Cameroon

Coordinates: 6°N 12°E / 6°N 12°E / 6; 12
Kufuma Wikipedia

Charu cha Cameroon
République du Cameroun (French)
Vertical tricolor (green, red, yellow) with a five-pointed gold star in the center of the red
Mbendela Coat of arms
Chiluso: 
"Paix – Travail – Patrie" (French)
"Peace – Work – Fatherland"
Nyimbo: 
"Ô Cameroun, Berceau de nos Ancêtres" (French)
"O Cameroon, Cradle of Our Forefathers"
Location of Cameroon on the globe.
Location of Cameroon on the globe.
Msumba WabomaYaoundé[1]
Msumba usani Douala
Chiyowoyelo chaboma French • English
Viyowoyelo vyakumanyikwa vyamuvigaŵa
Mitundu ya Ŵanthu
Vipembezo
Mwenecharu Cameroonian
Mtundu wa Boma Unitary dominant-party presidential republic[2] under a dictatorship[3][4][5]
 -  President Paul Biya
 -  Prime Minister Joseph Ngute
 -  President of Senate Marcel Niat Njifenji
 -  President of National Assembly Cavayé Yéguié Djibril
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house National Assembly
Independence from France and the United Kingdom
 -  Independence from France 1 January 1960 
 -  Independence from the United Kingdom 1 October 1961 
Ukulu wa Malo
 -  Malo 475,442 km2 (53rd)
183,569 sq mi
 -  Maji (%) 0.57 [1]
Chiŵelengelo cha ŵanthu
 -  2022 estimate 29,321,637 [1] (51st)
 -  Density 39.7/km2
102,8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2021 estimate
 -  Total Increase $101.950 billion[6] (94th)
 -  Per capita Increase $3,745[6] (187th)
GDP (nominal) 2021 estimate
 -  Total Increase $44.893 billion[6] (89th)
 -  Per capita Increase $1,649[6] (150th)
Gini (2014)46.6[7]
high
HDI (2021)Steady 0.576[8]
medium ·151st
Ndalama Central African CFA franc (XAF)
Mtundu Wanyengo WAT (UTC+1)
Kalembelo kasiku dd/mm/yyyy
yyyy/mm/dd
Woko la galimoto right
Intaneti yacharu .cm
a. These are the titles as given in the Constitution of the Republic of Cameroon, Article X (English at the Wayback Machine (archived 28 Febuluwale 2006) and French at the Wayback Machine (archived 28 Febuluwale 2006) versions). 18 January 1996. The French version of the song is sometimes called Chant de Ralliement, as in Swarovski Orchestra (2004). National Anthems of the World. Koch International Classics; and the English version "O Cameroon, Cradle of Our Forefathers", as in DeLancey and DeLancey 61.

Cameroon (English: Cameroon,/ˌkæməˈrn/ (pulikizgani machemelo), French: Cameroun, Duala: Kamerun, Ewondo: Kamərún, Fula: Kamerun, Fe'fe': Kamerun), (French: République du Cameroun), ni chalo icho chili kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Africa. Charu ichi chili na mphaka na Nigeria kumanjiliro gha dazi na kumpoto, Chad kumpoto kwa kumafumiro gha dazi, Central African Republic kumafumiro gha dazi, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon na Republic of Congo kumwera. Mphepete mwa nyanja iyi pali nyanja ya Biafra, iyo yili mu nyanja ya Atlantic na Gulf of Guinea. Cifukwa ca malo ghake ghakutowa agho ghali pa mphambano pakati pa vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Africa na vya pakati pa Africa, ŵanthu ŵakughanaghana kuti charu ichi chili ku vigaŵa vyose viŵiri. [9]Ŵanthu pafupifupi 27 miliyoni ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero vyakujumpha 250.[10][11]

Ŵanthu ŵakwambilira awo ŵakakhalanga mu chigaŵa ichi ŵakaŵa ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Sao awo ŵakakhalanga kufupi na Nyanja ya Chad, kweniso ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Baka awo ŵakakhalanga mu nkhorongo ya kumwera kwa charu ichi. Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1400, ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal ŵakafika pa malo agha na kughathya Rio dos Camarões (Mlonga wa Shrimp). Ŵasilikari ŵa Fulani ŵakakhazikiska boma la Adamawa kumpoto kwa charu ichi mu ma 1800, ndipo mafuko ghakupambanapambana gha kumanjiliro gha dazi na kumpoto kwa charu ichi ghakakhazikiska vigaŵa vyawo. Mu 1884, charu cha Cameroon chikaŵa pasi pa Germany. Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Caru Cose yikati yamara, caru ici cikagaŵika pakati pa France na United Kingdom. Chipani cha Union des Populations du Cameroun (UPC) chikakhumbanga kuti charu ichi chiŵe na wanangwa, kweni mu ma 1950, charu cha France chikakanizga, ndipo ichi chikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵa ku France na UPC ŵambe kuwukira charu chawo m'paka mu 1971. Mu 1960, chigaŵa cha Cameroon icho chikaŵa pasi pa French chikamba kujiyimira paŵekha. Chigaŵa chakumwera cha British Cameroons chikakolerana na charu ichi mu 1961 ndipo chikazgoka Federal Republic of Cameroon. Wupu uwu ukamara mu 1972. Mu 1972, charu ichi chikachemekaso kuti United Republic of Cameroon, ndipo mu 1984 chikachemekaso kuti Republic of Cameroon. Paul Biya, uyo ni pulezidenti wa sono, ndiyo walaŵiliranga charu ichi kwamba mu 1982 pamanyuma pakuti Ahidjo wafumapo. Charu cha Cameroon chili na boma la pulezidenti.

Viyowoyero vya boma vya ku Cameroon ni Chifurenchi na Chingelezi. Ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakukhala mu tawuni iyi Mbakhristu, ndipo ŵachoko waka ndiwo ŵakusopa Chisilamu. Chigaŵa ichi chili na ŵanthu awo ŵakuyowoya Chingelezi, awo ŵakukhumba kuti chigaŵa ichi chileke kuŵa na ŵanthu ŵanandi, kweniso kuti chipatukeko panji chiŵe na wanangwa (nga umo vikaŵira na South Cameroon National Council). Mu 2017, masuzgo agho ghakaŵapo chifukwa cha boma la Ambazonian mu vigaŵa ivyo ŵanthu ŵakuyowoya Chingelezi ghakafika paheni chomene.

Ŵanthu ŵanandi ku Cameroon ŵalimi. Kanandi ŵanthu ŵakuchema charu ichi kuti "Africa in miniature" chifukwa cha malo ghake ghakupambanapambana, viyowoyero, na mitheto.[12][10]Vinyake mwa vyaru ivi ni vigaŵa vya nyanja, mapopa, mapiri, nkhorongo, na mapiri. Malo ghake ghatali chomene, pafupifupi mamita 4,100 (13,500 ft), ni Phiri la Cameroon ku Southwest Region. Msumba ukuru uwo uli na ŵanthu ŵanandi ni Douala, uwo uli mumphepete mwa Mlonga wa Wouri, msumba ukuru wa vyachuma na dowoko likuru; Yaoundé, msumba ukuru wa ndyali; na Garoua. Ku Limbe, kumwera ca kumanjiliro gha dazi, kuli dowoko la nyanja. Charu cha Cameroon chikumanyikwa na sumu zake za Makossa, Njang, na Bikutsi. Charu ichi chili mu wupu wa African Union, United Nations, Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), Commonwealth of Nations, Non-Aligned Movement na Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

Zina

Pakwamba, Ŵapwitikizi ŵakachemanga mlonga wa Wouri kuti Cameroon. Ŵakawuchemanga kuti Rio dos Camarões, kung'anamura "mulonga wa nkharamu".[13][14] Mazuŵa ghano, charu ichi chikuchemeka Camarões mu Ciphwitikizi.

