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Togo

Kufuma Wikipedia

Togolese Republic
République togolaise (French)
Mbendela Coat of arms
Chiluso: "Travail, Liberté, Patrie"[1] (French)
"Work, Liberty, Homeland"
Nyimbo: "Terre de nos aïeux" (French)
(English: "Land of our ancestors")
Makhalilo gha  Togo  (dark blue) in the African Union  (light blue)
Makhalilo gha  Togo  (dark blue)

in the African Union  (light blue)

Makhalilo gha  Togo  (dark blue)

in the African Union  (light blue)

Msumba Waboma
kweneso Msumba Usani
Lomé
Chiyowoyelo chaboma
Spoken languages
Mitundu ya Ŵanthu Other (5.6%)[2]
Vipembezo
Mwenecharu Togolese
Mtundu wa Boma Unitary dominant-party presidential republic
 -  President Faure Gnassingbé
 -  Prime Minister Victoire Tomegah Dogbé
Independence from France
 -  Independence granted 27 April 1960 
Ukulu wa Malo
 -  Malo 56,785 km2 (123rd)
21,925 sq mi
 -  Maji (%) 4.2
Chiŵelengelo cha ŵanthu
 -  2023 estimate 8,703,961[4] (101th)
 -  Density 125.9/km2
243/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2023 estimate
 -  Total Decrease $22.7 billion[5] (151st)
 -  Per capita Decrease $2,612[5] (175th)
GDP (nominal) 2022 estimate
 -  Total Increase $8.41 billion[5] (157th)
 -  Per capita Increase $916[5] (170th)
Gini (2015)Positive decrease 43.1[6]
medium
HDI (2021)Increase 0.539[7]
medium ·162nd
Ndalama West African CFA franc (XOF)
Mtundu Wanyengo GMT (UTC )
Kalembelo kasiku dd/mm/yyyy
Woko la galimoto right
Intaneti yacharu .tg
a. Such as Ewe, Mina and Aja.
b. Largest are the Ewe, Mina, Kotokoli Tem and Kabyè.
c. Mostly European, Indian & Syrian-Lebanese.
d. Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected.
e. Rankings based on 2017 figures (CIA World Factbook – "Togo")

Togo (/ˈtɡ/ (pulikizgani machemelo)), mwalamulo, Charu cha Togo (French: République togolaise), ni caru ico cili ku West Africa. Charu ichi chili kufupi na Ghana, Benin, na Burkina Faso.[8] Charu ichi ntchimoza mwa vyaru ivyo vili na ŵanthu ŵachoko chomene pa charu chose chapasi, ndipo chili kumwera m'paka ku Nyanja ya Guinea, uko kuli msumba wa Lomé.[8] Charu ichi ntchichoko, chili na malo ghakukwana 56,785 square kilometres (22,000 square miles) ndipo chili [9]na ŵanthu pafupifupi 8 million, ndipo chili na malo ghakukwana 115 km (71 mi) pakati pa Ghana na Benin.[10][11]

Pakati pa vilimika vya m'ma 1000 na 1500 ŵanthu ŵakupambanapambana ndiwo ŵakakhala mu cigaŵa ico lero ni Togo. Pakati pa virimika vya m'ma 1500 na 1700, cigaŵa ca ku nyanja ici cikaŵa pakwamba pakuguliska ŵazga ku Europe, ndipo ici cikacitiska kuti Togo na cigaŵa ca ku nyanja ici ŵacemeke kuti "Cicirwa ca Ŵazga". Mu 1884, caru ca Germany cikapharazga kuti caru ca Togoland ni cigaŵa ico cili pasi pa boma. Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Caru Cose yikati yamara, caru ca Togo cikapika ku France. Charu cha Togo chikamba kujiwusa chekha kufuma ku France mu 1960.[2][12] Mu 1967, Gnassingbé Eyadéma wakapangiska kuti ŵasilikari ŵamuwuse, ndipo pamanyuma wakaŵa pulezidenti wa boma la chipani chimoza. Mu 1993, Eyadéma wakaluta ku mavoti agho ghakaŵa na vifukwa vyakupambanapambana, ndipo wakathereskeka katatu. Pa nyengo iyo Eyadéma wakafwanga, wakaŵa "mulongozgi uyo wakakhala kwa nyengo yitali comene mu caru ca Africa", pakuti wakaŵa pulezidenti kwa vilimika 38.[13]Mu 2005, mwana wake Faure Gnassingbé wakasankhika kuŵa pulezidenti.

Togo ni caru ca ku mpoto[8] kwa Sahara, ndipo cuma cake cikuthemba comene pa ulimi.[12] Ciyowoyero ico cikuyowoyeka mu caru ici ni Cifurenci, kweni ŵanthu ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero vinyake, comenecomene viyowoyero vya mtundu wa Gbe. 47.8% ya ŵanthu ŵakugomezga Chikhristu, ndipo ndicho ntchisopa chikuru mu charu ichi.[14]Charu cha Togo chili ku United Nations, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, Francophonie, Commonwealth, na Economic Community of West African States.

Mbili[lemba | kulemba source]

Ivyo ŵanthu ŵakufukura vinthu vyakale ŵali kusanga vikulongora kuti ŵanthu aŵa ŵakamanyanga kupanga viŵiya vya dongo na visulo. Zina lakuti Togo likung'anamulika kufuma ku ciyowoyero ca Ewe kuti "kumanyuma kwa mlonga". Pakati pa vilimika vya m'ma 1100 na 1600, mafuko ghanyake ghakanjira mu cigaŵa ici: ŴaEwe kufuma kumanjiliro gha dazi, ndipo ŴaMina na Ŵaguni kufuma kumafumiro gha dazi. Ŵanandi ŵakakhalanga mumphepete mwa nyanja. Munda wa ŵazga ku Atlantic ukamba mu virimika vya m'ma 1500, ndipo kwa vilimika 200 vyakulondezgapo, cigaŵa ici cikaŵa cigaŵa cakupharazgako ku Europe, ndipo ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakakhumbanga ŵazga. Ici cikapangiska kuti caru ca Togo na vigaŵa vyapafupi na ico citumbikike na zina lakuti "Munda wa ŵazga".

Togoland (R. Hellgrewe, 1908)

Mu 1884, themba Mlapa III na boma la Germany ŵakasaina phangano ku Togoville lakuti ŵajilamulirenge ku malo ghanyake gha mumphepete mwa nyanja ndipo pamasinda ŵakamba kulamuliraso vyaru vinyake. Mipaka ya caru ici yikamanyikwa pamanyuma pakuti Ŵagiriki na Ŵasiriya ŵapoka caru ca Germany na kukolerana na France na Britain. Mu 1905, caru ici cikazgoka cigaŵa ca Germany ndipo cikacemekanga Togoland. Ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha ŵakagwiranga nchito ya kulima kotoni, khofi, na cacao na kupeleka msonkho. Ŵakazenga njanji na dowoko la Lomé kuti ŵaguliske vyakurya ku vyaru vinyake. Ŵajeremani ndiwo ŵakamba kulima cacao, khofi, na thonje, ndipo ŵakapanga nyumba zinandi.

