipasi vya kola, visulo, na vinthu vya visulo kufuma ku nkhorongo za ku savannah, ŵanthu ŵa ku coastal ŵakaguliskanga mchere na somba zakomira, ndipo ŵanthu ŵa ku Mandinka ŵakaguliskanga salu za thonje (p. 4). Vinthu ivi ŵakaguliskanga pa misika na pa viphikiro ivyo vikachitikanga sabata yiliyose. 69). Misika yikajulikanga mulenji ndipo yikamara namise kuti yiŵengeso sabata yakulondezgapo. Ŵasilikari ŵakakanizgikanga kwenda mu misika, ndipo ŵasilikari ŵakakhalanga mu misika kuti ŵavikilire mtende. 70). Misika na viphikiro vikaŵanga na ŵanthu ŵakukwana vikwi na vikwi awo ŵakaguranga na kuguliska vinthu kufuma kutali chomene, ndipo gulu ili likayowoya kuti, vigaŵa vinyake vya msika vikagaŵikiranga vinthu vinyake padera pa vinyo ilo likaguliskikanga palipose, kweni awo ŵakaguliskanga vinyo ŵakalongosoranga waka umo misika yikagwiliranga ntchito (p.70).

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Guinea Bissau ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito comene sitima za pa maji. Cinthu cakuzirwa comene ico cingalaŵa cikagwiranga nchito, cikazunulika mu ntharika yinyake ya ku malo agha, iyo yikati: "Ndopa za mathemba na masozi gha awo ŵakuzenga cingalaŵa ni vinthu vyakupatulika, ndipo vikwenera yayi kukhwaska caru". 42–44). Vimphanyi vikaŵa vya ukuru wakupambanapambana, kufuma pa ivyo vikakwananga munthu yumoza kufika pa ivyo vikakwananga ŵanthu 60, ndipo mu chigaŵa ichi vikamanyikwanga kuti vikakwananga kwenda pa nyanja. 42, 43). Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Jolas ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito boti la munthu yumoza kuti ŵende mu minda yawo ya mpunga iyo yikazura maji, ndipo ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Bijagos ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito boti likuru kuti ŵayeghe ŵasilikari ŵawo para ŵakwenda mumphepete mwa nyanja. 42). Kuzenga maboti kukapambananga kuyana na chigaŵa icho munthu wakukhala. Mu vigaŵa vya nkhorongo, ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake ndiwo ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito maboti agha. 43). John Hawkins wa ku Britain ndiyo wakalongosora umo ŵakendeskera boti ili.

"Vinthu ivi vikapangika kufuma ku khuni limoza ndipo vikakura mamita 24 pa mamita 3. Pa gulu lililose pakaŵanga ŵanalume 20 panji 30, kweni awo ŵakendangapo ŵakaŵa munthu yumoza na ŵanthu ŵanayi awo ŵakendanga na maboti ghatali agho ghakaŵanga na malupanga ghachoko waka". (p. 42).

Ŵakapanga maboti ghakupambanapambana, ndipo ghakaŵa ghawemi chomene.

"yakupangika kufuma ku khuni likuru la thonje, ndipo yitali mamita pafupifupi 70. Ŵakapangaso viŵiya vinyake ivyo Ŵaphwitikizi ŵakavitemanga kuti falsas, ndipo para vyasinthika, viŵiya ivi vikanyamuliranga ŵanalume 24 na vilwero vyawo, kweniso ŵakayidi na viŵeto para ŵakuwerako ku vyaru vinyake". (p. 42).

Nthowa iyo Ŵabijagos ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito pakuŵaŵaja yikaŵa yakuti:

Buku linyake la m'ma 1800, likuti boti ili likendanga mu nthowa yakupambana na zinyanja za ku Sierra Leone. Ŵanthu wose awo ŵakaŵa mu boti ŵakaŵa ŵakukwera boti, ndipo ŵakakhalanga pasi mu boti, ndipo ŵakanyamukanga para ŵakukwera boti". (p. 43).[16]

Kingdom of Bissau (1300–1915)

Origins

Ufumu wa Bissau ukambika na mwana wa Themba la Quinara, uyo wakayamba kuwusa apo wakasamira ku Bissau na mudumbu wake uyo wakaŵa na nthumbo, ŵanakazi ŵake 6, na ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵa mu ufumu wa awiske. Ŵanthu ŵankhondi na ŵaŵiri ŵa mu ufumu uwu ŵakuyowoyeka kuti ŵakafuma kwa ŵadumbu ŵa Mecau na ŵawoli ŵake ŵankhondi na yumoza, awo ni Bottat, Bossuzu, Boiga, Bosafinte, Bodjukumo, Bosso, na Bossassun, ndipo ŵaumaliro aŵa ŵakufuma kwa ŵadumbu ŵa Mecau. Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Bossassun ndiwo ŵakaŵanga na mazaza pa ufumu, ndipo iwo na ŵa Bodjukumo ŵakaŵanga na mazaza pa ufumu. Ufumu wa Bissau ukaŵa na maboma ghanandi agho ghakaŵalondezganga nga ni Prabis, Antula, Safim, Quisset, Tor, na Biombo.[21]

Society

Ufumu wa ku Bissau ukaŵa na ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yakupambanapambana. 73–79). Themba la ku Bissau likaŵanga na mphumphu, ndipo likaŵanga na chimanyikwiro cha ufumu wake. 66). Para themba laŵikika pa chitengo, likaŵanga na kaluso ka kumukaka na kumutimba, pakuti themba likeneranga kumanya umo chilango chikaŵiranga pambere lindambe kulipeleka (p. 66). Ŵakaŵanga na mazaza ghakupambanapambana ndipo ŵakaŵanga na mazaza ghakupambanapambana. 364). Nyumba za mu ufumu uwu zikazengeka na dongo, ndipo madenga ghakazengeka na mahamba gha makuni agho ghakazingilizga msumba uwu, ndipo ŵanthu ŵakakhalanga mu nyumba izi ŵakaŵa ŵambura kusopa Ciuta m'paka apo Ŵayesuti ŵakafikira (p. 366).

Ŵapapi ŵa Papels ŵakasuzgikanga na ŵazga ŵa mtundu wa Bijagos awo ŵakalutanga ku Bissau kukapenja ŵazga (p. 204). Ndipouli, ŵanthu ŵa Papels ŵakaguliskanga ŵazga, ndipo ŵakalutanga ku Balantas, Biafadas, na Bijagos na wovwiri wa ŵa ku Europe na ŵa ku Lançados (p. 207).[19]

Decline

Nkhondo iyo yikaŵapo pakati pa ufumu wa Bissau na ufumu wa Portugal, yikaŵavikilira, ndipo ŵakathereska Ŵaputukezi mu 1891, 1894, na 1904. 9). Kweni mu 1915, pamanyuma pa nkhondo izo Ŵaphwitikizi ŵakarwanga kwa vyaka 30, Ŵaphwitikizi ŵakathereska Ufumu wa Bissau. Ŵakaphalirika na Teixeira Pinto, uyo wakaŵa mulongozgi wa ŵasilikari, kweniso na Abdul Injai, uyo wakaŵa mulongozgi wa nkhondo.[8]

Beafada Kingdoms

Kingdom of Guinala

Themba la ku Guinala likaŵa likuru comene, ndipo likaŵanga na ŵasilikari awo ŵakalondezganga, pamoza na ŵacenje 50 awo ŵakavwaranga vyakuvwara vyakukhora nga ni vya ng'ombe. (p. 365). Agha ghakaŵa agalu agho ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito kuti ŵawovwire ŵazga awo ŵakanjiranga mu nyumba za ŵanthu na kuŵakora. 365).

Mu nyengo ya themba ili, ŵakaŵapo ŵalongozgi 7 awo ŵakavwaranga visulo ivyo ŵakaŵapelekanga nga ntchimanyikwiro cha udindo wawo. 365). Ufumu uwu ukaŵa na mazaza pa maufumu ghanyake 6, ndipo ŵalongozgi ŵa maufumu agha ŵakakumananga mu wupu. Muwuso wa themba ukaŵa na kazembe uyo wakacemekanga kuti Pulezidenti (p. 365).

Cisopa cawo cikaŵa kusopa vikozgo. Ŵangoza ŵa mu cigaŵa ici ŵakacemekanga kuti 'Xina,' nangauli ŵanyake ŵakang'anamukira ku Chalichi la Katolika mu nyengo ya ku Europe (p. 366).

Pa nyifwa ya themba, ŵanalume 12 awo ŵakavwara malaya ghatali gha mapapindo, ŵakalondezganga ŵakwimba awo ŵakalizganga sumu za citima, ndipo ŵakapharazganga nyifwa ya themba ku ŵanthu mu misewu. 366). Ŵakavwaranga malaya ghatuŵa zuŵa lose, ndipo ŵakacitanga kalikose yayi kweni kwenda mu misewu uku ŵali na citima. Ŵabwezi, ŵabali, na ŵateŵeti ŵa fumu yakufwa ŵakakumananga kuti ŵasankhe munthu uyo wazamunjira mu malo ghake (p. 366). Thupi la themba likageziskikanga, viwangwa vyake vikawochekanga panthazi pa cikozgo, vyoto vya viwangwa vyake vikasungikanga na kuŵikika pamoza na thupi lake kwa mwezi umoza, pamanyuma pake ŵanthu wose ŵa mu maufumu ŵakizanga na mafuta gha basamu, mure, amberere, musk, na mafuta ghanyake ghakununkhira kuti ŵaghaghawotche na kusumba pafupi na chitanda (p. 366). Ŵanthu ŵakumanyikwa 6 ŵakayeghanga thupi la munthu kuti ŵakasunge uku ŵavwara salu zituŵa, ŵakalondezgana na ŵakwimba awo ŵakalondezgana na sumu zachitima, ndipo pamanyuma pake ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakayimbanga sumu zachitima panji ŵakaliranga, ndipo fumu yikalondezgana nayo pa hachi uku yikuvwara salu zituŵa (p. 366). Pafupi na dindi, pakaŵa ŵanakazi ŵake, ŵateŵeti ŵake, mahaci, na ŵanthu awo wakaŵatemwanga, awo ŵakalindiliranga kuti ŵakomeke na kusungika pamoza na iyo, kuti ŵateŵetere para ŵafwa. Ŵakafwanga para ŵakudumura minwe na malundi ghawo, ndipo ŵakaswanga viwangwa vyawo. Ŵateŵeti ŵakakhumbanga kuleka kuteŵetera themba pambere lindafwe, panji ŵakabisamanga para ŵawona kuti lizamupora yayi (p. 366).[22]

Kingdom of Biguba

Ŵanthu ŵa mu ufumu uwu ŵakakhalanga nga ni awo ŵakakhalanga mu Ufumu wa Guinala. Awo ŵakawonanga umo ufumu uwu ukendanga ŵakayowoyanga kuti para fumu yafwa, mphumphu yikakhalanga mu mawoko gha mbumba yakukhora, ndipo ivi vikapangiskanga kuti paŵe nkhondo, ndipo nkhondo zikalutiliranga mpaka apo mulwani wakukhora wakapangiskanga ŵalwani ŵake kuti ŵapulikirenge. 367).

Ŵanthu aŵa ŵakalondezganga cisopa cimoza na ca ŵanthu ŵa mu Ufumu wa Guinala (p. 367).