Mbili

Mbili yakwamba

Charu icho sono chikuchemeka Cameroon, ŵanthu ŵakakhalanga mwenemumo mu nyengo ya Neolithic. Ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mu charu ichi nyengo yitali chomene ni Baka (Pygmies). Ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakugomezga kuti ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Bantu ŵakasamukira ku vigaŵa vya kumafumiro gha dazi, kumwera, na pakati pa Africa vyaka pafupifupi 2,000 ivyo vyajumpha. Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Sao ŵakamba kukhala kufupi na Nyanja ya Chad, c. Mu 500 C.E., ufumu wa Kanem na ufumu unyake uwo ukamulondezganga ukababika. Maufumu, vyaru, na maufumu ghakawuka kumanjiliro gha dazi.[15]

Mu 1472, ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal ŵakafika pa dowoko ili. Ŵakawona kuti mu Mlonga wa Wouri mukaŵa shrimpu zinandi za mtundu wa Lepidophthalmus turneranus, ndipo ŵakazitcha kuti Rio dos Camarões. Mu vyaka vyakulondezgapo, ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakambiska malonda na ŵanthu ŵa mumphepete mwa nyanja.

Mu 1896, Sultani Ibrahim Njoya wakambiska ciyowoyero ca ciyowoyero ici. Mazuŵa ghano, mu Cameroon, ŵanthu ŵakusambira Baibolo ili kwizira mu pulojekiti ya Bamum Scripts and Archives.[16]

Bamum script is a writing system developed by King Njoya in the late 19th century.

Boma la Germany

Mu 1868, kampani ya Woermann Company ya ku Hamburg yikazenga malo ghakusungiramo katundu. Wakazengeka pa mlonga wa Wouri. [17]Nyengo yikati yajumphapo, Gustav Nachtigal wakacita phangano na yumoza wa mafumu gha mu cigaŵa ici kuti malo agha ghaŵe gha themba la Germany. Mu 1884, Ufumu wa Germany ukati charu ichi ntcha ku Cameroon ndipo ukamba kulimbana na ŵanthu ŵa mu charu ichi. Pa nyengo iyo boma la Germany likalamuliranga caru ici, maboma ghakawovwiranga makampani. Mu vyaru ivi ŵakagwiliskiranga ntchito ŵanthu awo ŵakaŵachichizganga kugwira ntchito mu minda ya banane, ghamayi, mafuta gha makuni, na koko. Nanga ni milimo ya kuzenga yikaŵa yakukhumbikwa. Boma linyake likasuska comene fundo iyi.[17]

Ufumu wa France na Britain

Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Caru Cose yikati yamara, caru ca Cameroon cikaŵa pasi pa muwuso wa League of Nations ndipo cikagaŵika mu vyaru vya French Cameroon na British Cameroon mu 1919. Boma la France likawovwira kuti vinthu vyendenge makora mu Cameroon na kunozgaso vinthu vya mu charu ichi.[17]

Ŵanandi ŵakakhalanga mu vigaŵa ivyo vikaŵa pafupi na Nigeria. Ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha ŵakadandawura kuti ŵanthu ŵakaŵaleka waka. Ŵantchito ŵakufuma ku Nigeria ŵakiza ku Southern Cameroon, ndipo ŵakaŵakanizga kugwira nchito mwakucicizgika, kweni ŵakakwiyiska ŵanthu ŵa mu caru ici, awo ŵakajiwonanga nga ŵalije nchito.[18] Mu 1946, mawupu gha League of Nations ghakazgoka United Nations Trusteeships, ndipo nkhani ya kujiyimira payekha yikaŵa yakuzirwa chomene mu France.

Pa Julayi 13, 1955, boma la France likakanizga chipani cha Union des Populations du Cameroun (UPC). Ivi vikapangiska kuti UPC yambe nkhondo ya ŵasilikari na kukoma ŵalongozgi ŵanandi ŵa chipani ichi, kusazgapo Ruben Um Nyobè, Félix-Roland Moumié na Ernest Ouandie. Mu vyaru vya Britain ivyo vikachemekanga Cameroon, ŵanthu ŵakakhumbanga kumanya usange ŵanganjilirapo mu vyaru vya France panji ku Nigeria.[19]

Kujilamulila

Former president Ahmadou Ahidjo ruled from 1960 until 1982.

Pa Janyuwale 1, 1960, charu cha French Cameroon chikamba kujiyimira paŵekha. Pa Okutobala 1, 1961, vyaru ivyo kale vikachemekanga British Southern Cameroons, vikajiyimira pavyake kufuma ku United Kingdom.[20] Ahidjo wakagwiliskira nchito nkhondo iyo yikaŵa pakati pa iyo na UPC kuti wakhozge mazaza ghake, ndipo wakalutilira kucita nthena nanga ni apo UPC yikaparanyika mu 1971.

Chipani chake cha ndale, cha Cameroon National Union (CNU), chikaŵa chipani chimoza pera pa 1 Seputembala 1966 ndipo pa 20 Meyi 1972, chikaŵa na referendum yakuwuskapo boma la feduro na kwendera boma la United Republic of Cameroon. Zuŵa ili ni Zuŵa la Charu. Ahidjo wakendeskanga ndyali ya vyamalonda, ndipo wakadangizganga vyakurya vya ndalama na mafuta. Boma likagwiliskira nchito ndalama za mafuta kuti lipangire ndalama zakwendeskera vinthu, kulipira ŵalimi, na kupeleka ndalama zakwendeskera vinthu vikuruvikuru. Kweni vinthu vinandi vikenda makora yayi apo Ahidjo wakasankha ŵanthu ŵambura kuzomerezgeka kuti ŵaŵalongozge.[21]

Mbendera ya caru yikasinthika pa 20 Meyi 1975. Ŵakawuskamo nyenyezi ziŵiri na kuŵikamo yinyake yikuru iyo yikwimira kukolerana.

Ahidjo wakafumapo pa udindo wake pa Novembala 4, 1982 ndipo wakapeleka mazaza kwa Paul Biya. Ndipouli, Ahidjo wakalutilira kuwusa CNU ndipo wakayezga kuwusa caru kufuma kumasinda mpaka apo Biya na ŵabwezi ŵake ŵakamucicizga kuti waleke. Biya wakamba kuwusa na boma la demokalase, kweni boma likati latondekapo, wakayamba kulongozga nga umo wakacitiranga mulara wake.

Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1980 m'paka m'ma 1990, kukaŵa suzgo la vyachuma chifukwa cha suzgo la vyachuma pa charu chose, chilangalanga, kukhira kwa mafuta, na vimbundi, kusuzgika na ŵabwezi. Cameroon wakathemba wovwiri wa vyaru vinyake, wakadumulizga ndalama za boma, na kupanga makampani ghanyake. Mu Disembala 1990, apo boma la Britain likambaso kwambiska vyaru vinandi, ŵanthu ŵa ku Southern Cameroons ŵakakhumbanga kuti charu ichi chiŵe na wanangwa wa kujilongozga. Dango la Ntchito la 1992 mu Cameroon likupeleka wanangwa ku ŵantchito wa kuŵa mu wupu wa ŵantchito panji kuleka kuŵa mu wupu uliwose. Wantchito wakusankha kunjira wupu uliwose wa ŵantchito mu nchito yake cifukwa pali wupu unyake wa ŵantchito mu nchito yiliyose.[22]

Paul Biya has ruled the country since 1982.