Mu nyengo ya Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Caru Cose, caru ca Togoland cikatoleka na ŵasilikari ŵa Britain na France. Nkhondo ya ku Togoland yikakhwaska kuti Ŵafalansa na Ŵabritani ŵapoke charu cha Germany cha Togoland pa nyengo ya Nkhondo Yakwamba ya pa Charu Chose. Ŵasilikari ŵa boma la Germany ŵakathereskeka mu Ogasiti 1914, ndipo boma ili likajipeleka pa Ogasiti 26, 1914. Pa Disembala 7, 1916, boma la Togoland likamara ndipo likapatulika mu vigaŵa vya Britain na France, ivyo vikaŵa British Togoland na French Togoland. Pa Julayi 20, 1922, boma la Great Britain likapika mazaza na wupu wa League of Nations kuti liwusenge chigaŵa chakumanjiliro gha dazi kwa charu cha Togo, ndipo la France likapika mazaza kuti liwusenge chigaŵa chakumafumiro gha dazi. Mu 1945, caru ici cikapika wanangwa wa kutuma ŵanthu ŵatatu ku nyumba ya malango ya France.

Nkhondo Yachiŵiri ya Caru Cose yikati yamara, vyaru ivi vikazgoka vigaŵa vya UN Trust Territories. Mu 1957, ŵanthu ŵa ku British Togoland ŵakakolerana kuti Gold Coast yiŵe cigaŵa ca Ghana. Mu 1959, caru ca French Togoland cikamba kuŵa na mazaza pa cigaŵa ico cikaŵa pasi pa France, kweni France yikalutilira kuŵa na mazaza pa nkhani ya kuvikilira caru, vyaru vyaŵene, na ndalama.

Pa 27 Epulero 1960, boma la Togo likapharazga kuti ni Republic. Pa visankho vyakwamba vya pulezidenti mu 1961, Sylvanus Olympio ndiyo wakaŵa pulezidenti wakwamba, ndipo wakapoka vitiviti vyose ivyo ŵakususka ŵakakana. Pa 9 April 1961, Constitution ya Togoles Republic yikapelekeka, iyo yikati wupu wakulongozga ni National Assembly of Togo.[15] Mu Disembala 1961, ŵarongozgi ŵa vipani vya ŵakususka ŵakakakika cifukwa ŵakayimbika mulandu wakuti ŵakanozga vyakutimbana na boma. Ŵakatumizga dango lakumazga magulu gha ŵanthu ŵakususka. Olympio wakayezgayezga kuti waleke kugomezga comene caru ca France mwa kukolerana na caru ca United States, United Kingdom, na West Germany. Wakakana ivyo ŵasilikari ŵa ku France awo ŵakafumiskika ku nkhondo ya ku Algeria ŵakakhumbanga, ndipo wakakhumbanga kuti waŵe msilikari wa ku Togo. Vinthu ivi vikapangiska kuti ŵasilikari ŵamuwukire pa 13 January 1963 apo ŵakamukoma na gulu la ŵasilikari ŵakulongozgeka na Sergeant Gnassingbé Eyadéma. Mu Togo, boma likalangura kuti vinthu viŵe vyamabuci. Ŵasilikari ŵakapeleka mazaza ku boma la nyengo yicoko ilo likalongozgekanga na Nicolas Grunitzky. Mu Meyi 1963, Grunitzky wakasankhika kuŵa pulezidenti wa caru ici. Ŵalara ŵa boma ŵaphya ŵakamba kulimbikira kuti ŵalutilire kuŵa paubwezi na France. Cakulinga cake cikaŵa cakuti wathaske mphatukano pakati pa kumpoto na kumwera, walembe dango liphya la cikaya, na kukhazikiska cipani ca vipani vinandi.

Pa Janyuwale 13, 1967, Eyadéma Gnassingbé wakathereska Grunitzky na kuwusa.[16] Wakapanga phwando la Rally of the Togolese People Party, wakukanizga vipani vinyake vya ndyali ndipo wakambiska ndondomeko ya chipani chimoza mu Novembala 1969. Wakasolekaso mu 1979 na 1986. Mu 1983, boma likamba kucitako vinthu vyakupambanapambana ndipo mu 1991 ŵakazomerezga magulu ghanyake gha ndyali. Mu 1993, EU yikalekeska ubwezi uwu, ndipo yikati Eyadema wakasankhikaso mu 1993, 1998 na 2003, kuti wakakhumba kupoka mazaza. Mu Epulero 2004, ku Brussels, kukadumbiskana pakati pa wupu wa European Union na wupu wa Togo pa nkhani ya kwambiraso kukolerana.

The 2017–18 Togolese protests against the 50-year rule of the Gnassingbé family

Eyadéma Gnassingbé wakafwa pa 5 February 2005. Ŵasilikari ŵakati ŵimika mwana wake Faure Gnassingbé kuŵa mulongozgi wa caru, caru cose cikasuska, kweni ku France yayi. Ŵalongozgi ŵanyake ŵa mu Africa awo "ŵakasankhika mwakuyana na demokilase", nga ni Abdoulaye Wade wa ku Senegal na Olusegun Obasanjo wa ku Nigeria, ŵakakolerana nayo fundo iyi, ndipo ivi vikapangiska kuti mu African Union muŵe mphindano. Gnassingbé wakafumapo pa udindo na kuluta ku mavoti, ndipo pamanyuma pa myezi yiŵiri wakathereska. Ŵakususka ŵakayowoya kuti ivyo vikacitika vikaŵa vyaupusikizgi. Vinthu ivyo vikacitika mu 2005 vikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵambe kukayikira ivyo boma likuchita pa nkhani ya demokalase. Boma ili likakhumbanga kuti vinthu viŵe makora na wupu wa European Union. Wupu uwu ukaleka kovwira wupu wa European Union mu 1993 chifukwa cha nkhani ya wanangwa wa ŵanthu. Kuyana na UN, ŵanthu pafupifupi 400 ŵakakomeka pa nkondo iyo yikacitika pa nyengo ya kusora pulezidenti. Ŵanthu pafupifupi 40,000 ŵa ku Togo ŵakachimbilira ku vyaru vyapafupi. Gnassingbé wakasankhikaso mu 2010 na 2015.