Ufumu wa Biguba ukaŵa na ŵalongozgi ŵachoko chomene kuluska Ufumu wa Guinala, ndipo ukaŵa na ŵalongozgi ŵanayi. 65).

Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Portugal ŵakakhalanga mu ufumu uwu. Ŵanthu aŵa ŵakaŵalayizga kuti ŵalutilirenge kuŵa ŵakugomezgeka ku ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal, ndipo ŵakalondezganga visopa vya ku malo agha, kuvwara nga mbanthu ŵa ku malo agha, na kusuzgika chomene. 366).[22]

Island States of the Bijagos

Origins

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Bijagos ŵakufuma ku chigaŵa icho kuli ŵanthu ŵa ku Biafada, ndipo ŵakafumako ku malo agho ŵakakhalanga na kuluta ku virwa ivi. Ŵanthu awo ŵakasamira ku virwa ivi ŵakaŵa ŵakupambana mitundu. 25). Cirwa cilicose cikawusikanga na mafumu agho ghakalapa kuti ghaŵenge ghakugomezgeka kwa Fumu ya Isla do Po (p. 364). Virwa vyose vikaŵa na ŵanthu padera pa Chirwa cha Bolama icho chikaŵa na ŵanthu ŵa fuko la Biafada, kweni mazaza gha Chirwa ichi ghakasintha kanandi waka (p. 7) (p. 5).[23]

Society

Ŵakaŵanga ŵatali, ŵakumanyikwa kuti ŵakaŵa na cikanga ndiposo kuti ŵakaŵa ŵankhongono. Ŵakamanyikwanga kuti ŵakamanyanga umo ŵangakwera maboti, umo ŵangakendera pa nyanja, na umo ŵangasuzgira ŵanthu mu nyanja, kweniso umo ŵangasuzgira ŵanthu pa mtunda. Ŵa Bijagos ŵakatemwanga kuwukira ngaraŵa za ku Europe izo zikendanga mu maji ghawo, kweniso awo ŵakakhumbanga kupoka caru cawo (p. 364). Ngalaŵa za Bijago zikaŵa zapadera cifukwa zikaŵa zambura kusuzga kunyamura, ntheura para ŵafika mumphepete mwa nyanja, ŵakeneranga yayi kopa kuti ŵathereskekenge.[16]

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Bijago ŵakaŵa ŵankhondo. Ŵanakazi ŵakalimanga minda, kuzenga nyumba, na kuwunjika vyakurya (p. 204). Ŵanalume ŵakagwiranga nchito ya kupanga maboti na kurwa nkhondo mu virwa, ŵakasuzganga ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mumphepete mwa nyanja nga ni Jolas, Papels, na Balantas, ndipo ŵakagomezganga kuti ŵalije themba, ntheura ŵakasuzganga virwa vinyake (p. 204). Ŵasilikari aŵa ŵakamanyikwanga kuti mbakusambira makora, ŵakwendeska ngalaŵa, na ŵasilikari, ndipo mu gulu ili ŵanakazi ndiwo ŵakasankhanga ŵafumu ŵawo, ŵakasankhanga ŵasilikari awo ŵakaŵa na lumbiri luwemi. Ŵasilikari awo ŵakathereskeka ŵakaŵa na ŵanakazi na maboti ghanandi, ndipo mwenecho wa maboti agha wakapikanga chigaŵa chimoza pa vigaŵa vitatu vya vinthu vyose ivyo vikatoreka pa nkhondo. 205).[16]

Ŵasilikari ŵakasunkhizganga thupi lawo na mafuta gha golide, makara, na dongo lituŵa, ŵakaŵikanga mapapindo mu sisi lawo, na kulizga tumabango twa mahachi pa chifuŵa chawo. Ŵasembe ŵanakazi ŵakacitanga kuphwanya ciwuvi pa cingalaŵa, ndipo ŵakalutanga ku mtunda usiku. (p. 205). Ŵakafikanga pa mphepete mwa nyanja mwaluŵiro, ŵakazingiliranga mizi ya mumphepete mwa nyanja, ŵakagoleranga moto mu nyumba, ndipo para ŵakumana na ŵalwani ŵakaŵakomanga, nangauli awo ŵakakhalanga mu mizi iyi ŵakajipelekanga (p. 205). Ŵakapharazga kuti ŵazga ŵaŵengeko mu caru ca Portugal, ndipo Lemos Coelho, uyo wakaŵa wamalonda wa ku Cape Verde, wakalongosora umo ŵazga ŵakukwana 1,000 ŵakakolelera mu maulendo 25 mu vilimika vicoko waka (p. 206). Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1600, ŵanthu ŵa ku Bijago ŵakamba kulimbana na ŵanthu ŵa ku mainland, ndipo ŵakasazgirako ŵasilikari na mabwato ghawo. 206). Maulendo agha ghakapangiska kuti fumu ya ku Guinala yitaye maufumu 6, ndipo yikachimbilira ku nkhorongo (p. 364). Ŵaputukezi ŵakasuzganga chomene ŵanthu ŵa ku Bijago chifukwa ŵakaŵachitiranga nkhaza. Ŵazga ŵakaŵanga ŵachoko chomene mu madoko, ndipo ŵakawonanga nga kuti zina lawo layuyuka. Ŵakapulikanga kuti para ŵakukoma ŵanthu, mbwenu ŵakuŵa na mtima wakujikuzga. 207).[16]

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Bijagos ndiwo ŵakaŵa ŵakuvikilirika chomene ku ŵazga, chifukwa cha chirwa chawo ŵakaŵavikilira ku ŵalwani ŵa ŵazga awo ŵakizanga kufuma ku vyaru vinyake (p. 218). Ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakaŵawonanga kuti mbazga yayi ndipo ŵakakhumbanga yayi kuŵagwiliskira nchito nga mbazga. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal ŵakuti ŵana ŵakaŵa ŵazga ŵawemi, kweni ŵanthu ŵalara ŵakaŵanga ŵazga ŵawemi yayi. Ŵazga aŵa ŵakagomezganga kuti mizimu yawo yingawelera ku Bijagos. 218, 219).[16]

Kaabu Province of Imperial Mali (1200–1537) – Kaabu Empire (1537–1865)

States in medieval Africa
Origins

Kaabu wakapangika nga ni chigaŵa cha Mali kwizira mu kuwukira kwa Senegambia na yumoza wa ŵasilikari ŵa Sundiata Keita wakuchemeka Tiramakhan Troare. Kuyana na ivyo ŵanthu ŵakayowoyanga, Tiramakhan wakaluta ku malo agha kuti wakawezgere mulandu uwo Themba la Ŵawolofu likapeleka kwa Sundiata, ivyo vikapangiska kuti Ŵawolofu ŵathereske Ŵawolofu, ndipo pamanyuma ŵakambukira ku Mlonga wa Gambia. Ivi vikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Mandinka ŵasamire ku malo agha mu vyaka vya m'ma 1200, nangauli ŵanthu ŵachoko waka ŵakakhalanga ku malo agha. Mu virimika vya m'ma 1400, cigaŵa cikuru ca Guinea Bissau cikaŵa pasi pa Mali ndipo cikalongozgekanga na Farim Kaabu (Mulongozgi wa Kaabu).

The decline of the Mali Empire in the 14th century lead to Kaabu becoming independent in the 16th century.[24] Ŵakaŵa na mazaza gha kuwusa kufuma ku ufumu wawo. Ŵakafumiskapo Farim Kaabu na kuŵikapo Kaabu Mansaba. Msumba ukuru wa ufumu uwu ukaŵa Kansala, uwo lero ni Gabu, kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Guinea Bissau mu chigaŵa cha Geba (p. 4). Ŵanthu wose ŵa mu chigaŵa ichi, kupaturako Ŵapapepel, Ŵamanjak, na Ŵabiafadas ŵakapulikiranga na kupeleka msonkho ku Ŵamansaba. 367).[22]

Society

Ufumu uwu ukaŵa na ŵasilikari ŵanandi kweniso ŵanthu ŵakakolerananga chomene kuluska Ufumu wa Mali. Ŵanthu awo ŵakalamuliranga ŵakaŵa ŵasilikari ŵakufumira ku Nyancho ( Ñaanco) awo ŵakafumira ku Tiramakhan Troare, ndipo kufuma ku matrilineal ŵakaluta ku Baleba uyo ŵakagomezganga kuti wali na nkhongono zakuzizwiska (p. 3). Mansaba wakapangika mu mzere wa anyina kwizira mwa munung'una wa Mansaba, uyo mwana wake wakaŵa wakulondezgapo (p. 3).

Ŵanchito ŵakagwiranga nchito ya kulima na kupwelelera viŵeto vyawo. Ŵanchito ŵakaŵanga na mwaŵi ukuru comene para ŵafika ku Mansaba (p. 6). Ŵanyamata ŵakendanga cifukwa ca uryezi na nkhondo pera. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakayowoyanga kuti ŵanthu aŵa ŵakaŵa ŵalongozgi ŵa pa mahachi ŵakumanya comene, mwakuti maufumu ghanyake ghakaŵapemphanga, ndipo kanandi ŵakaŵanga na maudindo ghakuru mu ŵasilikari ŵa mitundu yinyake. 369).[22]

Ŵasilikari ŵakakhumbanga kuti ŵazga ŵaguliskike mu cigaŵa ici. Ŵasilikari aŵa ŵakasambazga comene cifukwa ca malonda agho ŵakacitanga na ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe (p. 6). Pakukhumba kuti Serer na Wolof ŵaleke kunjira mu vyaru vya kumpoto, kweniso kuti ŵalutilire kudumura malonda, iwo ŵakakolerana na vyaru vya pafupi, ndipo ŵakajivikilira makora kweniso ŵakasanganga ndalama zinandi pa malonda (p. 7). Vinthu ivi vikawovwiranga kuti ŵaŵe na ntchindi, kweniso kuti ŵaŵe na vyakurya vinandi, kweniso kuti ŵaŵe paubwezi na ŵanyawo. 8). Umoyo wa ŵanthu ŵakumanyikwa ukeneranga kulutilira, ndipo apa ndipo ŵanthu bweka na ŵazga ŵakamba kuŵa ŵakovwira, ŵanthu bweka ndiwo ŵakendeskanga mahachi na kugwira ntchito zaulimi, ŵanthu bweka ndiwo ŵakalimanga, ŵanthu ŵa mawoko ŵakapanga vinthu vyakugwilira ntchito zaulimi na vyakugwilira mahachi, ndipo ŵasofi na ŵasembe awo ŵakaŵa Ŵasilamu yayi ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito vyamasalamusi na kuwukwa. 8).