Mu Juni 2006, ŵakamazga mphindano za chigaŵa cha Bakassi. Pa ungano uwu pakaŵa Pulezidenti Paul Biya wa ku Cameroon, kweniso Pulezidenti Olusegun Obasanjo wa ku Nigeria na Secretary General wa UN Kofi Annan. Chigaŵa chakumpoto cha chigaŵa ichi chikapelekeka ku boma la Cameroon mu Ogasiti 2006, ndipo chigaŵa chinyake chikapelekeka ku Cameroon mu 2008. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Bakassi ŵakakana kuzomerezga boma la Cameroon. Nangauli ŵasilikari ŵanandi ŵakaleka nkhondo mu Novembala 2009, kweni ŵanyake ŵakalutilira kurwa nkhondo kwa vyaka vinandi.

Mu Febuluwale 2008, ku Cameroon kukacitika vivulupi vikuru comene mu vyaka 15, apo gulu la ŵanthu awo ŵakasuzgikanga na vigeŵenga ku Douala, likakura na kuŵa vigeŵenga mu matawuni 31.[23][24]

Mu Meyi 2014, pamanyuma pa kukomeka kwa ŵasungwana ŵa sukulu ŵa Chibok, pulezidenti Paul Biya wa ku Cameroon na Idriss Déby wa ku Chad ŵakapharazga kuti ŵakurwa nkhondo na Boko Haram, ndipo ŵakatuma ŵasilikari ku mphaka ya Nigeria. Gulu la Boko Haram likawukira ku Cameroon kanandi waka, ndipo mu Disembala 2014, likakoma ŵanthu 84, kweni likathereskeka chomene mu Janyuwale 2015. Cameroon yalengeza kupambana pa Boko Haram pa gawo la Cameroon mu Seputembala 2018.[25]

Kwambira mu Novembala 2016, ŵanthu ŵakuyowoya Chingelezi ŵakufuma ku vigaŵa vya kumpoto na kumwera kwa charu ichi ŵakuchitiska kampeni kuti chiyowoyero cha Chingelezi chikalutilire kugwiliskirika ntchito mu masukulu na makhoti. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakakomeka ndipo ŵanyake ŵakajalirika mu jele. Mu 2017, boma la Biya likakanizga ŵanthu kuchezga pa Intaneti kwa myezi yitatu. Mu Seputembala, ŵanthu ŵakugaluka ŵakamba nkhondo ya kuwukira boma kuti chigaŵa ichi chiŵe na wanangwa wakuyowoya Chingelezi. Boma likamba kuwukira boma, ndipo ŵanthu ŵakamba kuwukira mu vigaŵa vya kumpoto na kumwera kwa charu ichi. Kufumira mu 2019, nkhondo pakati pa ŵasilikari na ŵasilikari ŵa boma zikulutilira. Mu chaka cha 2020, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakakomeka chifukwa cha vigeŵenga, ndipo boma likapeleka ndalama yayi. Kwambira mu 2016, ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 450,000 ŵachimbira mu vikaya vyawo. Nkhondo iyi yikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵa Boko Haram ŵambeso kuwukira charu cha Cameroon.

Ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 30,000 ŵa kumpoto kwa Cameroon ŵakachimbilira ku Chad pamanyuma pa kulimbana kwa mafuko pa nkhani ya maji pakati pa ŵalovi ŵa Musgum na ŵaliska ŵa mafuko gha Arab Choa mu Disembala 2021.[26][27]

Ndale na boma

Unity Palace – Cameroon Presidency

Pulezidenti wa charu cha Cameroon ndiyo wakusankhika na kupanga ndondomeko, wakulongozga maboma, wakulongozga ŵasilikari, wakuchita vyamalango, ndipo wakuŵikapo mtima kuti vinthu viŵe makora. Pulezidenti wakwimika ŵalara ŵa boma pa vigaŵa vyose, kwambira pa nduna yikuru (iyo yikuwoneka nga ni mulongozgi wa boma), m'paka ku ŵalongozgi ŵa vigaŵa na ŵalara ŵa vigaŵa. Pa vilimika vinkhondi na viŵiri vilivyose, pulezidenti wakusankhika na ŵanthu. Kufuma apo charu cha Cameroon chikapokera wanangwa, pakaŵa ŵalongozgi ŵaŵiri.

Nyumba ya Malango ndiyo yikupanga malango. Wupu uwu uli na mamembara 180, ndipo ŵakusankhika kwa vyaka vinkhondi.[28]Malango ghakupokeka na ŵanthu ŵanandi.Ndondomeko ya malango ya mu 1996 yikupanga nyumba yachiŵiri ya boma, iyo ni Senate. Boma likuzomerezga mazaza gha ŵalongozgi ŵa ndyali, fons, na lamibe kuti ŵachitenge vinthu pa malo agha na kumazga mphindano usange malango agha ghakususkana yayi na malango gha charu.

Boma la Cameroon lili na malango gha boma, malango gha ŵanthu wose, na malango gha mitheto. Nangauli boma likujiyimira palekha, kweni boma la ŵeruzgi likulamulirika na Unduna wa vya Malango. Pulezidenti wakusora ŵeruzgi pa vigaŵa vyose. Ŵeruzgi ŵali kugaŵika mu makhoti ghaŵiri, khoti la apilu, na khoti likuru. Khoti Likuru la Vyamalango ilo lili na ŵanthu 9, likuŵa na ŵeruzgi awo ŵakweruzga ŵalaraŵalara ŵa boma para ŵapika mulandu wa kugalukira boma.[29][30]

Political culture

A statue of a chief in Bana, West Region

Ŵanthu ŵanandi ku Cameroon ŵakuwona kuti vimbundi vili pa vigaŵa vyose vya boma. Mu 1997, charu cha Cameroon chikakhazikiska maofesi ghakwimikana na vimbundi mu maofesi 29, kweni 25 pera pa maofesi agha ndigho ghakamba kugwira ntchito, ndipo mu 2012, wupu wa Transparency International ukaŵika charu cha Cameroon pa nambara 144 pa maofesi 176 pa charu chose. Pa 18 January 2006, Biya wakambiska kampeni yakwimikana na vimbundi pasi pa ulongozgi wa National Anti-Corruption Observatory. Ku Cameroon kuli vigaŵa vinandi ivyo vingaŵa na vimbundi, nga ni misika, vyakupwelelera umoyo wa ŵanthu, na vyakupeleka vya boma. Ndipouli, vimbundi vyafika paheni chomene, nangauli pali mabungwe ghakwimikana na vimbundi, chifukwa mu 2018, Transparency International yikaŵika Cameroon pa malo 152.

Chipani cha Democratic Movement cha President Biya cha Cameroon People's Democratic Movement (CPDM) ndicho chikaŵa chipani pera icho chikaŵa na wanangwa wa ndyali m'paka mu Disembala 1990. Kufuma waka pa nyengo iyi, magulu ghanandi gha ndyali gha mu vigaŵa ivi ghapangika. Chipani cha Social Democratic Front (SDF) ndicho chikususka chomene ndipo chikulongozgeka na John Fru Ndi.

Biya na chipani cake ŵakalutilira kuwusa pa udindo wa pulezidenti na pa Nyumba ya Malango mu mavoti gha caru cose, agho ŵalwani ŵake ŵakuti ghakaŵa ghambura urunji. Wupu wakuvikilira wanangwa wa ŵanthu ukuti boma likukanizga wanangwa wa magulu ghakwimikana na boma mwa kukanizga vipharazgo, kunanga maungano, na kukora ŵalongozgi na ŵapharazgi. Ŵanthu awo ŵakuyowoya Cingelezi ndiwo ŵakutambuzgika comene; kanandi para ŵanthu ŵakususkana ŵakuŵa na vivulupi na kukoma ŵanthu. Mu 2017, Pulezidenti Biya wakajara Intaneti mu chigaŵa cha Chingelezi kwa mazuŵa 94, ndipo ŵanthu mamiliyoni ghankhondi ŵakasuzgika, kusazgapo mabungwe gha Silicon Mountain.