Mu 2017, ŵanthu ŵakamba kugalukira boma. Wupu wa UN ukayowoyerathu kuti boma la Gambia likwenera kuleka kuwusa. Wupu wa UN ukayowoyeraso kuti Gnassingbé waleke kuwusa.[17]

Mu Febuluwale 2020, Faure Gnassingbé wakaluta ku chiphara cha pulezidenti wa Togo. Kuyana na ivyo vikalembeka, iyo ndiyo wakawina ndipo ŵanthu ŵakamuvoteranga chomene. Ici cikamovwira kuti wathereske uyo wakamususkanga comene, uyo wakaŵa nduna ya boma, Agbeyome Kodjo, uyo wakaŵa na 18%. Pa 4 Meyi 2020, Bitala Madjoulba, mulongozgi wa ŵasilikari ŵa ku Togo, wakasangika wakufwa mu ofesi yake. Zuŵa ilo Madjoulba wakafwira likaŵa pamanyuma pakuti Faure Gnassingbé wasankhika. Ŵapolisi ŵali kwamba kupenjerezga nkhani iyi ndipo ŵali kufumba mafumbo ŵanthu wose awo ŵakakhwaskika na nyifwa yake.

Togo yikamba kuwungana na Commonwealth mu Juni 2022. Pambere ŵandazomerezge kuti ŵanjire mu wupu wa Commonwealth, nduna ya vyakuwaro, Robert Dussey, yikayowoya kuti yikukhazga kuti wupu uwu uzamupeleka ndalama zakwendeskera vinthu ku vyaru vinyake, na kovwira ŵanthu ŵa ku Togo kuti ŵasambirenge Chingelezi kweniso kuti ŵasambirenge vinthu vinyake.[18]

Boma[lemba | kulemba source]

President since 2005 Faure Gnassingbé
Gnassingbé Eyadéma wakawusa kwambira mu 1967 mpaka apo wakafwira mu 2005.

Pulezidenti wakusankhika na ŵanthu wose ndipo wakulongozga ŵasilikari kwa vyaka vinkhondi. Iyo wali na mazaza ghakupanga malango na kugumura nyumba ya malango. Pulezidenti na boma ndiwo ŵali na mazaza ghakulongozga. Mulongozgi wa boma ni nduna yikuru iyo yikwimikika na pulezidenti.

Pulezidenti Gnassingbé Eyadéma, uyo wakalamuliranga Togo mu muwuso wa chipani chimoza, wakafwa na nthenda ya mtima pa 5 February 2005. Kuyana na dango la chalo cha Togo, Fambaré Ouattara Natchaba, uyo ni mulongozgi wa Nyumba ya Malamulo, ndiyo wakeneranga kuŵa mulongozgi wa caru ici, pakulindilira kuti mu mazuŵa 60 ghacoko waka, kuŵe mavoti. Natchaba wakaŵa ku caru cinyake, ndipo wakaweranga na ndege ya Air France kufuma ku Paris. Ŵasilikari ŵa ku Togo, awo ŵakamanyikwanga na zina lakuti Forces Armées Togolaises (FAT), ŵakajara mphaka za caru, ndipo ndege yikakhira mu caru ca Benin. Pakugwiliskira nchito nkhongono za ŵanthu, Nyumba ya Malamulo yikati yiwuskemo dango la malango ilo likakhumbanga kuti paŵe mavoti mu mazuŵa 60 ndipo yikayowoya kuti mwana wa Eyadema, Faure Gnassingbé, ndiyo waŵenge pulezidenti ndipo waŵenge pa udindo nyengo yose iyo adada ŵake ŵakhalako. Faure wakalayira pa 7 February 2005, ndipo ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakamususka. Wupu wa African Union ukayowoya kuti ŵasilikari ndiwo ŵakawukira boma. Wupu wa United Nations nawo ukaŵachichizganga. Ku Togo, ŵanthu ŵakamba kulimbana na boma ili, ntheura pakaŵa vivulupi ndipo ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakafwa. Mu misumba na matawuni, comene-comene ya kumwera kwa caru ici, mukaŵa viwawa. Mu tawuni ya Aného, ŵapharazgi ŵakayowoya za kuwukira kwa ŵasilikari, ndipo pamanyuma pake ŵasilikari ŵa boma ŵakakoma ŵanthu ŵanandi. Pa 25 February, Gnassingbé wakafumapo pa udindo wa pulezidenti, ndipo wakazomera kusankhika kuti wazakaŵe pulezidenti mu April.[19]

Pa 24 Epulero 2005, Gnassingbé wakasankhika kuŵa pulezidenti wa Togo, ndipo wakapokera mavoti ghakujumpha 60 peresenti. Munthu uyo wakalimbana nayo comene pa mpikisano uwu wakaŵa Emmanuel Bob-Akitani wa gulu la Union des Forces du Change (UFC). Ŵanthu ŵakaghanaghananga kuti pakaŵa kuswa malango cifukwa cakuti pakaŵavya wupu wa European Union panji wupu unyake wakucita mulimo uwu. Nyumba ya malango yikasankha kuti Bonfoh Abbass, uyo ni mulongozgi wa chalo, ndiyo waŵe mulongozgi wa chalo mpaka apo wazamuŵikika. Pa 3 Meyi 2005, Faure Gnassingbé wakazomelezgeka kuŵa pulezidenti ndipo wupu wa European Union ukayimiska wovwiri ku Togo kuti wovwire awo ŵakususka boma, mwakupambana na wupu wa African Union na wupu wa United States ivyo vikayowoya kuti visola vikachitika "mwakwenelera". Pulezidenti wa ku Nigeria, Olusẹgun Ọbasanjọ, wakayezga kudumbiskana pakati pa boma na ŵalwani kuti ŵaŵe na boma lakukolerana, ndipo wakakana apo komiti ya AU yikasankha pulezidenti wakale wa ku Zambia, Kenneth Kaunda, kuti waŵe nthumwi yapadera ya AU ku Togo. Mu Juni, Pulezidenti Gnassingbé wakasora Edem Kodjo kuŵa nduna yikuru.

Mu Okutobala 2007, pamanyuma pa kujowoleka, visankho vikacitika mu nthowa ya kuyana na unandi wa ŵanthu. Ici cikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku mpoto awo ŵakakhalanga kutali na ku mizi ŵakhalenge ku mpoto uko kukaŵa ŵanthu ŵanandi. Wupu wa Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) uwo ukakhozgekanga na pulezidenti wa Togo, ndiwo ukakhwaskika comene, ndipo UFC yikaŵa yaciŵiri, ndipo vipani vinyake vikaŵavya mazaza. Ŵakatenge RPT yikunanga mavoti ndipo ŵasilikari na ŵasilikari ŵakayilondezganga. Pa ungano uwu pakaŵaso ŵalongozgi ŵa vyaru vya ku Europe, ndipo pakaŵaso mavoti ghambura kuzomerezgeka, ndipo ghanandi ghakaŵanga mu malo ghakupambanapambana. Pa 3 Disembala 2007 Komlan Mally wa RPT adasankhidwa kukhala nduna yayikulu kulowa m'malo mwa Agboyibor. Pa Seputembala 5, 2008, Mally wakaleka nchito ya kuŵa nduna yikuru ya Togo.