Maufumu agha ghakaŵa gha Ŵamandinka, chiyowoyero chawo chikaŵa cha Ŵamandinka, mabungwe gha ŵanthu ghakaŵa gha Ŵamandinka, mabungwe gha ndyali ghakaŵa gha Ŵamandinka, ndipo mitheto yawo yikaŵa ya Ŵamandinka. 11). 'Mandinkization' yikaŵa yikuru mu ufumu, ŵanthu ŵa mafuko ghanyake ŵakamba kuŵa Mandinka, ndipo nthengwa za pakati pa Mandinka na mafuko ghanyake zikawovwira kuti ivi vichitike. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe na ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakakhalanga mu chigaŵa ichi ŵakamba kuŵa 'Mandinkized' m'paka pa fundo yinyake. 12). Kuyana na umo vinthu vikaŵiranga mu caru, kuŵa paubwezi na munthu munyake kukaŵa kwakukhumbikwa comene. Ŵanthu ŵakumanyikwa ŵakamanyikwanga na ŵanyawo kwambura kupwelerako mtundu wawo, Soninke uyo wakacitanga Soninkeya ndiyo wakamanyikwanga na ŵanthu aŵa, Soninke wakang'anamuranga ŵanthu awo ŵakagomezganga kuti vyamoyo vili na umoyo mu cigaŵa ico, ndipo mazgu agha ghakaŵagwiranga pamoza ŵanthu ŵakumanyikwa aŵa kwambura kupwelerako za uko ŵakafuma panji uko ŵakakhalanga (p. 12). Cisopa cawo cikaŵa kusopa mathabwa na malibwe ndipo nyengo zose ŵakayowoyeskananga na ŵakuloska, wasembe mukuru wakakhalanga mu msumba ukuru wa ufumu (p. 368). Kaabu ndiyo yikaŵa ufumu wankhongono comene wa ku Western Mandinka panyengo iyo Mali yikawa (p. 13).

Ŵanthu ŵakaŵanga na maluso ghakupambanapambana, nga ni kulima vyakurya, kulera viŵeto, kuŵa ŵamalonda ŵa ŵanthu ŵakuzirwa, panji kuŵa ŵasilikari awo ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito minthondwe kuti ŵawovwire ŵasilikari ŵankhongono (p. 15). Awo ŵakaŵavya mwaŵi wa kugwiliskira nchito maluso ghawo ŵakaŵa pa ngozi, ndipo kukolerana na ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe, ku North Africa, panji ku makhoti gha ku Africa uko kukaŵa kutali, kukaŵa pafupi kumara (p. 15).

Kweniso, ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Kaabu ŵakamba kugwiliskira nchito malonda gha ku Guinea Bissau na kumpoto kwa Africa mu vyaka vya m'ma 1400, ndipo ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe mu vyaka vya m'ma 1500. 3). Vinthu ivyo Kaabu wakaguliskanga ku Guinea Bissau vikaŵanga vya ndalama zinandi (p. 4). Ŵazga ndiwo ŵakaŵapangiskanga ndalama zinandi, ndipo malipoti ghakulongora kuti mu vyaka vya pakati pa 1600 na 1700, ŵazga 700 ŵakafumanga mu chigaŵa ichi chaka chilichose, ntheura mu vyaka 100 ŵazga 70,000 ŵakafumanga mu chigaŵa ichi, ndipo Kaabu ndiyo wakawovwiranga chomene pa mulimo uwu. 5) Ŵaarabu (Ŵanthu ŵa ku North Africa) na ŵamalonda awo ŵakakhalanga kufupi na malo agha, ŵakamanyikwanga kuti ŵakaguliskanga golide mu chigaŵa ichi. 367).[22]

Decline

Pamanyuma pa vilimika 800 vya kuwusa na vilimika 47 vya Mansa, ufumu ukamba kuchepa cifukwa ca vinthu vinandi, kusazgapo nkhondo ya pa caru cose. Mu virimika vya m'ma 18 na 19 maufumu gha Ŵasilamu ghakazingilizga caru ca Ŵapagani ici, ndipo ivi vikapangiska kuti ŵa Imamate ŵa ku Futa Jallon ŵapharazge vya Jihad, na wovwiri wa ŵalongozgi ŵa Ŵasilamu ŵa Soninke na Mandinka. Futa Jallon wakakhozgeka na Ŵafula awo ŵakakhumbanga kuti ŵajiyimire paŵekha. 5, 6). Maufumu ghaŵiri agha ghakalimbana kwa vyaka vinandi ndipo Kaabu wakathereska ŵasilikari ŵa Imamate kwa nyengo yitali. Ŵasilikari ŵa Imamate ŵakalutilira kulimbana na ŵasilikari ŵa Berekolong m'paka m'ma 1860, apo ŵakathereskeka pa Berekolong. Nkhondo iyi yikapangiska kuti paŵe nkhondo yaumaliro pakati pa Imamate na Kaabu mu 1867 iyo yikachemeka Nkhondo ya Kansala, ŵasilikari awo ŵakalongozgekanga na General Alfa Molo Balde ŵakazingilizga viliŵa vya dongo vya Kansala kwa mazuŵa 11.[24] Gulu la ŵasilikari ŵa Fulani likaŵa na ŵasilikari 35,000 na ŵasilikari ŵakwenda pa mahachi 12,000. Ŵanthu ŵakayowoyanga kuti munthu munyake wa mtundu wa Timbo wakaphalira ŵasilikari ŵa mtundu wa Fulani kuti para ŵangamba kulaska mbwenu ŵathereskekenge, ndipo munthu munyake wa mtundu wa Jakhanke wakaphalira ŵa mtundu wa Nyancho kuti para ŵangamba kulaska mbwenu ŵathereskekenge. Ŵandu ŵa ku Nyancho ŵakakwiya cifukwa cakuti ŵasilikari ŵa Fula ŵakaŵa kuwaro kwa viliŵa vyawo, ndipo ŵakawona kuti nchakusuzga kuti ŵaleke kuwukira. Ŵandu ŵa ku Mandinka ŵakakanizga ŵanthu ŵa ku Fulani kukwera viliŵa kwa nyengo yicoko waka, kweni viliŵa vikaŵa pasi pawo. Mansaba Dianke Walli wakati wawona kuti watherenge, wakapeleka mwaŵi kwa Imamate kuti wathereske nkhondo, ndipo wakalangura ŵasilikari ŵake kuti ŵawotche msumba na moto, ŵakakoma ŵanthu awo ŵakavikiliranga msumba pamoza na ŵasilikari ŵa Imamate. Kutayika kwa Kansala kukaŵa umaliro wa Kaabu, pamoza na kuwusa kwa Mandinka mu chigaŵa ichi na kuŵikika mu Imamate ya Futa Jallon (p. 3). Vyaru vya Mandinka vikalutilira kukhala mu chigaŵa ichi mpaka apo vikagaŵikana na Ufumu wa Portugal (p. 7).[25]

European contact

15th–16th centuries

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakamba kuwona charu cha Guinea-Bissau cha m'ma 1400, ndipo ŵanandi mwa ŵanthu aŵa ŵakaŵa ŵa ku Portugal. Mu 1455, Alvise Cadamosto wa ku Venice, Diogo Gomes wa ku Portugal, Duarte Pacheco Pareira wa ku Portugal, na Eustache de la Fosse wa ku Flanders. 7, 12, 13, 16). Kweniso malo agha ghakazunulikaso mu mabuku gha Gomes Eanes de Zurara mu vyaka vya m'ma 1450, Valentim Fernandes mu vyaka vya m'ma 1500, na Jerome Münzer mu vyaka vya m'ma 1500. (pp. 4, 9, 15).

Chigaŵa ichi kufuma waka mu 1550 chikamanyikwanga na Ŵaphwitikizi kuti "The Guinea of Cape Verde", ndipo msumba ukuru wa chigaŵa ichi ukaŵa ku Santiago (p. 138). Kweniso, ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakakhalanga ku Guinea-Bissau pa nyengo iyi ŵakaŵa ŵazungu ŵa ku Cape Verde. 139). Ŵamalonda ŵa ku Europe na ŵa ku Africa ŵakamba mu 1440 (p. 151).[16]

Boma la Portugal likakanizganga ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa ŵazungu kuti ŵambe kukhazikika mu virwa vya ku mtunda, kweni ŵanthu ŵa mtundu uwu ŵakaŵachiskanga kuti ŵambe kukhazikika mu virwa ivi. Ŵalongozgi ŵa tchalitchi la Lançado ŵakakana kupulikira mazgu agha (p. 140). Tangomão ŵakaŵa ŵamalonda ŵacisungu awo ŵakakolerana na mitheto na mitheto ya ŵanthu ŵa mu caru ici, ndipo ŵakayowoyanga za ŵamalonda ŵacisungu awo ŵakaŵa ŵacisulo. 141). Ŵanthu awo ŵakakolerananga na ŵa Lançado ni ŵa 'Grumete' awo ŵakaŵanga na ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha, awo pakwamba ŵakaŵa ŵazga ŵa ŵakwendeska ngalaŵa, kweni pamanyuma ŵakamba kuŵa ŵantchito ŵa ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha. Ŵanyake ŵakaŵa ŵazga, ŵanyake ŵakaŵa ŵantchito, ndipo ŵanyake ŵakaŵa ŵabali ŵa ŵamalonda ŵa ku Europe. Grumetes wakalutilira kuŵa mu gulu la ŵanthu ŵa ku Lançados (p. 151). Ŵanandi mwa ŵamalonda aŵa ŵakafumanga ku vyaru vikavu, ndipo ŵanyake ŵakafumanga ku Cape Verde, ku Portugal. Ŵamalonda ŵanyake ŵakaŵa Ŵayuda na Ŵakhristu ŵaphya chifukwa cha kutinkhana na Ŵayuda ku Iberia. 148, 150). Ŵalara ŵa boma la Portugal ŵakasuzga ŵanthu ŵa ku Lançado chifukwa chakuti ŵakasulako malango agho ghakaŵakanizganga kunjira mu chigaŵa kwambura kuzomerezgeka na themba, ŵakaguliskanga katundu kwambura kuzomerezgeka na boma, ŵakagwiliskiranga ntchito ngalaŵa izo zikaŵa mu madoko ghakuzomerezgeka pera, ŵalongozgi ŵa ngalaŵa ndiwo ŵakaŵanga na udindo wa awo ŵakagwiliskiranga ntchito ngalaŵa zawo, ndipo ŵanthu ŵa mu chigaŵa chilichose ŵakakanizgikanga kuchezga na ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha (p. 142). Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1500, caru ca Portugal cikamba kulimbana na suzgo la ŵanthu ŵakucemeka Lançado. Malango ghakapelekeka kuti ghacepeskeko mwaŵi wa kugwiliskirika nchito panji kucita malonda ghambura kuzomerezgeka. Malango agha ghakaŵa ghambura kovwira ndipo ghakatondeska yayi malonda ghambura kuzomerezgeka agho ghakacitikanga ku China (p. 144). Mu 1520, ŵasilikari ŵakamba kulimbana na ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Lançado, ndipo malonda ghakalutilira ndipo ŵanthu ŵakamba kuzenga misasa ku malo ghanyake. 145). Vifukwa ivyo ŵakachepeskera vinthu ivi vikaŵa vya cisopa na vya malonda, ndipo mu vyaka vya m'ma 1500, pakaŵavya malango ghaheni agho ghakapelekeka ku ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Lançado (p. 145, 146). Ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga ku malo agha ŵakasazgikiranga ndipo cikaŵa ciwemi kuti ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakhalenge pamoza na ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe aŵa ŵakaŵa ŵa ku Portugal, kweni ku malo agha kukaŵaso ŵanthu ŵa ku Spain, Genoa, England, France, na Netherlands. 150).