Bungwe la Freedom House likuti charu cha Cameroon "ntchakufwatuka yayi" pa nkhani ya wanangwa wa ŵanthu. Chisankho chatha cha nyumba yamalamulo chinachitika pa 9 February 2020.[31]

Ubale na vyaru vinyake

President Paul Biya with U.S. President Barack Obama in 2014

Charu cha Cameroon chili mu wupu wa Commonwealth of Nations na La Francophonie.

Ndondomeko ya vyaru vinyake ya caru ici yikukolerana comene na ya caru ca France, ico nchabwezi cake cikuru. Charu cha Cameroon chikuthemba comene caru ca France pa nkhani ya kuvikilira caru cake, nangauli ndalama izo ŵakupeleka ku nkhondo ni zinandi comene pakuyaniska na za maboma ghanyake.

Pulezidenti Biya wali mu nkhondo ya vilimika vinandi na boma la Nigeria cifukwa ca kutora malo gha Bakassi. Charu cha Cameroon na Nigeria vili na mphaka ya makilomita 1,600 ndipo vikususkana pa nkhani ya chigaŵa cha Bakassi. Mu 1994, caru ca Cameroon cikapempha Khoti la pa Caru Cose kuti limare suzgo ili. Mu 1996, vyaru viŵiri ivi vikayezga kuti vilekane nkhondo, kweni nkhondo yikalutilira kwa vyaka vinandi. Mu 2002, khoti la ICJ likadumura kuti phangano la Britain na Germany ilo likachitika mu 1913, likapeleka wanangwa ku Cameroon. Khoti likadumura kuti vyaru vyose viŵiri vifumemo mu caru ici ndipo likakana kupempha kwa Cameroon kuti wapeleke malipiro cifukwa ca kukhalamo kwa nyengo yitali kwa Nigeria. Mu 2004, Nigeria yikatondeka kufiska nyengo yakutemeka yakupelekera malo agha. Pa ungano uwo ukacitika mu Juni 2006, uwo ukacitiskika na wupu wa UN, pakaŵa phangano lakuti Nigeria yifumemo mu cigaŵa ici. Kuwuskako na kupeleka mazaza kukamara mu Ogasiti 2006.

Mu Julayi 2019, mathenga gha vyaru 37, kusazgapo Cameroon, ghakasayina kalata yakuyana na iyi ku UNHRC kuvikilira umo China yikuchitira na ma Uyghur mu chigaŵa cha Xinjiang.[32]

Ŵankhondo

Military vehicles during a parade

Wankhondo wa Cameroon, (French: Forces armées camerounaises, FAC) wakupangika na ŵasilikari ŵa charu (Armée de Terre), ŵasilikari ŵa ku nyanja (Marine Nationale de la République (MNR), wakusazgapo ŵasilikari ŵa ku nyanja), ŵasilikari ŵa ku mphepo (Armée de l'Air du Cameroun, AAC), na ŵasilikari ŵa ku charu.

Ŵanalume na ŵanakazi awo ŵali na vyaka vyapakati pa 18 na 23 ndipo ŵamalizga masambiro gha ku sekondare, ŵangaluta ku usilikari. Awo ŵakunjira gulu ili ŵakwenera kuteŵetera vyaka vinayi. Ku Cameroon kulije dango lakuti ŵanthu ŵanjirenge usilikari, kweni boma likuchema ŵanthu kuti ŵanjire usilikari nyengo na nyengo.[1]

Wanangwa wa ŵanthu

Magulu ghakuvikilira wanangwa wa ŵanthu ghakususka ŵapolisi na ŵasilikari kuti ŵakuchitira nkhaza na kutambuzga ŵanthu awo ŵakukayikira kuti ŵakuswa malango, ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake, ŵanalume awo ŵakugonana na ŵanakazi ŵanyawo, na ŵanthu awo ŵakuchitako ndyali.[33][34][35][36] Kafukufuku wakulongora kuti ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 21,000 ŵakachimbilira ku vyaru vyapafupi, ndipo 160,000 ŵakacimbira kwawo cifukwa ca vivulupi. Vigeŵenga vili na ŵanthu ŵanandi chomene ndipo vikuŵavya chakurya na munkhwala wakukwana. Ndipouli, kwambira mu vyaka vya m'ma 2000, ŵapolisi na ŵasilikari ŵanandi ŵakutambuzgika cifukwa ca nkharo yawo yiheni. Pa Julayi 25, 2018, Mubali Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein, mulara wa UN wakuwona vya wanangwa wa ŵanthu, wakadandawura chomene na ivyo vikachitika mu vigaŵa vya kumpoto na kumwera kwa Cameroon.

Kuyana na OCHA, ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 1.7 miliyoni ŵakukhumbikwira wovwiri wa ŵanthu wose mu vigaŵa vya kumpoto na kumwera kwa caru ici. OCHA yikughanaghana kuti ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 628,000 ŵali kufumamo mu vikaya vyawo cifukwa ca vivulupi mu vigaŵa viŵiri ivi, ndipo ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 87,000 ŵachimbilira ku Nigeria.

Kucitirana vinthu vya kugonana kwa ŵanalume panji ŵanakazi ŵamoza kukukanizgika na cipaturo 347-1 ca dango la cilango.

Kwambira mu Disembala 2020, wupu wa Human Rights Watch ukati gulu la Islamist la Boko Haram lakhwimiska nkhondo na kukoma ŵanthu 80 mu matawuni na mizi ya kumpoto kwa Cameroon.[37]

Administrative divisions

Cameroon is divided into 10 regions.

Dango la caru la Cameroon likugaŵa caru ici mu vigaŵa 10, ndipo cilicose cikulongozgeka na wupu wa vigaŵa. Chigaŵa chilichose chikulongozgeka na kazembe.

Ŵalongozgi aŵa ŵakufiska ivyo pulezidenti wakukhumba, ŵakuphalira ŵanthu umo vinthu viliri mu vigaŵa, ŵakwendeska ntchito za boma, kukhazikiska bata, na kulaŵilira ŵalongozgi ŵa maboma ghachoko. Ŵalara ŵa boma ŵali na mazaza ghakupambanapambana. Ŵalaraŵalara wose ŵa boma ŵakugwira ntchito mu Unduna wa Vyaru.

Vigaŵa ivi vili kugaŵika vigaŵa 58 (Départements). Ŵalaraŵalara aŵa ŵakulongozgeka na ŵalara ŵa boma awo ŵakwimikika na pulezidenti. Vigaŵa ivi vili kugaŵikana mu vigaŵa vichokovichoko (arrondissements), ivyo vikulongozgeka na ŵalara ŵa vigaŵa (sous-prefets). Vigaŵa, ivyo vikulongozgeka na ŵalongozgi ŵa vigaŵa (chefs de district), ni vigaŵa vichoko chomene.

Vigaŵa vitatu vya kumpoto ni Far North (Extrême Nord), North (Nord), na Adamawa (Adamaoua). Kumwera kwake kuli msumba wa Central na East. Chigaŵa cha South (Sud) chili mumphepete mwa nyanja ya Gulf of Guinea. Chigaŵa cha kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Cameroon chili na vigaŵa vinayi: chigaŵa cha Littoral na South-West chili mumphepete mwa nyanja, ndipo chigaŵa cha North-West na West chili kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa charu ichi.[38]

Makhalilo gha charu

Volcanic plugs dot the landscape near Rhumsiki, Far North Region.