Faure Gnassingbé wakathereskeka mu March 2010 pa chisankho cha pulezidenti, wakatora 61% ya voti kwimikana na Jean-Pierre Fabre wa UFC, uyo wakawovwirika na gulu la chipani cha FRAC (Republican Front for Change). Ŵakuwona vya visankho ŵakayowoya kuti pakaŵa "upusikizgi" na masuzgo ghanyake, ndipo ŵalwani ŵakakana kuzomerezga ivyo vikachitika.[20][21] Ŵanthu ŵakamba kugalukira Faure Gnassingbé pamanyuma pa mavoti. Mu mwezi wa May 2010, mulongozgi wa chipani cha opposition Gilchrist Olympio wakapharazga kuti wazamunjira mu mgwirizano wa kugaŵana mazaza na boma, ndondomeko ya umoza iyo yikupereka UFC na maudindo 8 gha nduna.[22][23] Mu mwezi wa Juni 2012, vinthu vyasintha pa nkhani ya mavoti, ndipo ŵanthu ŵakamba kugalukira boma. Ŵakachita ivi kuti ŵaŵike dango la mu 1992 ilo likayowoyerathu kuti muwuso wa munthu ukwenera kuŵa na nyengo yichoko waka. Mu Julayi 2012, nduna yikuru ya ku Malaŵi, Gilbert Houngbo, yikamba kuleka nchito. Pakati pajumpha mazuŵa ghacoko waka, nduna ya vya malonda, Kwesi Ahoomey-Zunu, yikasoleka kuti yilongozge boma liphya. Mu mwezi wenewuwo, nyumba ya mulongozgi wakususka Jean-Pierre Fabre yikatimbanizgika na ŵapolisi, ndipo ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakakumanaso kuti ŵakane ivyo boma likacitanga.

Mu April 2015, pulezidenti Faure Gnassingbé wakasankhika kuti waŵeso pa udindo kachitatu. Mu Febuluwale 2020, Faure Gnassingbé wakasankhikaso kuŵa pulezidenti kwa nyengo yachinayi. Ŵakususka ŵakamupa mulandu wakuti wakacita uryarya na vinthu vinyake vyambura urunji. Mbumba ya Gnassingbé ndiyo yili kuwusa Togo kwambira mu 1967, ndipo ndiyo yili na mazaza ghatali comene mu Africa.[24]

Administrative divisions[lemba | kulemba source]

Charu cha Togo chili kugaŵika mu vigaŵa 5, ivyo navyo vili kugaŵika mu vigaŵa 30. Kufumira kumpoto kuya kumwera, vigaŵa ivi ni Savanes, Kara, Centrale, Plateaux na Maritime.

Foreign relations[lemba | kulemba source]

Nangauli caru ca Togo cikukolerana yayi na vyaru vinyake, kweni cikukolerana na vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Europe, comenecomene France na Germany. Charu cha Togo chikukolerana na vyaru vya China, North Korea, na Cuba. Mu 1987, caru ici cikambaso kucezga na caru ca Israyeli. Boma la Togo likulondezga ndondomeko ya vyaru vinyake ndipo likukolerana na vyaru vinyake. Wupu uwu ukulimbikira comene pa nkhani za mu vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Africa na mu wupu wa African Union.

Mu 2017, caru ca Togo cikasayinapo phangano la UN lakukanizga kugwiliskira nchito vilwero vya nyukiliya. Boma la Togo na la Gabon ŵakamba kukolerana na vyaru vya Commonwealth pa ungano wa ŵalongozgi ŵa vyaru vya Commonwealth uwo ukacitikira ku Kigali, Rwanda mu 2022. Pakuŵa yumoza wa vyaru ivyo vili mu Commonwealth, nduna ya vyakuwaro, Robert Dussey, yikati caru ici cikakhumbanga kuti ciŵe paubwezi na vyaru ivyo vikuyowoya Cingelezi.[18]

Military[lemba | kulemba source]

Gulu la ŵasilikari la FAT (Forces armées togolaises, "magulu gha ŵasilikari ŵa ku Togo"), ni gulu la ŵasilikari, ŵasilikari ŵa pa nyanja, ŵasilikari ŵa pa mlengalenga, na ŵasilikari. Vyakugulira nkhondo vyose ivyo vikacitika mu cilimika ca 2005, vikaŵa 1.6% ca GDP ya caru. Ŵasilikari ŵalipo mu Lomé, Temedja, Kara, Niamtougou, na Dapaong. Mkulu wa General Staff ndi Brigadier General Titikpina Atcha Mohamed, yemwe adayamba kugwira ntchito pa 19 May 2009. Ŵasilikari ŵali na ndege za Alpha.[25][26][27][2]

Human rights[lemba | kulemba source]

Wupu wakuwona vya wanangwa wa ŵanthu wakucemeka Freedom House, ukayowoya kuti caru ca Togo "nchambura wanangwa" kwambira mu 1972 mpaka mu 1998 ndiposo kwambira mu 2002 mpaka mu 2006, ndipo kufuma mu 1999 mpaka mu 2001 ndiposo kwambira mu 2007, caru ici cikucemeka kuti "nchambura wanangwa". Kuyana na U.S. Lipoti la Unduna wa vya Malango la mu 2010, likati masuzgo gha wanangwa wa ŵanthu ni agha: "ŵankhondo ŵakugwiliskira ntchito nkhongono zawo mwakujumphizga, kusazgapo kuŵachitira nkhaza, ivyo vikupangiska ŵanthu kufwa na kupwetekeka; ŵaboma ŵakutondeka kuŵalanga; mu jele muli masuzgo ghakofya, ndipo umoyo wa ŵanthu uli pangozi; ŵanthu ŵakukakika na kuŵikika mu jele mwambura kwenelera; ŵanthu ŵakukhala mu jele kwa nyengo yitali pambere ŵanderuzgike; ŵamazaza ŵakukhwaska ŵeruzgi; wanangwa wakuti ŵanthu ŵayowoye na ŵanyawo, kuwungana, na kwenda mwakufwatuka; vimbundi; kusankhana pakati pa ŵanakazi na ŵanalume; kuchitira nkhaza ŵana, kusazgapo kuŵachitira nkhaza ŵanakazi, kweniso kuŵachitira nkhaza ŵana; kusuzga ŵanthu, chomenechomene ŵanakazi na ŵana; kusankhana pakati pa ŵanthu ŵakupendera; kusankhana pakati pa ŵaboma na ŵanthu awo ŵakugonana na ŵanalume panji ŵanakazi ŵanyawo; kusankhana pakati pa ŵanthu awo ŵali na HIV; na kugwiliskira ŵanthu ntchito ya Ku Togo, kugonana kwa ŵanalume panji ŵanakazi pera nkhukanizgika na dango, ndipo chilango chake nkhukakhala mu jele kwa vilimika vitatu.[28]

Makhalilo gha charu[lemba | kulemba source]

Template:Multiple images

Chigaŵa ichi chili na malo ghakukwana 56,785 km2. Charu ichi chili na mphaka na Nyanja ya Benin kumwera; Ghana kumanjiliro gha dazi; Benin kumafumiro gha dazi; ndipo kumpoto, chili na mphaka na Burkina Faso. Kumpoto kwa equator, kuli pakati pa 6° na 11°N, ndipo pakati pa 0° na 2°E.