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Lançado ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito ŵazga ndipo ŵakaŵa pakati pa ŵamalonda ŵa ku Europe na ŵamalonda ŵa ku Africa. Ŵamalonda aŵa ŵakendanga mu maboti ghachokoghachoko kuti ŵagulire vyakurya ku Europe. Pakuti maji ndigho ghakaŵanga nthowa yikuru ya kwendera, ŵanthu ŵa ku Lançado na ŵa ku malo agha ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito maboti ghacoko kuti ŵende mu milonga iyi. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Spain ŵakaguranga maboti kufuma ku vyaru vya ku Europe, ndipo kanandi ŵakazenganga ŵekha. Ku malo ghakupambanapambana ghakusungirako maji, kukaŵanga malo ghakusungirako katundu, ndipo ghanyake ghakaŵanga gha ku Cape Verde. Malo agho ghakaŵa kutali comene na milonga iyi, ghakaŵa na malo ghakuguliskirako vyakurya ivyo vikafumanga mu vigaŵa vya ku mizi (pp. 153–157). Ŵanthu ŵakakhalanga mu vikaya ivi, ndipo ŵakasankha malo ghawemi ghakuti ŵakakhalengemo. Ŵanthu ŵa mu muzi wa Lançado ŵakakondweskanga ŵanthu ŵa mu Africa. Ŵakapharazganga ku vigaŵa vya Bissau, Cacheu, Guinala, na ku malo uko kukachitikiranga malonda. Ŵakapharazganga ku vigaŵa ivyo kukachitikiranga malonda. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Mande awo ŵakakhalanga mu vigaŵa vya mukati mwa caru ŵakapelekanga vinthu vyakupambanapambana, nga ni gamu, mino gha zovu, vikumba, viswaswa, utoto, ŵazga, na golide, ivyo ŵanthu ŵa ku Lançados ŵakendanga navyo mu vigaŵa vya mukati mwa caru, na kuvitolera ku mphepete mwa nyanja kuti vipelekeke ku ŵanthu ŵa mu vyaru vinyake (pp. 158–160). Boma la Lançados likawovwira kuti kuŵe malonda pakati pa vigaŵa vyakupambanapambana vya Upper Guinea, ndipo malonda ghakamba kufuma ku Gambia na kuluta ku Guinea-Bissau kukafika ku Cape Mount. 162, 163).[16]

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakazomerezgekanga yayi mu vikaya vyose. Ŵazungu, Ŵabalanta, na Ŵabijaga ŵakamba kuŵatinkha.[16]

"Usange mukutemwa yayi kukhala kuno, mbwenu panji mungatemwa kukhala ku Balantas panji ku Bijagos".[16]

Ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake mu cigaŵa ici ŵakaŵa paubwezi na ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe, ndipo magulu ghose ghakaŵa na ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Lançados. Lançados ŵakadumbiskananga na ŵanthu ŵakumanyikwa chomene mu vigaŵa ivi, ndipo munthu waliyose uyo wakaguliskanga vinthu ku Europe mu charu cha themba la ku malo agha wakeneranga kupeleka msonkho (p. 164, 165). Kweniso, Lançados wakeneranga kulondezga malango na mitheto ya uko wakakhalanga, kweniso makhoti gha uko wakakhalanga. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Lançado ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito mitheto ya ku malo agha kuti ŵajiwovwire, ndipo ŵakakhumbanga kuti ŵanthu ŵacitenge vilapo na kupangana vinthu mwakuyana na umo ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha ŵakacitiranga kuti ŵaŵe na cigomezgo cose (pp. 172, 173). Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1500, ŵanthu ŵa ku Lançado ŵakamba kukayikira kuti ŵakukhumba kulondezga mitheto ya ku malo agha, ndipo ŵakamba kususkana na ŵanthu ŵanyake. Mu 1580 ŵakaleka kukhala ku Buguendo, pafupi na Cacheu, ndipo mu 1583 ŵakaleka kukhala ku Guinala na Cacheu. Themba Chapala wa ku Cacheu ndiyo wakazenga linga ili mu 1589 (pp. 175–177).[16]

Vinthu ivi vikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵa ku Papels, Manjaks, na Biafadas ŵaleke kutemwana na ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal. 177, 178). Mu 1591, ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal ŵakamba kulimbana na ŵanthu ŵa ku mainland. Ŵanalume ŵa mtundu wa Manjaks ŵa ku Cacheu ŵakanjira mu msumba wa Cacheu, kweni ŵakatondeka. Ivi vikapambananga na ivyo Ŵapwitikizi ŵakacita mu 1583. Ŵakapeleka ndalama zinandi ku ŵazga na vinthu vinyake. 179, 180). Ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha ŵakawelera ku malo ghawo kuti ŵajivikilire ku ŵalwani, kweniso kuti ŵaleke kulondezga malango na mitheto ya ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha. Cifukwa cakuti pakaŵavya ŵanthu ŵakukwana, cikaŵa cakusuzga kuti ŵasilikari ŵa Cacheu na Guinala ŵakhalenge mu misasa, ntheura ŵakeneranga kulondezga malango na mitheto ya ku malo agha. Ŵakaŵachimbizga yayi cifukwa katundu uyo ŵakizanga nayo wakakhumbikwanga comene ku ŵanthu ŵakumanyikwa. 180–184).[16]

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal ŵakalutilira kulimbana na ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Lançados, awo ŵakasuzgikanga yayi nga umo vikaŵira kukwambilira kwa vyaka vya m'ma 1500. 242). Mu 1580 cifukwa ca kukolerana na ŵasilikari ŵa Iberia, caru ca Guinea Bissau na Cape Verde vikathereskeka na ŵalwani ŵa Spain. Ŵadokotala ŵa ku France, Netherlands, na England ŵakamba kulimbana na Ŵaphwitikizi, ndipo malonda ghakalutilira pakati pa ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe na ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha. Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1500, ŵanthu ŵa ku Lançado ŵakamba kwenda malonda na ŵanthu ŵa ku England, France, na Dutch, chomenechomene ku Cacheu, uko ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal ŵakaguliskanga vinthu. 244–253).[16]

17th–18th centuries

Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1500, Upper Guinea wakagaŵika pa vigaŵa viŵiri: 'Sierra Leone' na 'Rivers of Guinea' ndipo cigaŵa ca Guinea Bissau cikaŵa mu vigaŵa viŵiri ivi. Mu 1637, phangano la Cape Verde-Guinea likaŵa na vigaŵa vitatu ivyo vikulongosora umo boma la chigaŵa ichi likachitiranga vinthu. Vinthu ivi vikaŵa vyakuti: kufuma ku Santiago, pa vyaka vinayi, ngaraŵa 12 zikeneranga kutumizgika ku nyanja, kukanizgika kuguliska vinthu vinyake ku ŵanthu ŵa mu chigaŵa ichi (Padera pa vilwero), kweniso kukanizgika kuguliska ŵazga ku charu cha Guinea, kweniso kukanizgika kuguliska ŵazga ku charu cha Guinea. 243, 244). Kuzirwa kwa msumba wa Santiago kukalongoreka mu vyaka vya m'ma 1600. Mu 1608 na 1615 ŵanthu ŵa ku Cape Verde ŵakapempha boma kuti likhazikiske dango la Santiago, kweni likaŵavya ntchito. Mu 1619 boma la Portugal likazomerezga dango lakwamba lakuti maboti ghakwenera kujumpha mu msumba wa Santiago. Mu 1640, ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal ŵakamba kulimbana na ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe mu chigaŵa cha Cape Verde-Guinea Bissau. Boma la Portugal likeneranga kuwezgerapo mazaza agho likaŵa nagho mu chigaŵa ichi, agho ghakaŵa kuti ghaphyokapo pa nyengo ya wupu wa Iberia (pp. 254–261).[16]

Collapse of the Iberian Union (1640)

Vinthu vikuru-vikuru ivyo Ŵaphwitikizi ŵakachitanga pamanyuma pa kudumulika kwa vyaru vya Iberia mu 1640 vikaŵa vya ku Bissau na Cacheu (p. 260). Charu cha Portugal chikamba kulimbana na Spain, ndipo Themba João IV likadumura kuti Cape Verde-Guinea Bissau yileke kuguliskana na Spain, ndipo ngalaŵa za ku Spain zikeneranga kuluta ku Portugal, ndipo ngalaŵa za ku Spain zikakanizgika kunjira mu madoko. Vinthu ivyo Ŵapwitikizi ŵakaŵika pa ngalaŵa za ku Spain vikaŵa vyakwamba kuti ŵambiske nkhondo na ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha na ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Lançado. Kwambira mu 1580 m'paka 1640, ŵanthu ŵa ku Spain ndiwo ŵakendeskanga malonda mu chigaŵa ichi, ntheura malango gha Ŵaphwitikizi ghakususkana na Spain ghakaŵakhwaska ŵanthu ŵa mu chigaŵa ichi na awo ŵakakolerananga na Spain. 261, 262).[16]

Mu 1641, ŵanthu ŵa ku Bissau, Guinala, Geba, na Cacheu ŵakapangana kuti ŵaŵenge ŵakugomezgeka kwa Themba la Portugal ndipo ŵakadandawura kuti Ŵasipanishi ŵakukana kuguliska vinthu chifukwa cha dango ilo likakanizganga ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mu vyaru ivi kuguliska vyakurya. Ŵakaŵaso na citima cifukwa ca njara iyo yikaŵako pakati pa 1639 na 1641 iyo yikaŵa cifukwa ca kulira kwa zombe. Mu 1641, ŵasilikari ŵa ku Spain ŵakambaso malonda gha ku Spain, ndipo ŵasilikari ŵa ku Lançados na Manjak ŵakakondwa nawo. Ŵanjak, awo ŵakalongozganga dowoko la Cacheu, ŵakawonanga katundu wa ku Europe kuti ni vinthu vyakukhumbikwa. Ŵanjak ŵakawofya ŵazungu awo ŵakakhalanga ku Cacheu kuti ŵaŵakomenge usange Captain-Major Luis de Magalhães waleka kuzomerezga malonda (p. 263). Ku malo gha Cacheu kukaŵavya maji ghakukwana, ndipo ivi vikapangiska kuti ŵa Manjak ŵaŵike dango lakuti ŵaleke kupeleka maji ku ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha. Kweniso, mu 1639 na 1641, njara yikakoma ŵazga awo ŵakavikiliranga malo agha. [16]Ŵazga ŵa Manjak ŵakazingilizga madoko para ŵawona ngalaŵa kuti ŵaguliske, ndipo ivi vikapangiska kuti Captain-Major Luis de Magalhães wamazge dango ili. Boma la Spain likalutilira kukanizga ŵanthu ŵa ku Spain, Bissau, Geba, na Cacheu kuti ŵaleke kuguliskana malonda, kweni ŵalongozgi ŵa ku Lançados, Manjak, Papel, na Biafada ŵakaŵawovwira. 263–265).[16]

Wupu uwo ukawungananga ku Ultramarino ndiwo ukasankha munthu uyo wakeneranga kuŵa Captain-Major, ndipo mu 1641, Luis de Magalhães wakafumapo pa udindo wake, ndipo wakasinthika na Gonçalo de Gamboa de Ayala, ndipo Paulo Barradas da Silva wakimikika kuŵa musungichuma. Ŵakapangiska kuti msumba wa Cacheu uŵe wa malibwe kuti uŵavikilire ku Ŵazungu na ku ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha. Ayala wakathereska Themba la Mata, Mulongozgi wa Mompatas, Mulongozgi wa Baorilla, na kumazga ngalaŵa za Spain pa Cacheu. Ŵakapangana na themba Equendé wa ku Bissau kuti ŵambe kudumbiskana vya mtende. Ŵakati ŵanjira mu Bissau, ŵakasanga kuti ngalaŵa ziŵiri za ku Spain zikuŵavikilira. Suzgo linyake likaŵa lakuti ŵanthu ŵa ku Lançados ŵakeneranga kuŵa na mazaza pa malo agha. Wakaŵawovwira kuti ŵasame ku malo ghakupambanapambana, nga ni ku Geba na ku Farim kumpoto kwa Cacheu. 266–271). [16]Nangauli Ŵangelezi, Ŵafalansa, na Ŵacidachi ŵakayezgayezga kuti ŵaŵe na mazaza ghose mu cigaŵa ici, kweni ŵakalutilira kusanga candulo na ŵamalonda ŵa ku Portugal na ŵa ku malo agha (p. 277). Boma la Portugal likaŵa lakusuzga kupangana na ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal kuti ŵaŵe na wanangwa wakucita malonda, cifukwa vinthu ivyo ŵakakhumbanga vikaŵa vyakukolerana yayi na ivyo Ŵaputukezi ŵakakhumbanga.[16]