Charu cha Cameroon chili pa nambara 53 pa vyaru vikuruvikuru pa charu chapasi. Charu ichi chili pakati na kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Africa, ndipo chili pa nyanja ya Atlantic. Charu cha Cameroon chili pakati pa latitude 1° na 13°N, ndipo longitude 8° na 17°E. Cameroon wakulongozga nyanja ya Atlantic kwa mamayilozi 12.

Mabuku agho ghakulongosora vya ŵalendo ghakuyowoya kuti Cameroon ni "Africa mu kanyake" cifukwa muli vyakumera vinandi: mumphepete mwa nyanja, mu mapopa, mu mapiri, mu nkhorongo, na mu malo ghanyake. Charu ichi chili pafupi na Nigeria na Nyanja ya Atlantic kumanjiliro gha dazi; Chad kumpoto kwa kumafumiro gha dazi; Central African Republic kumafumiro gha dazi; Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, na Republic of Congo kumwera.

Cameroon wali kugaŵika vigaŵa vinkhondi vikuruvikuru ivyo vikumanyikwa na malo ghake, nyengo yake, na vyakumera. Chigaŵa cha mumphepete mwa nyanja chili na mtunda wa makilomita 15 m'paka 150 (9 m'paka 93 mi) kufuma ku Gulf of Guinea ndipo chili na mtunda wa mamita 90. Malo agha ghali na nkhorongo zinandi chomene ndipo ghanyake mwa malo agha ndigho ghali na maji ghanandi chomene pa charu chapasi.

Chilumba cha South Cameroon chikukwera kuchokera ku nyanja ya m'mphepete mwa nyanja mpaka mamita 650. Mu chigaŵa ichi muli nkhorongo zinandi chomene, nangauli nyengo ya vula na ya chilangalanga yikupambana. Malo agha ghali mu chigaŵa cha Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests ecoregion.[39]

Elephants in Waza National Park

Mapiri, tumapiri, na malo ghapachanya agho ghakumanyikwa na zina lakuti Cameroon range ghakutambazga kufuma ku Phiri la Cameroon pa m'mphepete mwa nyanja. Chigaŵa ichi chili na mphepo yakuzizima yayi, chomenechomene ku Western High Plateau. Malo agha ndigho ghakutowa comene mu Cameroon, comenecomene pafupi na Phiri la Cameroon. Ku malo agha kuli mapiri agho ghakupangika na vimalibwe. Pa Ogasiti 21, 1986, Nyanja ya Nyos, yikafumiska mphepo ya carbon dioxide ndipo yikakoma ŵanthu pakati pa 1,700 na 2,000. Wupu wa World Wildlife Fund ukati malo agha ni nkhalango za ku Cameroon.[40]

Charu cha kumwera chikukwelera kumpoto m'paka ku chigaŵa cha Adamawa. Malo agha ghakuthandazgika kufuma ku mapiri gha kumanjiliro gha dazi na kupanga mphambano pakati pa kumpoto na kumwera kwa charu ichi. Malo agha ghali pa mtunda wa mamita 1,100, ndipo matenthedwe ghake ghakukwana 22°C mpaka 25°C. Chigaŵa cha kumpoto kwa chigaŵa ichi chikwenda kufuma mumphepete mwa mlonga wa Adamawa m'paka ku Nyanja ya Chad, ndipo chili pa mtunda wa mamita 300 m'paka 350. Vyakumera vyake ni vyakumera vya mu savani na vyakumera. Ici nchigaŵa cakomira ico kuli vivula vicoko comene ndipo cikutentha comene.[40]

Ku Cameroon, maji ghakwenda mu nthowa zinayi. Kumwera, milonga yikuru ni Ntem, Nyong, Sanaga, na Wouri. Maji agha ghakuthira kumwera ca kumanjiliro gha dazi panji kumanjiliro gha dazi na kunjira mu nyanja ya Gulf of Guinea. Mlonga wa Dja na Kadéï ukuthira kumwera ca kumafumiro gha dazi na kunjira mu mlonga wa Congo. Mu kumpoto kwa Cameroon, Mlonga wa Bénoué ukufuma kumpoto na kumanjiliro gha dazi na kuthira mu Niger. Mlonga wa Logone ukufuma kumpoto na kunjira mu Nyanja ya Chad, iyo Cameroon yikukhala pamoza na vyaru vitatu.[40]

Chuma na vyakuzenga

GDP ya ku Cameroon pa munthu yumoza (Purchasing power parity) yikayaniskika na US$3,700 mu 2017. Vigaŵa vikuruvikuru ivyo ŵanthu ŵakuguliska ni Netherlands, France, China, Belgium, Italy, Algeria, na Malaysia.[41]

Cameroon wali na vyaka 10 [pawuli?] Vinthu vikwenda makora mu vyaru ivi, ndipo GDP yikukura pafupifupi 4% pa chaka. Mu nyengo ya 2004-2008, ngongoli ya boma yikakhira kufuma pa 60% ya GDP kufika pa 10% ndipo ndalama za boma zikasazgikira kanayi kufika pa US$ 3 biliyoni. Charu cha Cameroon chili mu wupu wa Central African States Bank (umo muli vyaru vinandi), Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa (UDEAC) na Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA). Ndalama zake ni CFA franc.

Ŵanthu awo ŵakaŵavya nchito ŵakaŵa pa 3.38% mu 2019, ndipo 23.8% ya ŵanthu ŵakakhalanga pasi pa ukavu wa US$1.90 pa zuŵa mu 2014. Kwambira kuumaliro wa m'ma 1980, Cameroon wakulondezga mapulogiramu gha Banki ya Caru Cose na ya International Monetary Fund (IMF) ghakovwira kuchepeska ukavu, kupanga vyamahara, na kusazgirako cuma. Boma la Russia lachitapo kanthu kuti likhozge vyalo vya ŵanthu awo ŵakwendakwenda.[41]

Pafupifupi 70% ya ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mu minda iyi, ndipo mu 2017 ŵalimi ndiwo ŵakapanganga 16.7% ya GDP. Ŵalimi ŵa mu chigaŵa ichi ndiwo ŵakulima chomene. Ŵakuguliska vyakurya ivyo vyakhalako, ndipo ŵanyake ŵakuguliska minda yawo. Malo gha mu matawuni ghakuthemba comene pa ulimi wa ŵalimi. Charu ichi chili na malo ghawemi chomene ndipo ŵanthu ŵakutemwa kulima banane, koko, mafuta gha makuni gha maolive, mphira, na tiyi. Mu vigaŵa vya kumwera kwa Cameroon, ŵanthu ŵakupanda khofi, shuga, na hona. Mu vigaŵa vya kumanjiliro gha dazi, khofi ni vyakurya vyakuzirwa chomene, ndipo kumpoto, vyakumera nga ni thonje, phere, na mpunga vikupambika makora. Mu 2004, ku Cameroon ŵakamba kupanga thonje lakufuma ku vyakumera vya Fairtrade.[41]

Dutch bulls and cows at Wallya community during the rainy season in Cameroon

Viŵeto vikuŵikika mu caru cose. Ŵanthu 5,000 ŵakugwira nchito yaulovi ndipo chaka cilicose ŵakurya matani ghakujumpha 100,000 gha vyakurya vya mu nyanja. Mu vigaŵa vya ku mizi, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakutemwa kurya nyama ya vinyama. Sono malonda gha nyama za mu nkhorongo ghajumpha kukoma makuni, ndipo ni suzgo likuru chomene ku vyamoyo vya mu nkhorongo mu Cameroon.[42][43]

Nkhorongo ya kumwera kwa caru ici yili na makuni ghanandi comene, agho ghakukwana 37% ya caru cose ca Cameroon. Kweni malo ghanandi gha mu nkhorongo agha ngakusuzga kufika. Kuzenga makuni, uko ŵanthu ŵakufuma ku vyaru vinyake ndiwo ŵakuchitako, kukovwira boma kusanga ndalama zakukwana madola 60 miliyoni pa chaka (kwambira mu 1998), ndipo malango ghakukhumba kuti makuni ghakhalenge makora. Ndipouli, nchito iyi njimoza mwa nchito izo zilije malango ghanandi mu Cameroon.