Mphepete mwa nyanja ya Togo iyo yili mu nyanja ya Gulf of Guinea, njitali makilomita 56 ndipo yili na madambo gha mchenga. Kumpoto kwa caru ici kuli malo gha mapiri, kweni pakati paco pali mapiri. Kumwera kwa caru ca Togo kuli mapiri na makuni agho ghakukwana ku nyanja na madambo. Phiri litali chomene mu charu ichi ni Mont Agou, ilo lili pa mtunda wa mamita 986 kufuma pasi pa nyanja. Mlonga utali comene ni Mono River uwo uli na utali wa 400 km (250 miles). Likufuma kumpoto kuluta kumwera.

Nyengo ya ku malo agha njakuzizima comene ndipo nyengo ya kotcha yikupambana comene na ya ku malo ghanyake.

Ku Togo kuli malo ghatatu: nkhorongo ya ku Guinea,[29] nkhorongo ya ku Guinea, na nkhorongo ya ku Sudan. Cirwa ca Togo cili na malo gha mathipa na makuni gha mangrove. Mu 2019, charu ichi chikaŵa pa nambala 92 pa vyaru 172. Pa vyaru vyose ivyo vikaŵa pa nambala iyi, charu ichi chikaŵa pa nambala 5.88 pa 10.

Pafupifupi mapaki ghankhondi na malo ghanyake ghakusungirako vyamoyo ghali kupangika: Abdoulaye Faunal Reserve, Fazao Malfakassa National Park, Fosse aux Lions National Park, Koutammakou, na Kéran National Park.[30][12]

Chuma[lemba | kulemba source]

A proportional representation of Togo exports, 2019

Charu ichi chili na vyakumera vyakupambanapambana ivyo vikufuma ku vyaru vinyake, ndipo vikusazgapo vyakurya vyakupambanapambana nga ni khofi, mbuto ya kakawo, na mtedza, ndipo vyose pamoza vikupanga ndalama zakukwana pafupifupi 30 peresenti ya ivyo vikufuma ku vyaru vinyake. Cotton ni mbuto iyo ŵanthu ŵakuguliska. Munda uwu uli na malo ghakukwana 11.3 peresenti ndipo unandi wake ngwakuzenga. Vipambi vinyake ni cassava, mpunga wa jasmine, mbuto ya chimanga na chiwuvi. Vinyake mwa vigaŵa ivi ni vyakupangira moŵa na vyakuvwara. "Kukwera kwa mitengo ya katundu" wa ku Togo pamoza na "nkharo ya ndyali" ya m'ma 1990 na 2000, vikaŵa na "mawuzi" pa chuma.

Charu ichi chili mu gulu la vyaru ivyo vili na ŵanthu ŵachoko chomene. Msumba uwu ndiwo ukaŵa cigaŵa cikuru ca malonda mu caru ici. Mulimo wa boma uwo ukamara kwa vilimika khumi, ndipo ukacitikanga na Banki ya pa Caru Cose na wupu wa International Monetary Fund (IMF), wa kusintha vinthu mu ndyali, kukhozga ndalama, na kupangiska kuti vinthu viŵe pa mtende pakati pa ndalama izo munthu wakusangapo na izo wakurya, watimbanizgika. Mu 1992 na 1993, vinthu vikahenipa mu caru cifukwa ca masuzgo gha ndyali, kusazgapo vigeŵenga na maboma, ndipo ivi vikapangiska kuti ndondomeko ya kusintha vinthu yiŵe yakusuzga, kukhizga msonkho, na kuti vinthu vileke kwenda makora mu caru.

Likutumizga ku caru cinyake makina, vinthu vyakupangira mafuta, na vyakurya. Vyaru vikuruvikuru ivyo vikupanga vinthu ivi ni France (21.1%), Netherlands (12.1%), Côte d'Ivoire (5.9%), Germany (4.6%), Italy (4.4%), South Africa (4.3%) na China (4.1%). Vinthu vikuruvikuru ivyo ŵakuluta navyo ku vyaru vinyake ni kakawo, khofi, vinthu ivyo ŵakuluta navyo ku vyaru vinyake, phosphates, na thonje. "Ŵabwezi ŵithu ŵalara chomene pa nkhani ya kutumizga vinthu ku vyaru vinyake" ni Burkina Faso (16.6%), China (15.4%), Netherlands (13%), Benin (9.6%) na Mali (7.4%).

Fishermen

Pa nkhani ya kusintha vinthu mu vyaru vinyake, vyaru ivi vyaluta panthazi pa nkhani ya kulekeska ntchito zaukaboni, chomenechomene pa nkhani ya malonda na ntchito za pa dowoko. Ndondomeko ya kucitiska malonda gha viŵeto kuŵa ghaŵekha mu vigaŵa vya viŵeto vya thonje, vyamafoni, na vya maji ya maji, yili kumara.

Pa Janyuwale 12, 1994, ndalama ya ku Europe yikakhira pa mtengo wake na 50%, ndipo ivi vikawovwira kuti vinthu viwelere pa malo ghakwenelera. Kuti vinthu viŵe makora, boma likwenera kuŵa lakufwatuka pa nkhani ya ndalama izo likupeleka (kuti likwaniskenge kulipira ndalama izo zikukhumbikwa pa vinthu vya boma) kweniso likwenera kuchepeska ŵasilikari awo boma ili likuthemba kuti liŵe na nkhongono. Chifukwa cha kuchepa kwa ndalama, kweniso kukwera kwa mitengo ya kakawo, GDP yikakhira na 1 peresenti mu 1998, ndipo yikambaso kukura mu 1999. Charu cha Togo chili mu wupu wakucemeka Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA).