Slave trade

Wuzga wa ŵazga mu cigaŵa ici ukaŵa wakuzirwa comene yayi nga umo ukaŵira mu vigaŵa vinyake; kweni, cigaŵa ca Guinea-Bissau cikaŵa cakuzirwa comene pa malonda gha ŵazga mu vyaru vya ku Atlantic (p. 186). Pakwamba ŵazga ŵakatumizgikanga comene ku Cape Verde na ku Iberia, ndipo ku Madeira na Canary Islands kukaŵanga ŵazga ŵachoko waka ŵa ku Bissau. 187). Kufuma mu 1580 m'paka mu 1640, ŵazga ŵa ku Guinea-Bissau ŵakaluta ku vyaru vya ku Spain (p. 278). Pakaŵa nthowa zikuruzikuru zinkhondi izo ŵazga ŵakacitikiranga, nga ni cilango cifukwa ca kuswa dango, kujiguliska panji kuguliska ŵabali ŵawo mu nyengo ya njara, kukomeka na ŵanthu ŵa ku Spain panji ku Europe, uyo kale wakaŵa muzga wakuguliskika ku Ŵazungu na fumu yake, panji kuŵa muzga wa nkhondo (pp. 198, 199, 210, 211, 216). Ŵazga ŵa ku Europe ŵakaguliskikanga viŵi yayi, ndipo kanandi ŵazga ŵakaguranga ku ŵalongozgi panji ŵamalonda ŵa ku malo agha. 199, 200).[16]

Ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yakupambanapambana ndiwo ŵakaguliskanga ŵazga, ndipo nkhondo zikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵaguliskike. 204). Ŵa Bijagos nawo ŵakacitanga nthena, ndipo ŵakambanga kuwukira ŵanthu kuti ŵatore ŵazga. Ŵazga ŵa Bijagos ŵakaŵa ŵa mtundu wa Biafadas, Papels, Jolas, na Balantas. 204). Ŵazga ŵa Papels ŵakaluta ku Balantas, Biafadas, na Bijagos na wovwiri wa Lançados (p. 209). Ŵanthu ŵa ku Mandinka ŵakaŵa na mazaza ghakuru pa nkhani ya ndyali na nkhondo mu chigaŵa ichi, ndipo mu ufumu wa Kaabu, ŵazga ŵakambanga kuwukira ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mumphepete mwa nyanja (pp. 219–221). Ŵa Biafada ŵakasuskika cifukwa ca unandi wa ŵanthu awo ŵakaguliskikanga ku Europe, ndipo magulu gha ŵazengezgani ghakaŵacimanga kuti ndiwo ŵakambiska wuzga. 217). Ŵabalantas na Ŵajola ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito ŵazga yayi ndipo ŵakaŵatinkhanga (p. 208, 217). Ŵazga ŵa mtundu wa Mandinka awo ŵakafuma ku Gambia ŵakaluta kumwera na kukakora ŵazga ŵa mtundu wa Jolas. 208). Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Bijagos ŵakaŵa kutali comene na caru, ndipo cifukwa cakuti ŵakaŵa ŵankhaza, ŵakakhumbanga kujikoma, ŵakacitanga viwawa pa sitima, kweniso ŵakatemwanga kucimbira ku minda, ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakaŵatemwanga yayi nga mbazga. 218). Nkhondo za mafuko ghakupambanapambana zikacitikanga cifukwa ca kupindana kwa vyaru panji kupindana pa ndyali yayi, ndipo ni viŵi yayi kuti zikacitikanga cifukwa ca kutinkhana (p. 208). Nkhondo izi zikacitikanga cifukwa ca kukhumba vinthu vya ku Europe, ndipo ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakawonanga nkhondo izi nga ni kwiba na kupenja ŵanthu. 209). Ŵazga ŵakamba kupoka ŵazga kuti ŵasangirepo phindu. Mu 1600, themba la ku Bissau likamba kupoka ŵazga. (p. 210).

Ŵazga ŵakaguliskikanga na kugaŵikana mu magulu. Ŵazga ŵakaguliskikanga na ŵanthu ŵa mu magulu ghapasi.

"Ŵasambazi na ŵankhongono ŵali na mwaŵi wa kupoka ŵazga, cifukwa palije uyo wangaŵasuska. Iwo (ŵakaronga) ŵakutinkha ŵanthu ŵanandi, ndipo para ŵakukhumba kucita nthena, ŵakugwiliskira nchito mwaŵi wawo mwambura kusuzga, cifukwa ŵeneko ŵakukhwaskika yayi na uryezi wawo. Themba nalo likucita mwakuyana waka". (p. 228).

Usange ŵanthu ŵakuzirwa awo ŵakakoleka ŵakaŵa ŵakunozgeka kufwatulika, pakuti awo ŵakaŵakora ŵakapokeranga ndalama, nanga ni ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Bijagos ŵakaŵanga ŵakunozgeka kuwuwezga ŵanthu ŵakuzirwa awo ŵakakoleka na kupokera ndalama, ndipo kaluso aka kakalutilira m'paka kuumaliro wa vyaka vya m'ma 1700, apo ŵanthu ŵakuzirwa awo ŵakakoleka ŵakasuturikanga para ŵapokera ndalama. 229). Ŵazga awo ŵakacimbiranga ku wuzga ŵakasambizgikaso na Ŵazungu. Para ŵazga ŵakomeka, ŵakaŵafwaturanga para ŵamanyikwa kuti mbanthu ŵakuzirwa. 230). Ŵafumu na ŵamalonda ŵa ku Europe ŵakakolerananga pakucita malonda, ndipo nyengo zose ŵakakolerananga umo malonda agha ghacitikirenge, uyo waŵenge muzga na uyo waleke kuŵa muzga, ndiposo mitengo ya ŵazga. 230, 233, 234). Fernão Guerreiro na Mateo de Anguiano ŵakati ŵafumba mafumu ghanandi pa nkhani ya kuguliska ŵazga, ŵakamanya kuti kuguliska ŵazga kukaŵa uheni, kweni ŵakaghanaghananga kuti ŵakachitanga nthena cifukwa cakuti Ŵazungu ŵakaguliskanga vinthu vinyake yayi. 234). Ndipo ŵakalutilira kucita malonda agha mpaka mu vilimika vya m'ma 1800, apo ŵakamalizga.[16]

Summary

Comparison of Africa in the years 1880 and 1913

Nyengo yinyake caru ca Guinea-Bissau cikaŵa cigaŵa ca ufumu wa Kaabu, uwo ukaŵa cigaŵa ca Ufumu wa Mali mu vilimika vya m'ma 1500. Vigaŵa vinyake vya ufumu uwu vikalutilira kuwusa m'paka m'ma 1700. Cigaŵa cinyake ca caru ici cikaŵa ca Ŵaphwitikizi. Charu cha Portuguese Guinea chikamanyikwanga na zina lakuti Slave Coast, cifukwa ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakaguliskanga ŵazga ŵa ku Africa kuluta ku vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi.[26][27]

Mabuku ghakwambilira ghakulongosora kuti ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakafika mu chigaŵa ichi, ghakuyowoya za ulendo wa Alvise Cadamosto wa ku Venice mu 1455, ulendo wa Eustache de la Fosse wa ku Flanders na Diogo Cão mu 1479-1480. M'ma 1480, munthu wa ku Portugal uyu wakafika ku Mlonga wa Congo na ku vyaru vya Bakongo, ndipo wakayala vipasi vya Angola, mtunda wa makilomita pafupifupi 4200 kufuma ku Guinea-Bissau.[28]

Flag of the Portuguese Company of Guinea

Nangauli mu vyaka vya m'ma 1500 ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal ŵakamba kukhala mu malo agha chifukwa cha malonda, kweni ŵakamba kupenjerezga malo agha mu vyaka vya m'ma 1800. Ŵalongozgi ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakakhalanga mu caru ca Guinea, awo ŵanji mwa iwo ŵakasambazga comene cifukwa ca kuguliska ŵazga, ndiwo ŵakendeskanga malonda agha ndipo ŵakazomerezganga yayi kuti Ŵazungu ŵanjire mu caru ici. Ŵakaŵasunganga mu mizi ya mumphepete mwa nyanja, uko ŵakacitiranga malonda. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakalimbana na ŵamalonda ŵa ŵazga nawo ŵakagomezganga yayi ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe awo ŵakizanga ku malo agha. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal awo ŵakakhalanga ku Guinea, ŵakagwiranga waka nchito mu dowoko la Bissau na Cacheu. Ŵanthu ŵachoko waka ŵa ku Europe ŵakamba kukhala pa malo ghakupambanapambana mu milonga ya ku Bissau.

Kwa kanyengo kacoko waka mu vilimika vya m'ma 1790, Ŵabritish ŵakayezga kukhazikika pa cirwa cinyake ku Bolama. Kweni mu vyaka vya m'ma 1800, Ŵaphwitikizi ŵakaŵa ŵakukhora mu msumba wa Bissau ndipo ŵakawonanga nyanja iyo yikaŵa kufupi na iwo kuŵa chigaŵa chawo.[27]

Portuguese Colonial War in Portuguese Guinea, 1968

Mu 1956, ŵasilikari ŵa chipani cha African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC), icho chikaŵa pasi pa Amílcar Cabral, ŵakamba kuwukira charu cha Portugal. Mwakupambana na ŵasilikari ŵanyake mu vigaŵa vinyake vya Portugal, gulu la PAIGC likamba kuwusa vigaŵa vinandi vya caru ici mwaluŵiro, cifukwa ca malo agho ghakaŵa nga ni nkhorongo, kweniso cifukwa ca vigaŵa ivyo vikaŵa pafupi na mphaka na vyaru vinyake, kweniso cifukwa ca unandi wa vilwero vyakufuma ku Cuba, China, Soviet Union, na vyaru vinyake vya mu Africa. Kweniso, caru ca Cuba cikapangana kuti ciŵapenge ŵasilikari, ŵadokotala, na ŵantchito. Gulu la PAIGC likaŵa na vilwero vyakupambanapambana vyakulwera ndege kuti lijivikilire. Kufika mu 1973, gulu la PAIGC likaŵa na mazaza pa vigaŵa vinandi vya ku Guinea, kweni mu Janyuwale 1973, gulu ili likathera apo Cabral wakakomeka.[29]

Independence (1973)

PAIGC forces raise the flag of Guinea-Bissau in 1974.