Mu 2017, makampani ghakupanga vinthu ghakapanga pafupifupi 26.5% ya GDP. Vigaŵa vyakujumpha 75 peresenti vya mafakitale gha ku Cameroon vili ku Douala na Bonabéri. Charu cha Cameroon chili na vinthu vinandi vyakututuŵa, kweni vikuguliskika viŵi yayi. Kufumira waka mu 1986, mulimo wa kunozga mafuta wachepa, kweni uwu ni msonkho ukuru comene mwakuti ukukhwaska comene cuma. Mlonga wa kumwera uli na majigha na maji ghakututuka, kweni malo agha ndigho ghakovwira kupanga magesi na kupeleka nkhongono ku vyaru vinandi. Mlonga wa Sanaga ndiwo ukupeleka nkhongono ku malo ghakurughakuru gha magesi agho ghali ku Edéa. Magesi ghanyake ghose agho Cameroon wakugwiliskira nchito ghakufuma ku mafuta. Vigaŵa vinandi mu caru ici vicali vyambura magesi.[44]

Kanandi vikusuzga kwenda mu Cameroon. Pa misewu yose iyo yili mu charu ichi, ni 6.6% pera iyo yili na phura. Kanandi para ŵapolisi na ŵasilikari ŵakugwiliskira nchito vyakujara misewu, ŵakupeleka vimbundi ku ŵanthu. Kwamba mu 2005, suzgo ili lakura chomene kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Central African Republic.

Doko la ku Douala

Mabasi agho ghakwendeskeka na maboma ghakupambanapambana ghakukolerana na misumba yikuruyikuru. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakwenda pa njanji izi. Njanji iyi yikwenda kufuma ku Kumba kumanjiliro gha dazi m'paka ku Bélabo kumafumiro gha dazi na kumpoto m'paka ku Ngaoundéré. Malo gha ndege gha pa caru cose ghali ku Douala na Yaoundé, ndipo ghacitatu ghali ku Maroua. Msumba wa Douala ndiwo ni msumba ukuru wa ku malo agha. Kumpoto, mlonga wa Bénoué ukufuma ku Garoua m'paka ku Nigeria.

Nangauli wanangwa wa vyakupharazga wawovwira comene kwambira mu vyaka vya m'ma 2000, kweni pa nyengo yasono ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakuchita vimbundi. Nyengo zose manyuzipepara ghakujisuzga kuti boma lileke kuŵasuzga. Ma wayilesi na mawayilesi ghakurughakuru ni gha boma, ndipo mawoko ghanyake nga ni mafoni na matelefoni ghakufuma ku charu, ghakwendeskeka na boma. Kweni kufuma mu vyaka vya m'ma 2000, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakugwiliskira ntchito mafoni na Intaneti.[34]

Ŵanthu

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Cameroon ŵakaŵa 27,198,628 mu 2021.[45][46] Ŵanalume ŵakakhazganga kukhala vyaka 62.3 (60.6 kwa ŵanalume na 64 kwa ŵanakazi).[1]

Cameroonian women on Women's Day Celebration

Mu Cameroon, ŵanakazi mbanandi comene (50,5%) kuluska ŵanalume (49,5%). Ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 60 pa 100 ŵali na vyaka vyambura kukwana 25. Ŵanthu awo ŵali na vyaka vyakujumpha 65 ŵalipo 3.11% pera.

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Cameroon ŵakukhala mu misumba na mizi. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakukhala mu misumba yikuruyikuru, mu vigaŵa vya kumanjiliro gha dazi, na kumpoto kwa charu. Msumba ukuru chomene ni Douala, Yaoundé, na Garoua. Kweni ku Adamawa Plateau, kumwera kwa Bénoué, na ku South Cameroon Plateau, ŵanthu mbachoko chomene.

Wupu wa vyaumoyo pa charu chose (World Health Organization) ukati mu 2013, chiŵelengero cha ŵanthu awo ŵakababikanga chikaŵa 4.8 ndipo chiŵelengero cha ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mu charu ichi chikakwera na 2.56%.

Ŵanthu ŵakufuma ku vigaŵa vya kumanjiliro gha dazi uko kuli ŵanthu ŵanandi chomene kweniso ku vigaŵa vya kumpoto uko kuli ŵanthu ŵachoko chomene ŵakuluta ku malo ghakupwanthirako vyakumera gha mumphepete mwa nyanja na ku misumba kuti ŵakasange nchito. Ŵanandi ŵakufumapo yayi pa nyumba zawo cifukwa cakuti ŵantchito ŵakucita nchito mu mafakitale gha makuni na malo ghanyake gha kumwera na kumafumiro gha dazi. Nangauli chiŵelengero cha ŵanalume na ŵanakazi pa caru cose nchakuyana waka, kweni ŵanalume ndiwo ŵakunjira mu caru ici.[47]

The homes of the Musgum, in the Far North Region, are made of earth and grass.

Ŵanthu ŵakutora ŵanakazi ŵanandi panji ŵanakazi pera, ndipo mbumba ya ku Cameroon njikulu comene. Ku chigaŵa cha kumpoto, ŵanakazi ndiwo ŵakupwelelera nyumba, ndipo ŵanalume ŵakuliska viŵeto panji ŵalimi. Ku vigaŵa vya kumwera, ŵanakazi ndiwo ŵakupanda vyakurya, ndipo ŵanalume ndiwo ŵakupanda nyama na vyakurya. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ku Cameroon mbanalume, ndipo nkhaza na kusankhana pakati pa ŵanakazi vyazara chomene.[34][35][48]

Ŵanthu ŵa mafuko na viyowoyero vyakupambanapambana mu Cameroon ŵalipo pakati pa 230 na 282. Chigaŵa cha Adamawa chikupatura vigaŵa ivi mu vigaŵa vya kumpoto na kumwera. Ŵanthu awo ŵakukhala kumpoto kwa charu ichi ni Ŵasudani awo ŵakukhala mu vigaŵa vya mapiri na vyakumwera. Ŵanthu ŵachoko waka ŵa mtundu wa Shuwa ŵakukhala kufupi na Nyanja ya Chad. Kumwera kwa Cameroon kuli ŵanthu awo ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero vya Bantu na Semi-Bantu. Ŵanthu awo ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero vya Bantu ŵakukhala mu vigaŵa vya mumphepete mwa nyanja na ku equator, ndipo awo ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero vya Semi-Bantu ŵakukhala mu vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi. Ŵanthu pafupifupi 5,000 ŵa mtundu wa Gyele na Baka ŵakwenda mu nkhorongo za kumwera na kumafumiro gha dazi kwa charu ichi, panji ŵakukhala mu mizi yichoko iyo yili mumphepete mwa misewu. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Nigeria ndiwo mbanandi comene pa ŵanthu wose awo ŵali kufuma ku vyaru vinyake.[49]

 
Misumba panji matauni ghakulu mu charu cha Cameroon
According to the 2005 Census[50]
Mndandanda Region Ŵanthu
1 Douala Littoral 1,906,962
2 Yaoundé Centre 1,817,524
3 Bafoussam West 800,000
4 Bamenda Northwest 269,530
5 Garoua North 235,996
6 Maroua Far North 201,371
7 Ngaoundéré Adamawa 152,698
8 Kumba Southwest 144,268
9 Nkongsamba Littoral 104,050
10 Buea Southwest 90,090

Ŵakuchimbira kwawo

Mu 2007, caru ca Cameroon cikapokelera ŵanthu pafupifupi 97,400 awo ŵakacimbira kwawo. Pa ŵanthu aŵa, 49,300 ŵakafuma ku Central African Republic (ŵanandi ŵakacimbizgika kumanjiliro gha dazi cifukwa ca nkhondo), 41,600 ŵakafuma ku Chad, ndipo 2,900 ŵakafuma ku Nigeria.[51] Kufuma mu 2005, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Cameroon ŵakukoleka na vigeŵenga vya ku Central Africa.