Kulima ndiko kuli nga ni msana wa chuma. Kuŵavya ndalama zakugulira vinthu vyakumwa na vyakununkhira kwapangiska kuti ulimi uchepe. Mu 2012, ulimi ukapangiska kuti GDP yiŵe 28.2 peresenti ndipo mu 2010, ukaŵa na ntchito 49 peresenti ya ŵanthu wose awo ŵakagwiranga ntchito. Charu ichi chikukwaniska yekha kupanga vyakurya. Kuŵeta ng'ombe ndiko kukupangiska kuti viŵeto viŵe vinandi.[31][32]

Mu 2012, migodi yikapanga 33.9% ya GDP ndipo mu 2010 yikagwiliskiranga nchito 12% ya ŵanthu. Ku Togo ndiko kuli phosphates zinayi izo zikusangika comene pa caru cose. Vikufumiska matani 2.1 miliyoni pa cilimika. Ku malo agha kuli malibwe gha kalama, malibwe gha marble, na mchere. Makampani ghakuzenga ghakupanga 20.4% ya ndalama izo charu cha Togo chikusanga. Malibwe ghanyake gha malibwe ghakovwira kuti ku Togo kupangike simenti.[31][33]

Transport[lemba | kulemba source]

Road[lemba | kulemba source]

Ku Togo kuli misewu ya makilomita 7,520 (4,670 mi) kwambira mu 2000, ndipo palije data ya 2023. Charu ichi chili na misewu yiŵiri yikuru, N1 na N2, iyo yikusazga Lomé na msumba wa Dapaong, ndipo yikufumako kumpoto kukafika ku Burkina Faso kufuma apo yikuluta kumpoto-kumanjiliro gha dazi ku Mali, na kumpoto-kumanjiliro gha dazi ku Niger. N1 ni mseu utali comene mu Togo, ndipo utali wake ni 613 km. N2 yikusazga Lomé na Aneho. Msewu wa N2 ni Highway RNIE1, panji Trans ⁇ West African Coastal Highway, kufuma ku Aneho kuya ku Cotonou mu Benin. Misewu yinyake ni misewu ya mu vigaŵa vinyake mu caru cose ici, iyo yikwendaso mu vyaru vyapafupi. Msewu wa Trans ⁇ West African Coastal Highway ukujumpha mu charu cha Togo, ndipo ukufika ku Benin na Nigeria kumafumiro gha dazi, kweniso ku Ghana na Ivory Coast kumanjiliro gha dazi. Para mulimo wa kuzenga mu vigaŵa vya Liberia na Sierra Leone wamalizgika, msewu uwu uzamulutilira kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa vyaru vinyake vinkhondi na viŵiri vya Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).

Railways[lemba | kulemba source]

Railway network of Togo

Ku Togo kuli njanji ya mtunda wa makilomita 568 mu chaka cha 2008, ndipo mu chaka cha 2023, njanji iyi yizamuweleraso yayi. Sitima iyi yikwenda pa mtunda wa 1000 mm (3 ft 3+3⁄8 in) (narrow gauge) Sitima iyi yikwendeka na Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Togolais (SNCT), iyo yikapangika chifukwa cha kusinthika na kusinthika zina la Réseau des Chemins de Fer du Togo kufuma 1997 mpaka 1998. Pakati pa Hahotoé na doko la Kpémé, Compagnie Togolaise des Mines du Bénin (CTMB) yikagwiliskiranga nchito sitima za phosphate.[34]

A train from Lomé to Kpalimé, at an intermediate station

The following are the railway networks present in the country:

Air[lemba | kulemba source]

Lomé–Tokoin International Airport

Ku Togo kuli ma eyapoti ghakukwana 8, ndipo ghaŵiri ni gha pa caru cose ndipo ghacinkhondi na limoza ni gha pa caru cose. Ndege zikuruzikuru za mu chalo ichi ni za Lomé-Tokoin International Airport, izo zikugwira nchito mu msumba wa Lomé, na za Niamtougou International Airport mu Niamtougou, izo zikugwira nchito kumpoto kwa chalo ichi.

Water[lemba | kulemba source]

Port of Lomé

Ku Togo, pakuyowoya za maji, pali makilomita 50 pera agho ghangafikako, chomene pa Mlonga wa Mono, kuyana na vula, mu 2011. Ku Togo kuli dowoko limoza pera ilo likutumizgirako katundu wa makontena, ndipo ni dowoko la Lomé.

Chiwerengero cha anthu[lemba | kulemba source]

Population[10][11]
Year Million
1950 1.4
2000 5.0
2021 8.6

Mu Novembala 2010 ku Togo kukaŵa ŵanthu ŵakukwana 6,191,155, ndipo ŵanthu aŵa ŵakaŵa ŵakujumpha kaŵiri awo ŵakaŵapo pa census yakwamba. Mu 2022, ku Togo kukaŵa ŵanthu ŵakukwana 8,680,832. Kuŵerengeska uko kukacitika mu 1981, kukalongora kuti mu caru ici mukaŵa ŵantu 2,719,567. Msumba wake, Lomé, ukakura kufuma pa ŵanthu 375,499 mu 1981 kufika pa 837,437 mu 2010. Para ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mu tawuni ya Golfe nawo ŵakusazgikako, ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mu tawuni ya Lomé ŵakaŵa 1,477,660 mu 2010.[35][36]

Misumba yinyake ya ku Togo yikaŵa Sokodé (95,070), Kara (94,878), Kpalimé (75,084), Atakpamé (69,261), Dapaong (58,071) na Tsévié (54,474). Ŵanthu awo ŵakukhala mu tawuni iyi ŵakukwana8,644,829 (as of 2021), Togo is the 107th largest country by population. Most of the population (65%) live in rural villages dedicated to agriculture or pastures. The population of Togo shows a stronger growth: from 1961 (the year after independence) to 2003 it quintupled.[35][36]

 
 
Misumba panji matauni ghakulu mu charu cha Togo
Kuyana na kalembera wa mu 2010[37]
Mndandanda Region Ŵanthu
Lomé
Lomé
Sokodé
Sokodé
1 Lomé Maritime 1,477,658 Kara
Kara
Kpalimé
Kpalimé
2 Sokodé Centrale 117,811
3 Kara Kara 94,878
4 Kpalimé Plateaux 75,084
5 Atakpamé Plateaux 69,261
6 Dapaong Savanes 58,071
7 Tsévié Maritime 54,474
8 Anié Plateaux 37,398
9 Notsé Plateaux 35,039
10 Cinkassé Savanes 26,926

Ethnic groups[lemba | kulemba source]