Charu ichi chikapika wanangwa pa 24 Seputembala 1973, ndipo sono chikukondwelera zuŵa ili nga ni zuŵa la wanangwa. Kuzomerezgeka kwa boma la Portugal kukaŵako pa caru cose pa 25 Epulero 1974 cifukwa ca kuwukira kwa ŵasilikari ku Portugal, uko kukawuskapo boma la Estado Novo la ku Lisbon. Boma la Romania la Nicolae Ceaușescu likaŵa lakwamba kuzomerezga kuti Guinea-Bissau njumoza wa vyaru ivyo vikacita phangano na chipani cha African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde.[30][31]

Pa nyengo yeneyiyo, sumu ya fuko la Guinea-Bissau yikacemekanga Esta É a Nossa Pátria Bem Amada, ndipo yikacemekangaso Cântico da Liberdade.

Luís Cabral, munung'una wa Amílcar na uyo wakambiska PAIGC, wakasankhika kuŵa pulezidenti wa Guinea-Bissau.[27] Mulimo wa kujiyimira pawekha ukayamba na ŵanthu ŵawemi comene. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Bissau na Guinea ŵakawelera ku caru cawo. Ndondomeko yakuti waliyose wasambirenge sukulu yikapangika. Mabuku ghakaŵanga ghawanangwa, ndipo sukulu zikawonekanga kuti zili na ŵasambizgi ŵanandi. Masambiro gha ŵasungwana, agho kale ghakaŵa kuti ghakumanyikwa yayi, ghakaciskika, ndipo kalendala ya sukulu iyo yikaŵa yakukolerana na malo gha ku mizi yikapelekeka. Mu 1980, cuma cikamba kunangika comene, ndipo ŵanthu ŵakakondwa yayi na boma ilo likaŵapo. Pa Novembala 14, 1980, João Bernardo Vieira, uyo wakamanyikwanga kuti "Nino Vieira", wakathereska Pulezidenti Luís Cabral. Ndondomeko ya boma yikalekeka kugwira nchito, ndipo ŵakakhazikiska wupu wa ŵasilikari 9, uwo ukalongozgekanga na Vieira. Kufuma nyengo iyo, caru ici camba kuŵa na cuma cakulongozgeka na boma. Kucepeskako ndalama kwacitika cifukwa ca vinthu ivyo vikucitika pa umoyo wa ŵanthu na masambiro.

M'paka mu 1984 caru cikaŵa mu mawoko gha ŵandyali. Mu 1994, kukacitika masankho ghakwamba gha vipani vinandi. Mu Meyi 1998, ŵasilikari ŵakagaluka ndipo ivi vikapangiska kuti kuŵe nkhondo mu caru ca Guinea-Bissau, ndipo mu Juni 1999 pulezidenti wakathereskeka. Mu 2000, kukaŵaso visora ndipo Kumba Ialá ndiyo wakasankhika kuŵa pulezidenti.

Mu Seputembala 2003, ŵasilikari ŵakawukira boma. Ŵasilikari ŵakamukora Ialá na kumupa mulandu wakuti "wakutondeka kumazga masuzgo". Mu Malici 2004, pamanyuma pa kucedwa kwa nyengo zinandi, kukacitika visankho vya nduna za boma. Mu Okutobala 2004, ŵasilikari ŵakagalukira boma pa nkhani ya malipiro agho likapeleka yayi, ndipo ŵakakoma mulongozgi wa ŵasilikari.[32]

From Vieira years to present

Mu Juni 2005, kukacitika mavoti ghakwamba kufuma apo Ialá wakathereskeka. Ialá wakaweleraso nga ni nduna ya chipani cha PRS, ndipo wakati iyo ndiyo ni mulongozgi wa chalo, kweni chisankho chikathereskeka na Joao Bernardo Vieira, uyo wakathereskeka mu 1999. Vieira wakathereska Malam Bacai Sanhá mu visankho vya ku chigaŵa chachiŵiri. Sanhá pakwamba wakakananga kuti wakanizgike, ndipo wakati vinthu vyaupusikizgi vikacitika mu vigaŵa viŵiri, kusazgapo msumba wa Bissau.

Nangauli pali malipoti ghakuti ŵasilikari ŵakanjizga vilwero mu caru pambere ŵandatoreke, kweniso kuti pakaŵa masuzgo ghanyake pa nyengo ya kampeni, kusazgapo kuwukira maofesi gha boma na ŵanthu ŵambura kumanyikwa awo ŵakaŵa na vilwero, kweni ŵalonda ŵa ku vyaru vinyake ŵakayowoya kuti mu 2005 vinthu vikaŵa makora.

Pakati pajumpha vilimika vitatu, gulu la PAIGC likaŵa na mazaza ghakukwana 67, ndipo likapoka vigaŵa 100 pa visankho ivyo vikacitika mu Novembala 2008. Mu Novembala 2008, nyumba ya Pulezidenti Vieira yikatoleka na ŵasilikari, awo ŵakakoma mulinda, kweni pulezidenti wakakhwaskika.

Kweni pa 2 March 2009, Vieira wakakomeka na gulu la ŵasilikari awo ŵakakhumbanga kuwezgera nyifwa ya mulongozgi wa Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Batista Tagme Na Wai, uyo wakakomeka pa bomba zuŵa lakulondezgapo. Nyifwa ya Vieira yikapangiska kuti paŵe vivulupi vinandi yayi, kweni pakaŵa vimanyikwiro vya vivulupi mu caru, mwakuyana na wupu wakuvikilira wanangwa wa ŵanthu wa Swisspeace. Ŵalongozgi ŵa ŵasilikari mu caru ici ŵakacita phangano lakuti ŵacindikenge dango la malango la umo munthu wangaŵira na mazaza. Wapampando wa National Assembly Raimundo Pereira wakasoleka kuŵa wapampando wa kanyengo mpaka pa chisankho cha pa chalo pa 28 June 2009. Malam Bacai Sanhá wa chipani cha PAIGC ndiyo wakathereska Kumba Ialá uyo wakakhumbanga kuti waŵe pulezidenti wa chipani cha PRS.[33]

Guinea-Bissau President Umaro Sissoco Embaló with Russian President Vladimir Putin in Moscow, Russia, 25 October 2022

Pa 9 Janyuwale 2012, Pulezidenti Sanhá wakafwa na matenda gha shuga, ndipo Pereira wakasoleka kuŵa pulezidenti wa kanyengo kachoko. Pa usiku wa pa 12 April 2012, ŵasilikari ŵa mu caru ici ŵakacitapo kanthu ndipo ŵakakora pulezidenti wa kanyengo na munthu munyake uyo wakakhumbanga kuti waŵe pulezidenti. Mkulu wa boma wakale, General Mamadu Ture Kuruma, adalamulira dzikoli munthawi yosinthira ndipo adayamba kukambirana ndi zipani zotsutsa.[34][35]

José Mário Vaz wakaŵa pulezidenti wa ku Guinea-Bissau kufuma mu 2014 mpaka mu 2019. Wakati wamalizga uteŵeti wake, Vaz wakaŵa pulezidenti wakwamba kusankhika kuti wamalizge uteŵeti wake wa vilimika vinkhondi. Komabe, adataya chisankho cha 2019 kwa Umaro Sissoco Embaló, yemwe adayamba kugwira ntchito mu February 2020. Embaló ndiyo wakaŵa pulezidenti wakwamba kusankhika kwambura wovwiri wa PAIGC.[36][37]

Pa 1 February 2022, pakaŵa chiyezgo cha kupoka boma kuti wapoke Pulezidenti Umaro Sissoco Embaló..[38][39][40] Pa 2 February 2022, wayilesi ya boma yikapharazga kuti ŵanthu ŵanayi awo ŵakakomeka na ŵalinda ŵaŵiri ŵa pulezidenti ŵakomeka. Wupu wa African Union na ECOWAS wose ŵakasuska ivyo vikacitika. Pakati pajumpha mazuŵa 6 kufuma apo boma likakhumbanga kupoka boma, pa 7 Febuluwale 2022, nyumba ya Rádio Capital FM, iyo yikayuyuranga boma la Bissau-Guinea, yikapokeka. Aka kakaŵa kaŵiri kuti nyumba ya wayilesi iyi yikomeke mu vyaka viŵiri pera. Mulembi munyake wa nyuzipepara ya TV iyi wakayowoya kuti munyake uyo ŵakagwiranga nayo nchito wakamanya kuti limoza mwa magalimoto agho ghakaŵa na ŵanthu ŵara likaŵa la pulezidenti.[41]

Ndale

The Presidential Palace of Guinea-Bissau
Public Order Police officer during a parade in Guinea-Bissau

Charu cha Guinea-Bissau ni repubulika. Mu nyengo yakale, boma likaŵa na mazaza ghakuru. Boma la vyaru vyakupambanapambana likamba mu 1991. Pulezidenti ndiyo ni mulongozgi wa boma ndipo nduna yikuru ndiyo ni mulongozgi wa boma. Kufumira pa wanangwa mu 1974, mpaka apo Jose Mario Vaz wakamalizgira vyaka vinkhondi vya kuwusa kwake pa 24 June 2019, palije mulongozgi uyo wakakhalako vyaka vinkhondi vyose.[36]

Pa wupu wa malango, wupu wa Asembleia Nacional Popular (National People's Assembly) uwo uli na nyumba yimoza uli na mamembara 100. Ŵakusankhika na ŵanthu kufuma mu vigaŵa vyakupambanapambana kuti ŵakateŵetere kwa vilimika vinayi. Ŵeruzgi ŵakwimikika na pulezidenti ndipo ŵakucita ivyo pulezidenti wakhumba.

Vipani viŵiri vikuruvikuru vya ndyali ni PAIGC (African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde) na PRS (Party for Social Renewal). Pali vipani vyakujumpha 20 ivyo vikupambana maghanoghano.[42]

Foreign relations

Charu cha Guinea-Bissau ndicho chikambiska vyaru ivyo vikuyowoya Chiphwitikizi (Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP)), icho chikuchemekaso Lusophone Commonwealth, ndipo ni wupu wa vyaru ivyo vikuyowoya Chiphwitikizi.[43]

Military

Kuyana na kafukufuku uyo wakacitika mu 2019, ŵasilikari ŵa ku Guinea-Bissau ŵalipo pafupifupi 4,400 ndipo ndalama izo ŵakupeleka pa nkhondo ni pacoko waka pa 2% ya GDP.

Mu 2018, charu cha Guinea-Bissau chikasayinira phangano la UN lakukanizga kugwiliskira ntchito vilwero vya nyukiliya.[44]

Administrative divisions

A clickable map of Guinea-Bissau exhibiting its eight regions and one autonomous sector.Bafatá RegionBiombo RegionBiombo RegionBissau RegionBissau RegionBolama RegionCacheu RegionGabú RegionOio RegionQuinara RegionQuinara RegionTombali Region
A clickable map of Guinea-Bissau exhibiting its eight regions and one autonomous sector.