Mu myezi yakwambilira ya 2014, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakachimbira ku Central African Republic na kwiza ku Cameroon.

Pa June 4, 2014, AlertNet yikati:

Almost 90,000 people have fled to neighbouring Cameroon since December and up to 2,000 a week, mostly women and children, are still crossing the border, the United Nations said.

"Women and children are arriving in Cameroon in a shocking state, after weeks, sometimes months, on the road, foraging for food," said Ertharin Cousin, executive director of the World Food Programme (WFP).[52]

Languages

Map of the region's indigenous languages

Pa ŵanthu awo ŵakuyowoya Cifurenci na Cingelezi, ŵanthu 70 pa 100 ŵali mu caru ca Cameroon ndipo ŵanyake 30 pa 100. Cijeremani, ciyowoyero ico cikayowoyeka na ŵanthu ŵakwambilira awo ŵakakhalanga mu caru ici, sono cikuyowoyeka mu ciyowoyero ca Cifurenci na Cingelezi. Chingelezi cha Pidgin cha ku Cameroon ndicho chikuyowoyeka chomene mu vigaŵa ivyo kale vikaŵa pasi pa Britain. Chiyowoyero cha Chingelezi, Chifurenchi, na Pidgin icho chikuchemeka Camfranglais chikamba kutchuka chomene mu matawuni kwamba m'ma 1970.

Padera pa viyowoyero ivyo ŵanthu ŵakayowoyanga mu nyengo iyo charu ichi chikaŵa pasi pa ufumu wa Cameroon, ŵanthu pafupifupi 20 miliyoni ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero vinyake pafupifupi 250. Ndico cifukwa cake caru ca Cameroon nchimoza mwa vyaru ivyo vili na ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa viyowoyero vyakupambanapambana.

Mu 2017, ŵanthu awo ŵakayowoyanga Chingelezi ŵakachitanga viyezgelero chifukwa cha nkhaza izo ŵanthu ŵakuyowoya Chifurenchi ŵakaŵachitiranga. Ŵasilikari ŵakaŵatuma kuti ŵakomere ŵanthu awo ŵakasuskanga. Ivi vikapangiska kuti charu cha Ambazonia chijiyimire pachekha. Kufika mu Juni 2020, ŵanthu ŵakukwana 740,000 ŵakaŵa kuti ŵafumamo mu vikaya vyawo chifukwa cha suzgo ili.[53]

Chisopo

Religion in Cameroon (2020 estimate by the ARDA)[54]
Catholicism
26.6%
Protestantism
22.5%
Islam
20.2%
None
0.8%
Folk
19.0%
Other, including other Christian
10.8%

Charu cha Cameroon chili na wanangwa wa kusopa ndipo ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakusopa mu chisopa chawo. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakugomezga Chikhristu, ndipo ŵanthu pafupifupi vigaŵa viŵiri pa vigaŵa vitatu vya ŵanthu wose awo ŵakukhala mu charu ichi ŵakugomezga Chisilamu. Kweniso ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakulondezga visopa vyawo. Ŵasilamu ŵakukhala comene kumpoto, apo Ŵakhristu ŵakukhala comene kumwera na kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa caru ici. Mu misumba yikuru muli ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa mitundu yose yiŵiri. Ŵasilamu ku Cameroon ŵali kugaŵika mu magulu gha Sufi, Salafi, Shi'a, na Ŵasilamu ŵambura kusopa.[55][56]

Our Lady of Victories Cathedral, catholic church in Yaoundé

Ŵanthu ŵa ku vigaŵa vya kumpoto na kumwera kwa caru ca Cameroon, awo kale ŵakaŵa ku Britain, ndiwo mbanandi comene pa ŵanthu awo Mbakhristu. Ku vigaŵa vya kumwera na kumanjiliro gha dazi uko ŵanthu ŵakuyowoya Cifurenci, ŵanandi mba Katolika. Ŵanthu ŵa ku mizi ya kumwera ŵakulondezga visambizgo vya Chikhristu panji visambizgo vya ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa, panji ŵakukolerana na visambizgo ivi. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakugomezga mauloŵevu, ndipo boma likukanizga vinthu ivi. Kanandi ŵanthu awo ŵakughanaghana kuti ni ŵamasalamusi ŵakuŵachitira nkhaza. Gulu la chisopa cha Islamist la Ansar al-Islam likuyowoyeka kuti likugwira ntchito kumpoto kwa Cameroon.

Mu vigaŵa vya kumpoto, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa mtundu wa Fulani mba Chislamu, kweni ŵanthu wose ŵali kugaŵa pakati pa Ŵasilamu, Ŵakhristu, na awo ŵakulondezga visopa vyawo. Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Bamum awo ŵakukhala ku chigaŵa cha kumanjiliro gha dazi, ŵanandi mwa iwo Mbasilamu. Visopa vya ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha vikulondezgeka mu vigaŵa vya ku mizi mu charu chose, kweni vikulondezgeka viŵi yayi mu matawuni.[57]

Masambilo na umoyo

School children in Cameroon

Mu 2013, chiŵelengero cha ŵanthu ŵakumanya kulemba na kulemba mu Cameroon chikaŵa 71.3%. Pa ŵawukirano ŵa vyaka vyapakati pa 15 na 24, ŵanalume 85.4% ndipo ŵanakazi 76.4%. Ŵana ŵanandi ŵakusambira ku sukulu za boma izo ni zakudura kuluska za boma na za cisopa. Ndondomeko ya masambiro mu caru ici yikusazgapo masambiro gha ku Britain na France.

Charu cha Cameroon ndicho chili na ŵana ŵanandi chomene ku Africa. Ŵasungwana ŵakuluta ku sukulu viŵi yayi pakuyaniska na ŵasepuka cifukwa ca kakhaliro ka ŵanthu, milimo ya pa nyumba, kutengwa, kunjira nthumbo, na kusuzgika maghanoghano. Nangauli chiŵelengero cha ŵasambizgi awo ŵakusangika pa sukulu ntchikuru chomene kumwera, kweni ŵasambizgi awo ŵakusangika mu vigaŵa ivi mbanandi comene. Mu 2013, chiŵelengero cha ŵana ŵa sukulu awo ŵakalembeskanga ku pulayimale chikaŵa 93.5%.