People in the 1980s

Ku Togo, kuli mafuko ghakupambanapambana ghakukwana 40, ndipo fuko likuru ni la Ŵa-Ewe, awo ŵakukhala kumwera kwa charu ichi ndipo ŵakupanga 32 peresenti ya ŵanthu wose. Mu mphepete mwa nyanja kumwera, ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha ŵalipo 21 pa ŵanthu 100 ŵaliwose. Kweniso ku mpoto kuli ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Kotokoli panji Tem na Tchamba, ndipo ku mpoto kuli ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Kabye (22%). Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Ouatchi [fr] ŵalipo 14 peresenti ya ŵanthu wose. Nyengo zinyake ŵanthu ŵakughanaghana kuti ŵa Ewes na ŵa Ouatchis mbanthu ŵamoza, kweni Ŵafalansa awo ŵakasanda magulu ghose ghaŵiri, ŵakughanaghana kuti ni ŵanthu ŵakupambana. Mitundu yinyake ni Ŵamina, Ŵamosi, Ŵamoba na Ŵabassar, Ŵachokossi ŵa ku Mango (pafupifupi 8%).[38]

Religion[lemba | kulemba source]

Religion in Togo (Arda 2020 estimate)[39] ██ Christianity (47.84%)██ Traditional faiths (33.43%)██ Islam (18.36%)██ No religion (0.23%)██ Other (1.14%)

Church in Kpalime

Kuyana na lipoti la boma la US la 2012 pa nkhani ya wanangwa wa kusopa, mu 2004, Yunivesite ya Lomé yikati ŵanthu 33 pa ŵanthu 100 ŵaliwose ŵakugomezga kuti vinthu vili kulengeka, 28 pa ŵanthu 100 ŵaliwose Mbakatolika, 20 pa ŵanthu 100 ŵaliwose Mbakhristu ŵa Sunni, 9 pa ŵanthu 100 ŵaliwose Mbakuprotesitanti, ndipo 5 pa ŵanthu 100 ŵaliwose ŵali mu visopa vinyake. Pa ŵanthu 5 awo ŵakakhalapo, pakaŵaso ŵanyake awo ŵakaŵa ŵa cisopa cilicose yayi. Lipoti ili likayowoya kuti "Ŵakhristu na Ŵasilamu ŵanandi" ŵakulutilira kulondezga visambizgo vya cisopa ca ku malo agha.[40]

Mu 2023, The World Factbook yikati 42.3% ya ŵanthu ni Ŵakhristu ndipo 14% ni Ŵasilamu, ndipo 36.9% mbalondezgi ŵa visambizgo vya ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha, ndipo ŵanthu ŵachoko waka awo ni Ŵahindu, Ŵayuda, na ŵalondezgi ŵa visopa vinyake, ndipo 6.2% mbambura kusopa..[31][41][42]

Cikhristu cikamba kuthandazgika pakati pa virimika vya m'ma 1400, pamanyuma pakuti ŵamishonale ŵa Cikatoriki ŵafika. Kuumaliro wa vilimika vya m'ma 1800, ŵanthu ŵa ku Germany ŵakambiska Ciphulotesitanti apo ŵamishonale 100 ŵa gulu la Bremen Missionary Society ŵakatumika ku vigaŵa vya Togo na Ghana ivyo vili mumphepete mwa nyanja. Ŵaprotesitanti ŵa ku Togo ŵakamanyikwanga na zina lakuti "Brema", ilo likung'anamura "Bremen". Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Caru Cose yikati yamara, ŵamishonale ŵa ku Germany ŵakafumamo, ndipo ivi vikapangiska kuti mpingo wa Ewe Evangelical Church uŵe wakujiyimira pawekha.

Mu 2022, Freedom House yikati wanangwa wa kusopa mu Togo ni 3 pa 4, ndipo yikati wanangwa wa kusopa ukuvikilirika na dango la boma kweniso ŵanthu wose ŵakuwuchindika. Boma likuzomerezga visopa vya Cisilamu, Cikatolika, na Ciphulotesitanti. Kulembeka kwa ma ID kwajumpha nyengo yitali, ndipo ŵanthu pafupifupi 900 ŵakakhumbikwiranga ma ID mu 2021.

Viyowoyelo[lemba | kulemba source]

Kuyana na buku la Ethnologue, mu caru ici mukuyowoyeka viyowoyero vyakupambanapambana 39, ndipo vinyake mwa viyowoyero ivi vikuyowoyeka na ŵanthu ŵambura kukwana 100,000. Pa viyowoyero 39 ivi, ciyowoyero ca Cifurenci ndico cikayowoyeka pa caru cose. Viyowoyero viŵiri ivyo vikuyowoyeka na ŵanthu ŵa mu vigaŵa ivi vikapika mazaza mu 1975 kuti viŵe viyowoyero vya mu charu ichi. Viyowoyero ivi ni Ewé (Template:Lang-ee) na Kabiyé.

Nangauli ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakuyowoya Cifurenci yayi, kweni cikuyowoyeka mu visambizgo, mu nyumba za malango, mu ma TV, mu maofesi gha boma, na mu malonda. Ciyowoyero ca Ewe cikayowoyekanga comene kumwera. Ku vigaŵa vinyake vya kumpoto kwa caru ici, ciyowoyero ca Tem cikayowoyekanga pakugwiliskira nchito malonda. Kuyana na ivyo vikuyowoyeka ku Togo, viyowoyero ivi ni viyowoyero ivyo vikuyowoyeka pa sukulu na mu manyuzipepara. Ŵanyake ni Gen, Aja, Moba, Ntcham, na Ife. Boma la Togo likati lazomera kuŵa mu vyaru ivyo vikaŵa pasi pa Commonwealth, likawona kuti ŵanthu ŵa ku Togo ŵasambirenge Chingelezi.[18]

Umoyo[lemba | kulemba source]

Wupu wa Human Rights Measurement Initiative ukati Togo yikufiska 73.1% ya ivyo yikwenera kufiska pa nkhani ya wanangwa wakuŵa na umoyo uwemi. Pa nkhani ya kulera ŵana, caru ca Togo cikukwaniska 93.8% ya ivyo cikulindizga kuyana na ndalama izo cikusanga. Pa nkhani ya wanangwa wa umoyo pakati pa ŵanthu ŵalara, caru ici cikukwaniska 88.2% ya ivyo vikulindizgika kuyana na unandi wa ndalama izo munthu wakusanga. Pa nkhani ya kulera ŵana, caru ici cili mu gulu la ŵanthu ŵambura kulera makora cifukwa cikukwaniska 37.3 peresenti ya ivyo cikwenera kufiska kuyana na ndalama izo zilipo.

Mu 2014, ndalama izo ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito pa vyaumoyo ku Togo zikaŵa 5.2% za GDP, ndipo caru ici cikukhala pa malo gha 45 pa caru cose. Ŵana awo ŵakufwa na nthenda iyi ŵalipo pafupifupi 43.7 pa ŵana 1,000 mu 2016. Mu 2016, unandi wa ŵanthu awo ŵakakhala na umoyo kwa vyaka vinandi ukaŵa 62.3 pa ŵanalume, ndipo wa ŵanthu awo ŵakakhala na umoyo kwa vyaka vinandi ukaŵa 67.7. Kuyana na lipoti la UNICEF la mu 2013, ŵanakazi 4 pa ŵanakazi 100 ŵaliwose ku Togo ŵali kukotoleka.