Charu cha Guinea-Bissau chili kugaŵika mu vigaŵa 8 (regiões) na chigaŵa chimoza (sector autónomo). Maofesi agha ghali kugaŵika mu vigaŵa 37. Vigaŵa ivi ni ivi:[45]

  1. Autonomous sector.

Makhalilo gha charu

Rare salt water Hippopotamuses in Orango Island
Caravela, Bissagos Islands
Typical scenery in Guinea-Bissau

Charu cha Guinea-Bissau chili kumpoto kwa Senegal, kumwera na kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Guinea, ndipo kumanjiliro gha dazi kwake kuli Nyanja ya Atlantic. Charu ichi chili pakati pa 11° na 13° kumpoto (chinyake chili kumwera kwa 11°), ndipo chapakati pa 11° na 15° kumanjiliro gha dazi.[46]

Charu ichi chili na malo ghakukwana 36,125 square kilometres (13,948 sq mi), ndipo ntchikuru kuluska Taiwan na Belgium. Malo ghapachanya chomene ni Monte Torin, agho ghakaŵa pa mtunda wa mamita 262. Charu ichi chili na malo ghakuthambalara, ndipo malo agha ghakukolerana na makuni gha mangrove agho ghali ku Guinea. Nyengo ya vula iyo yikuŵa nga ni nyengo ya vula yikupambana na nyengo ya cimphepo cakofya ico cikufuma ku Sahara. Virwa vya Bijagos vili kutali na caru. Charu ichi chili na vigaŵa viŵiri: nkhorongo ya ku Guinea na nkhorongo ya ku Guinea.[47]

Climate

Charu cha Guinea-Bissau chikupya chaka chose, ndipo nyengo yikutenthemera pachokopachoko. Chiwerengero cha mvula ku Bissau ndi 2,024 mm (79.7 in), ngakhale kuti izi zimawerengedwa pafupifupi nyengo yamvula yomwe imagwa pakati pa June ndi September / October. Kufumira mu Disembala mpaka Epulero, mu caru ici mukuŵa cikhutu.[48]

Environmental problems

Masuzgo ghakuru gha malo ghakutowa ghakuŵa kudumulika kwa makuni, kunangika kwa dongo, kuliskika kwa viŵeto, na kukoma somba mwakutalulira. Guinea-Bissau wakaŵa na nkhorongo ya 5.7 pa nkhorongo 10 pa nkhorongo ya 2019.[49]

Wildlife

Chuma

A proportional representation of Guinea-Bissau exports, 2019
Seat of the Central Bank of Guinea-Bissau
Petrol station in São Domingos

Pa caru cose, caru ca Guinea-Bissau nchimoza mwa vyaru ivyo vili na ndalama zicoko comene pa caru cose, ndipo ciŵerengero ca ŵanthu awo ŵakukhala mu caru ici nchimoza mwa vyaru ivyo vili na ndalama zicoko comene. Ŵanthu ŵakujumpha vigaŵa viŵiri pa vigaŵa vitatu vya caru ici mbakavu comene. Chuma cha charu ichi chikuthemba chomene ulimi. Vyakurya ivyo ŵakuguliska ni somba, mtedza wa cashew, na mtedza wa groundnut.[50]

Kwa nyengo yitali vinthu vikwenda makora yayi pa ndyali ndipo ivi vyapangiska kuti vinthu vileke kwenda makora pa nkhani ya ndalama, umoyo wa ŵanthu uhenipe, kweniso kuti vinthu vileke kwenda makora pa nkhani ya ndalama. Ku Guinea-Bissau, pakutora nyengo yitali kuti munthu walembeske bizinesi yake (233 mazuŵa panji pafupifupi masabata 33).

Chalo cha Guinea-Bissau chamba kulongora umo chuma chikuyendera, pamanyuma pakuti vyaru vikuru-vikuru vya mu charu ichi vyasazga phangano la umo vinthu viŵirenge, ivyo vyapangiska kuti paŵe ndondomeko ya kusintha vinthu mu charu ichi iyo yikukhozgeka na wupu wa IMF.[51]

After several years of economic downturn and political instability, in 1997, Guinea-Bissau entered the CFA franc monetary system, bringing about some internal monetary stability.[52] Nkhondo ya pa caru cose iyo yikacitika mu 1998 na 1999, na kuwukira kwa ŵasilikari mu Seputembala 2003, vikapangiska kuti vinthu viheni vicitike mu caru. Vinthu ivi vikapangiska kuti vinthu viheni vicitike mu caru, ndipo ukavu ukalutilira. Pamanyuma pa visankho vya pa wupu wa malango mu Malichi 2004 na vya pulezidenti mu Julayi 2005, caru ici cikulutilira kusuzgika na vinthu vyambura urunji.

Kwambira mu 2005, ŵamalonda ŵa munkhwala wakuzweteska wongo ŵa ku Latin America ŵakamba kugwiliskira nchito caru ca Guinea-Bissau, pamoza na vyaru vinyake vya ku West Africa, kuti ŵaguliske cocaine ku Europe. Mulara wa wupu wa United Nations wakayowoya kuti caru ici cili pangozi ya kuzgoka "cigaŵa cakupanga munkhwala wakuzweteska wongo". Boma na ŵasilikari ŵakucita vinandi yayi kuti ŵalekeske malonda gha minkhwala yakutimbanizga wongo, agho ghakafika paheni comene pamasinda pa kuwukira mu 2012. Mwakuyana na magazini ya The Week, boma la Guinea-Bissau likulutilira kusuzgika cifukwa ca kuguliska munkhwala wa kokeni. Guinea-Bissau ndi membala wa Organisation for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA).[53][54][55][56][57][58]

Ukhalilo

Demographics

Population Guinea-Bissau 1950–2020
(Left) Guinea-Bissau's population between 1950 and 2020. (Right) Guinea-Bissau's population pyramid, 2005. In 2010, 41.3% of Guinea-Bissau's population were aged under 15.[59]

Kuyana na umo vinthu viliri pa caru cose, ŵanthu ŵa ku Guinea-Bissau ŵalipo 2,060,721 mu 2021, ndipo mu 1950 ŵakaŵa 518,000. Chiŵelengero cha ŵanthu ŵa vyaka vyambura kukwana 15 mu 2010 chikaŵa 41.3%, 55.4% ŵakaŵa ŵa vyaka vyapakati pa 15 na 65, ndipo 3.3% ŵakaŵa ŵa vyaka 65 panji kujumphirapo.[59]

Ethnic groups

Ethnic groups in Guinea-Bissau[60]
Ethnic groups percent
Fula
28.5%
Balanta
22.5%
Mandinka
14.7%
Papel
9.1%
Manjaca
8.3%
Beafada
3.5%
Mancanha
3.1%
Bijagós [pt]
2.1%
Felupe [pt]
1.7%
Mansoanca
1.4%
Balanta Mane
1%
Nalu
0.9%
Saracule
0.5%
Sosso
0.4%
Not Stated
2.2%
Guinea-Bissau present-day settlement pattern of the ethnic groups

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Guinea-Bissau ŵali na mitundu yakupambanapambana, ŵali na viyowoyero vyakupambanapambana, mitheto yakupambana, na kakhaliro kakupambana.

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Bissau-Guinea ŵangagaŵika mu mitundu iyi:[61]

  • Fula and the Mandinka-speaking people, who constitute the largest portion of the population and are concentrated in the north and northeast;[61]
  • Balanta and Papel people, who live in the southern coastal regions;[61] and
  • Manjaco na Mancanha, awo ŵakukhala pakati pa nyanja na kumpoto kwake.[61]

Most of the remainder are mestiços of mixed Portuguese and African descent.[62][63]

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal mbacoko comene pa ŵanthu ŵa ku Bissau-Guinea. Guinea-Bissau yikati yajiyimira payekha, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Portugal ŵakafumamo mu charu ichi. Mu caru ici muli ŵanthu ŵachoko waka ŵa ku China. Ŵanyake mwa ŵanthu aŵa ŵakaŵa ŵa ku Portugal na Canton, ndipo ŵakakhalanga ku Macau.[62]

Major cities

Main cities in Guinea-Bissau include:[64]

Rank City Population
2015 estimate Region
1 Bissau 492,004 Bissau
2 Gabú 48,670 Gabú
3 Bafatá 37,985 Bafatá
4 Bissorã 29,468 Oio
5 Bolama 16,216 Bolama
6 Cacheu 14,320 Cacheu
7 Bubaque 12,922 Bolama
8 Catió 11,498 Tombali
9 Mansôa 9,198 Oio
10 Buba 8,993 Quinara

Languages

Languages in Guinea-Bissau[60]
Languages percent
Portuguese Creole
90.4%
Portuguese
32.1%
Fula
16.0%
Balanta
14.0%
French
7.1%
Mandinka
7.0%
Manjak
5.0%
Papel
3.0%
English
2.9%
Felupe
1.0%
Spanish
0.5%
Russian
0.1%
Other
1.8%
Voter education posters in Kriol for Guinea-Bissau legislative election, 2008, Biombo Region

Nangauli ni caru cicoko, kweni ku Guinea-Bissau kuli ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yakupambanapambana, ndipo ŵali na mitheto na viyowoyero vyawo. Vili nthena cifukwa cakuti mu caru ca Guinea-Bissau muli ŵanthu ŵakucimbira kwawo na awo ŵakusamukira ku vyaru vinyake. Ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yakupambanapambana ŵakamba kuyowoya Ciphwitikizi na ciyowoyero ca ku Portugal ico cikucemeka Kriol panji crioulo.[65]

Ciphwitikizi cikayowoyekanga comene nga ni ciyowoyero caciŵiri, kweni ŵanthu ŵacoko waka ndiwo ŵakuyowoya, ndipo kanandi ŵanthu ŵavinjeru na ŵandyali ndiwo ŵakuyowoya. Cikaŵa ciyowoyero ca boma na ciyowoyero cakupharazgira ŵanthu ŵa mu vyaru vinyake, ico cikafuma ku muwuso wa ŵanthu ŵa ku Spain. Masambiro gha ku pulayimale na gha ku sekondare ghakusambizgika mu Ciphwitikizi, nangauli ŵana 67% pera ndiwo ŵakusambira. Vimanyikwiro vikulongora kuti ŵanthu awo ŵakuyowoya Ciphwitikizi ŵalipo pafupifupi 11 panji 15 peresenti.[62] Kuyana na kafukufuku uyo wakachitika mu 2009, ŵanthu 27.1% awo ŵakakhalanga mu msumba uwu ŵakayowoya Chiphwitikizi icho chikaŵa cha chiyowoyero chawo yayi.[66] Ŵanthu 44 pa ŵanthu 100 ŵaliwose ŵakuyowoya Ciphwitikizi. Ciyowoyero ici cikulutilira kupharazgika ndipo ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakucimanya. Ndipouli, viyowoyero ivi vikupambana na viyowoyero vinyake chifukwa vikupambana na viyowoyero vinyake vya ku Portugal. Ku Guinea-Bissau kuli ciyowoyero ico cikuyowoyeka na ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal.

Ŵanthu awo ŵakukhala ku mizi ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero vyakupambanapambana vya mu Africa ivyo vikuyowoyeka na ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yakupambanapambana: Fula (16%), Balanta (14%), Mandinka (7%), Manjak (5%), Papel (3%), Felupe (1%), Beafada (0.7%), Bijagó (0.3%), na Nalu (0.1%), izo ni viyowoyero ivyo ŵanthu ŵa mu Africa ŵakuyowoya. Ŵanandi awo ŵakuyowoya Ciphwitikizi na Cisemesi ŵakuyowoyaso ciyowoyero cinyake ca ku Africa na ciyowoyero ca Kriol. Viyowoyero vya mu Africa vikugongowa yayi nanga vingaŵa kuti ni viwemi waka. Viyowoyero ivi vikovwira kuti ŵanthu ŵa viyowoyero vyakupambanapambana ŵakolerane, ndipo vikuyowoyeka mu vikaya, ku ŵabwezi na ŵazengezgani, pa viphikiro na pa visopa, kweniso mu misumba na ku mizi. Ndipouli, pa viyowoyero vyose ivi, palije ico cikuyowoyeka comene mu Guinea-Bissau.