Ku Togo, pa ŵanthu 100,000 awo ŵakababika mu 2015, ŵanthu 368 ndiwo ŵakafwanga, apo mu 2010 ŵakafwanga 350 ndipo mu 1990 ŵakafwanga 539.7. Ciŵelengero ca ŵana ŵa vyaka 5 awo ŵakufwa pa ŵana 1,000 awo ŵakubabika ni 100, ndipo ciŵelengero ca ŵana ŵa vyaka 5 awo ŵakufwa pa ŵana 1,000 awo ŵakubabika ni 32. Ku Togo, pa ŵanakazi 1,000 awo ŵakubabika ŵamoyo, ŵanakazi ŵaŵiri ndiwo ŵakubaba ndipo pa ŵanakazi 67 awo ŵakubaba, yumoza ndiyo wakufwa.[43][31][44][31][31]

Mu 2016, ku Togo kukaŵa ŵanthu 4100 (2400-6100) awo ŵakasangika na HIV ndipo 5100 (3100-7700) awo ŵakafwa na AIDS. Mu 2016, pakaŵa ŵanthu 100,000 (73,000-130,000) awo ŵakaŵa na HIV, ndipo pa ŵanthu aŵa, 51% (37-67%) ŵakalutanga ku cipatala. Pa ŵanakazi awo ŵakaŵa na nthumbo ndipo ŵakaŵa na HIV, 86% (59% - > 95%) ŵakalutanga ku cipatala panji ku cipatala kuti ŵaleke kuphalizgana nthenda iyi na ŵana ŵawo. Pafupifupi ŵana < 1000 (< 500- 1400) ndiwo ŵakasangika na HIV cifukwa cakuti yikathandazgika kufuma kwa mama kuluta kwa mwana. Pa ŵanthu awo ŵakaŵa na HIV, pafupifupi 42% (30- 55%) ŵakaŵa na HIV yayi.

AFD yikugwira nchito kuti yikhozge umoyo wa ŵanthu ŵa mu Lomé, tawuni ya mumphepete mwa nyanja iyo yili na ŵanthu ŵakukwana 1.4 miliyoni, mwa kunozga vinthu vyakovwira kuti ŵakhalenge makora. Ntchito iyi yikusazgapo kunozga malo ghakusungiramo viswaswa agho ghakukolerana na malango gha caru cose.[45][46][47]

Masambilo[lemba | kulemba source]

Ku Togo, masambiro ni ghakukhumbikwa kwa vilimika vinkhondi na cimoza. Mu 1996, chiŵelengero cha ŵanthu awo ŵakalembeskeka mu sukulu ya pulayimale chikaŵa 119.6%, ndipo chiŵelengero cha awo ŵakalembeskeka mu sukulu ya pulayimale chikaŵa 81.3%. Mu 2011, chiŵelengero cha ŵana awo ŵakalembeskeka pa sukulu iyi chikaŵa 94%. Masambiro gha mu caru ici "ghakusuzgika cifukwa ca kusoŵa ŵasambizgi, masambiro ghaheni comene mu mizi, kweniso ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakuweleraso ku sukulu na kuleka sukulu".[48]

Mwambo[lemba | kulemba source]

Taberma houses

Chikhalidwe chake chikusonyeza zikhalidwe za mafuko, zikuluzikulu mwa izo ndi Ewe, Mina, Tem, Tchamba ndi Kabre. Ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakulondezga maluso na vigomezgo vya ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha.

Vikozgo vya Ewe vikulongora umo ŵanthu ŵakasopanga viŵeto ivi. Ŵakapanganga vithuzithuzi na vinthu vinyake vyakukopa m'malo mwa vikozgo vya ku Afrika ivyo vikaŵa palipose. Ŵakuŵaja makuni ŵa ku Kloto ŵali na "maunyoro gha nthengwa": Ŵanthu ŵaŵiri ŵakukolerana na mphete izo ŵajambura ku khuni limoza.

Vinthu ivyo ŵakajambura ku Kloto vikulongora umo ŵanthu ŵakacitiranga vinthu mu nyengo yakale. Pali vizwazwa ivyo ŵakuvwara pa chiŵegha ŵakugwiliskira nchito pa viphikiro vya ku Assahoun. Mulembi Sokey Edorh wakalemba vinthu ivyo vikulongora "malo ghambura maji, agho ghakuputwa na mphepo yiheni", ndipo mu malo agha muli vimanyikwiro vya ŵanthu na vinyama. Paul Ahyi, uyo wakagwiranga nchito ya kupanga mapulasitiki, wakacitanga "zota", ndipo vinthu vinandi ivyo wakacita vikukondweska ŵanthu ŵa ku Lomé.

Maseŵero gha basketball ni "maseŵero ghaciŵiri agho ŵanthu ŵakutemwa comene" ku Togo. Timu ya Togo yikaŵa na timu ya beach volleyball iyo yikachita mpikisano wa 2018 ⁇ 2020 CAVB Beach Volleyball Continental Cup mu chigaŵa cha ŵanalume.

Vinthu ivi ni wayilesi, TV, na mabuku. Wupu wa nkhani wa Agence Togolaise de Presse [fr] ukayamba mu 1975. Bungwe la nyuzipepara la Union des Journalistes Indépendants du Togo likukhala ku Lomé.[49][50][51]

Wonaniso[lemba | kulemba source]

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Ukaboni[lemba | kulemba source]

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Vyakulemba vinyake[lemba | kulemba source]

  • Bullock, A L C, Germany's Colonial Demands (Oxford University Press, 1939).
  • Gründer, Horst, Geschichte der deutschen Kolonien, 3. Aufl. (Paderborn, 1995).
  • Mwakikagile, Godfrey, Military Coups in West Africa Since The Sixties (Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2001).
  • Packer, George, The Village of Waiting (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1988).
  • Piot, Charles, Nostalgia for the Future: West Africa After the Cold War (University of Chicago Press, 2010).
  • Schnee, Dr. Heinrich, German Colonization, Past and Future - the Truth about the German Colonies (George Allen & Unwin, 1926).
  • Sebald, Peter, Togo 1884 bis 1914. Eine Geschichte der deutschen "Musterkolonie" auf der Grundlage amtlicher Quellen (Berlin, 1987).
  • Seely, Jennifer, The Legacies of Transition Governments in Africa: The Cases of Benin and Togo (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009).
  • Zurstrassen, Bettina, "Ein Stück deutscher Erde schaffen". Koloniale Beamte in Togo 1884-1914 (Frankfurt/M., Campus, 2008) (Campus Forschung, 931).

Vigaŵa vya kuwalo[lemba | kulemba source]

Government

General

Malonda

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