Ŵanthu ŵanandi ku Guinea-Bissau ŵakuyowoya Chifurenchi. Charu cha Guinea-Bissau chili na wanangwa wose wakuyowoya Chifurenchi.[67]

Chisopo

Religion in Guinea-Bissau (CIA, 2020 est.)[68]
Religion Percent
Islam
46.1%
Folk religions
30.6%
Christianity
18.9%
Other/unaffiliated
4.4%

Kafukufuku wakulongora kuti pa ŵanthu wose awo ŵakukhala mu Guinea-Bissau, hafu ni Ŵasilamu, ndipo ŵanyake ŵakulondezga visopa vinyake panji Chikhristu. Kuyana na ivyo CIA World Factbook yikayowoya, ŵanthu 46.1% ŵakaŵa Ŵasilamu, 30.6% ŵakaŵa ŵa visopa vinyake, 18.9% ŵakaŵa Ŵakhristu, ndipo 4.4% ŵakaŵa ŵa visopa vinyake. Mu 2010, kafukufuku wa Pew Research wakalongora kuti ŵanthu 45.1% ŵakaŵa ŵa chisopa cha Chisilamu ndipo 19.7% ŵakaŵa ŵa Chikhristu, 30.9% ŵakaŵa ŵa chisopa cha ŵanthu na 4.3 ŵakaŵa ŵa visopa vinyake.[14][69]Kafukufuku wa Pew-Templeton wa mu 2015 wakalongora kuti ŵanthu 45.1% ŵakaŵa Ŵasilamu, 30.9% ŵakaŵa ŵa visopa vinyake, 19.7% ŵakaŵa Ŵakhristu, ndipo 4.3% ŵakaŵa ŵa visopa vinyake yayi. ARDA yikayowoya kuti mu 2020 Ŵasilamu ŵazamuŵa 44.7%. Kweniso likati ŵanthu 41.2 pa ŵanthu 100 ŵaliwose ŵakasopanga ŵa mitundu yinyake ndipo 13 pa ŵanthu 100 ŵaliwose ŵakaŵa Ŵakhristu.[70]

Men in Islamic garb, Bafatá, Guinea-Bissau

Pa nkhani ya cisopa ca Ŵasilamu, lipoti la wupu wa Pew likati mu caru ca Guinea-Bissau mulije cisopa cakupambanapambana. Charu cha Guinea-Bissau chikapika ntchindi izi pamoza na vyaru vinyake vya kumwera kwa Sahara nga ni Tanzania, Uganda, Liberia, Nigeria, na Cameroon. Kafukufuku wa Pew uyu wakalongoraso kuti vyaru ivyo vikulongosora kuti vilije vimanyikwiro vya visopa vikusangika comene mu vyaru vya kumwera kwa Sahara. Lipoti linyake la Pew, la mutu wakuti The Future of World Religions, likayowoyerathu kuti kwambira mu 2010 m'paka mu 2050, Ŵasilamu ŵazamusazgikira ku Guinea-Bissau.

Ŵanandi awo ŵakukhala ku malo agha ŵali mu visopa vya Chisilamu na Chikhristu, ndipo ŵakulondezga visambizgo vya mu Afrika.[71][72] Ŵasilamu ŵakukhala kumpoto na kumafumiro gha dazi, ndipo Ŵakhristu ŵakukhala kumwera na mumphepete mwa nyanja. Chalichi la Katolika ndilo likuyowoya kuti ndilo lili na Ŵakristu ŵanandi.

Lipoti la Dipatimenti ya Vyamalango ya ku United States la mu 2021 pa nkhani ya wanangwa wa visopa likuyowoya kuti ŵalongozgi ŵa visopa vyakupambanapambana ŵakugomezga kuti visopa ivi vikukolerana, kweni ŵakwenjerwa na kusazgikira kwa chisopa chautesi mu charu ichi. Mu Julayi 2022, tchalitchi la Katolika mu chigaŵa cha Gabú, icho ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakaŵa Ŵasilamu, likabwangandulika, ndipo ivi vikapangiska kuti Ŵakhristu ŵambe kufipa mtima kuti Ŵasilamu ŵanjirenge mu charu ichi. Ndipouli, pakaŵavya vinthu vyanthena ivi ivyo vikacitika, ndipo pakaŵavya vinthu vyakuti vikukolerana na Ŵasilamu ŵankhaza.[73]

Health

Masambiro

Universidade Lusófona of Bissau (up). Students at Biblioteca Jovem, Bairro da Ajuda, in Guinea-Bissau. (down)

Ŵana ŵa vyaka 7 mpaka 13 ŵakwenera kusambira.[74] Ŵana awo ŵali na vyaka vyapakati pa vitatu na vinkhondi na chimoza ŵakusambizgika yayi sukulu. Pali vigaŵa vinkhondi vya masambiro: masambiro gha ku pulayimale, masambiro gha pulayimale, masambiro gha pa sekondare, masambiro gha pa sekondare, masambiro gha pa yunivesite na masambiro ghapachanya. Maphunziro oyambira akusinthidwa, ndipo tsopano amapanga gawo limodzi, lokhala ndi zaka zisanu ndi chimodzi za maphunziro. Masambiro gha sekondale ghakusangika mu vigaŵa vinandi, ndipo pali vigaŵa viŵiri (vigaŵa 7 m'paka 9 na vigaŵa 10 m'paka 11). Maphunziro a ntchito mu mabungwe a boma sagwira ntchito, komabe sukulu zapadera zatsegulidwa, kuphatikizapo Centro de Formação São João Bosco (kuyambira 2004) ndi Centro de Formação Luís Inácio Lula da Silva (kuyambira 2011).[65]

Masambiro ghapacanya ghakukwana yayi ndipo ŵanandi ŵakukhumba kuluta ku caru cinyake kuti ŵakasambire masambiro agha. Ŵasambiri ŵanandi ŵakukhumba kuluta ku Portugal. Ma yunivesite ghanandi, kusazgapo Faculty of Law na Faculty of Medicine, ghakusangika mu matawuni ghakupambanapambana.

Ŵana ŵakugwira nchito mwambura kwenelera. Ŵanyamata ndiwo ŵakulembeka comene kuluska ŵasungwana. Mu 1998, chiŵelengero cha ŵanthu awo ŵakalembeka pa sukulu ya pulayimale chikaŵa 53.5%, ndipo ŵanalume 67.7% ndiwo ŵakalembeka kuluska ŵanakazi (40%).

Masambiro gha pa sukulu ghakucitikira mu cikaya na kusambizga ŵanthu ŵalara. Mu 2011, ŵanthu awo ŵakamanyanga kuŵazga na kulemba ŵakaŵa 55.3% (68.9% ŵakaŵa ŵanalume, 42.1% ŵakaŵa ŵanakazi).[75]

Conflicts

Kanandi, mitundu yakupambanapambana ya ku Guinea-Bissau yikukhala pamoza mwamtende, kweni para kwacitika nkhondo, yikwamba cifukwa ca kusanga malo ghakukhala.[76]

Mwambo

Guinea-Bissau's second largest city, Gabú
Port of Bissau
Bridge in São Vicente, Cacheu
Hotels at Bissagos Islands
Carnival in Bissau
National singer Manecas Costa

Media

Music

Nyimbo za ku Guinea-Bissau zikumanyikwa na sumu za gumbé, izo zikufuma ku vyaru vinyake. Ndipouli, cifukwa ca vivulupi na vinthu vinyake, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakutondeka kupulikiska sumu za gumba, nanga ni mu vyaru vya ku Africa.[77]

Cikaŵa cinthu cakuzirwa comene ku ŵanthu ŵa ku Guinea-Bissau, ndipo cikagwiranga nchito pa kuvina mwaluŵiro comene. Mazgu gha sumu izi ghakulembeka mu ciyowoyero ca ku Guinea-Bissau, ciyowoyero ca ku Portugal, ndipo kanandi ghakuŵa ghakusekeska ndiposo ghakuyowoya nkhani izo zikucitika pa nyengo iyo.

Lizgu lakuti gumbe nyengo zinyake likugwiriskirika nchito pa sumu zose za mu caru ici, nangauli lizgu ili likung'anamuraso sumu izo zikukolerana na mitheto ya ŵanthu ŵa mu caru ici. Tina na tinga ni mitundu yinyake yakumanyikwa comene, ndipo sumu izo zikupulikikwa pa viphikiro na pa viphikiro vinyake, nga ni Balanta brosca na kussundé, Mandinga djambadon, na sumu za kundere izo zikupulikikwa pa virwa vya Bissagos.[78]

Cuisine

Kanandi ŵanthu ŵakutemwa kurya soups na stews. Vyakurya vinyake ivyo ŵakutemwa kurya ni vibama, mbatata, chivwati, mphoza, matamatisi, na mphoza. Vyakunoweskera vyakurya, vipepere, na chilli, kusazgapo mbuto za Aframomum melegueta (pepara la ku Guinea).[79]

Mafilimu

Flora Gomes ni mulembi wa mafilimu wakumanyikwa pa charu chose. Mu 1988 Gomes wakapanga filimu ya Mortu Nega (Death Denied) iyo yikaŵa yakwamba kupangika ku Guinea-Bissau, ndipo yikaŵa yaciŵiri kupangika ku Guinea-Bissau. (Filimu yakwamba yikaŵa ya N ⁇ tturudu, ya Umban u ⁇ Kest [fr] mu 1987.) Pa ungano wa FESPACO mu 1989, Mortu Nega wakapokera njombe ya Oumarou Ganda. Mu 1992, Gomes wakapangiska filimu ya Udju Azul di Yonta, iyo yikaŵa mu chigaŵa cha Un Certain Regard pa 1992 Cannes Film Festival. Gomes walikuteŵeterapo pa mabungwe gha mafilimu agho ghakuwonelera mu vyaru vya mu Africa. Babetida Sadjo wakababikira ku Bafatá, Guinea-Bissau.[80][81][82][83][84][85]

Sports

Ŵanthu ŵanandi ku Guinea-Bissau ŵakutemwa maseŵero gha bola. Timu ya mpira ya ku Guinea-Bissau yikupwelelereka na Federação de Futebol da Guinea-Bissau. Iwo ni membala wa Confederation of African Football (CAF) na FIFA.

Wonaniso

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Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from World Factbook. CIA.

Vyakulemba vinyake

  • Abdel Malek, K.,"Le processus d'accès à l'indépendance de la Guinée-Bissau", In : Bulletin de l'Association des Anciens Elèves de l'Institut National de Langues et de Cultures Orientales, N°1, Avril 1998. – pp. 53–60
  • Forrest, Joshua B., Lineages of State Fragility. Rural Civil Society in Guinea-Bissau (Ohio University Press/James Currey Ltd., 2003)
  • Galli, Rosemary E, Guinea Bissau: Politics, Economics and Society, (Pinter Pub Ltd., 1987)
  • Lobban Jr., Richard Andrew and Mendy, Peter Karibe, Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau, third edition (Scarecrow Press, 1997)
  • Vigh, Henrik, Navigating Terrains of War: Youth And Soldiering in Guinea-Bissau, (Berghahn Books, 2006)

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12°N 15°W / 12°N 15°W / 12; -15