Ku Cameroon, ŵana ŵanandi ŵakugwira nchito. Nakuti dipatimenti ya United States Department of Labor yikati ŵana 56 pa 100 awo ŵali na vilimika vyapakati pa 5 na 14 ŵakugwira nchito ndipo pafupifupi 53 pa 100 pa ŵana awo ŵali na vyaka vyapakati pa 7 na 14 ŵakugwira nchito pamoza na sukulu. Mu Disembala 2014, ofesi ya International Labor Affairs yikalemba kuti charu cha Cameroon ndicho chikagwiliskiranga ntchito ŵana pa kupanga koko.[58]

Life expectancy in Cameroon

Kanandi wovwiri wa munkhwala nguheni. Mu 2012, ŵanthu ŵakukhazga kuti ŵazamukhala na umoyo utali vyaka 56, ndipo ŵakukhazga kuti ŵazamukhala na umoyo uwemi vyaka 48. Ku Cameroon, ŵana ŵanandi ŵakubabika, ndipo mwanakazi yumoza wakubaba ŵana 4.8, ndipo mama wakubaba mwana wakwamba para wafika vyaka 19.7. Ku Cameroon, pali dokotala yumoza pera pa ŵanthu 5,000, mwakuyana na Wupu wa vya Umoyo pa Caru Cose. Mu 2014, pa GDP yose iyo yikagwiliskirika ntchito pa vya cipatala, pakaŵa 4.1% pera. Cifukwa ca kucepa kwa ndalama, ŵapharazgi mbacoko comene. Ŵadokotala na manesi awo ŵakasambizgika ku Cameroon, ŵakusamira ku caru cinyake cifukwa ku Cameroon malipiro ghawo ngacoko comene ndipo nchito njinandi. Ŵanesi ŵalije nchito nangauli ŵakukhumbikwira wovwiri wawo. Ŵanyake ŵakujipeleka kuti ŵaleke kutaya maluso ghawo. Kunja kwa misumba yikuruyikuru, malo agha kanandi ngakukazuzgika yayi.

Mu 2012, matenda ghatatu agho ghakukoma ŵanthu ŵanandi chomene ni HIV/AIDS, nthenda zakwambukira na nthenda ya kusulura. Matenda agho ghakumara yayi nga ni nthenda ya dengue, filariasis, leishmaniasis, maleriya, meningitis, schistosomiasis, na nthenda ya kugona. Chiŵelengero cha ŵanthu awo ŵali na HIV/AIDS mu 2016 chikaŵa pa 3.8% pa ŵanthu ŵa vyaka vyapakati pa 15-49, nangauli ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakususkana na matenda agha. Ku Cameroon, 58% ŵa ŵanthu awo ŵali na HIV ŵakumanya umo ŵaliri, ndipo 37% pera ndiwo ŵakupokera munkhwala. Mu 2016, ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 29,000 ŵakafwa na AIDS.

Kusona mabere, ni kaluso ako kakusangika comene mu Cameroon ndipo kungakhwaska umoyo wa ŵasungwana.[59][60][61][62] Nangauli ŵanakazi ŵanandi ŵakutemweka yayi, kweni mu vyaru vinyake ŵakutemweka chomene. Kweniso pa nkhani ya umoyo wa ŵanakazi na ŵasungwana, mu 2014 chiŵelengero cha ŵanthu awo ŵakugwiliskira ntchito munkhwala uwu chikaŵa 34.4%. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakuwona kuti ŵanthu awo ŵakuchizga ŵekha ndiwo ŵangachizga matenda.[63]

Mwambo

Music and dance

Dancers greet visitors to the East Region.

Sumu na kuvina ni vyakuzirwa chomene pa viphikiro, viphikiro, maungano, na vyakusanguluska vya ku Cameroon. Vinthu vikwenda makora yayi pa kuvina kwa ŵanthu ŵaviyowoyero vinyake. Vinthu vinyake ivyo ŵanthu ŵakwimba ni vyakusanguluska pera yayi, kweni ni vya kusopa. Kwamba kale, ŵanthu ŵakutemwa kuyowoya sumu. Pa maseŵero agha, ŵakwimba ŵakwimba nga ni uyo wakwimba yekha.

Vyakwimbira vingaŵa nga ni kukuŵa mawoko na kukhomelera malundi, kweni vyakwimbira vinyake ni mabelu agho ŵakwimba ŵakuvwara, vyakwimbira vyawo, matambulara na matambulara agho ghakuyowoya, vyakwimbira vya viŵeya, masengwe, vyakwimbira vya makumbalo, vyakwimbira vya vingwe, vyakwimbira vya viŵeya, na vyakwimbira vinyake. Ŵanyake ŵakwimba ŵekha sumu zose, uku ŵakwimba na vyakwimbira nga ni bango.

Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakutemwa kwimba sumu nga ni ambasse bey, assiko, mangambeu, na tsamassi. Sumu za ku Nigeria zakhwaska ŵanthu ŵa ku Cameroon awo ŵakuyowoya Chingelezi, ndipo sumu ya Prince Nico Mbarga yakuchemeka "Sweet Mother" ndiyo yikuguliskika chomene mu Africa.

Sumu izo zikumanyikwa comene ni makossa na bikutsi. Makossa wakambira ku Douala ndipo wakusazga sumu za ŵanthu, za highlife, za soul, na za ku Congo. Ŵalendo nga ni Manu Dibango, Francis Bebey, Moni Bilé, na Petit-Pays ndiwo ŵakamba kutchuka pa charu chose mu vyaka vya m'ma 1970 na 1980. Sumu ya Bikutsi yikafuma ku ŵanthu ŵa ku Ewondo. Ŵalendo nga ni Anne-Marie Nzié ndiwo ŵakamba kulilemba mu m'ma 1940, ndipo ŵanthu nga ni Mama Ohandja na Les Têtes Brulées ndiwo ŵakamba kulilemba mu m'ma 1960, 1970, na 1980.[64][65]

Holidays

Zuŵa lakuzirwa comene ilo ŵanthu ŵakutemwera caru cawo mu Cameroon ni Zuŵa la Cikaya, panji Zuŵa la Umoza. Pa maholide gha visopa ghakuzirwa chomene ni Zuŵa la Kukwelera kwa Yesu kuchanya, na Zuŵa la Kukwelera kwa Yesu kuchanya, ilo kanandi likuchitika mazuŵa 39 pamanyuma pa Isitara. Mu vigaŵa vya kumpoto na kumwera kwa charu cha Cameroon, ŵakuchemeka Ambazonia.[66]

Cuisine

Plantains and "Bobolo" (made from cassava) served with Ndolè (meat and shrimp)

Vyakurya vikupambana mu vigaŵa vyakupambanapambana, kweni ŵanthu ŵanandi mu charu ichi ŵakutemwa kurya chakurya chikuru cha mise. Cakurya ico ŵanthu ŵakutemwa kurya ni cocoyams, chimanga, manioc, millet, plantains, mbatata, mpunga, panji yams, ndipo kanandi ŵakusazgako fufu. Ŵakupeleka nyama iyi pamoza na msuzi, sopo, panji chiŵiya icho ŵakuchita na vyakurya vya mu chiŵaya, mphonje, mafuta gha nkhaka, panji vinyake. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakutemwa kurya nyama na somba, kweni ni zakudura chomene. Vyakurya ivi kanandi vikuŵa vyakunowa chomene.[67][68][69]

Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakutemwa kugwiliskira ntchito vyakuvwara, kweni kanandi ŵakugwiliskira ntchito woko lamalyero pakurya. Chakurya cha mulenji ni chingwa na vipambi ivyo vyakhalapo pamoza na khofi panji tiyi. Kawirikawiri chakudya cham'mawa chimapangidwa kuchokera ku ufa wa tirigu mu zakudya zosiyanasiyana monga puff-puff (ma donuts), nthochi ya Accra yopangidwa ndi nthochi ndi ufa, makeke a nyemba, ndi zina zambiri. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakutemwa kurya vyakurya vyakunowa, comenecomene mu matawuni ghakurughakuru uko ŵakugura ku ŵamalonda.[70][71]

Fashion

Cameroonian fashion is varied and often mixes modern and traditional elements. Note the wearing of sun glasses, Monk shoes, sandals, and a Smartwatch.

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Cameroon mbanandi comene ndipo ŵali na mitheto yakupambanapambana. Nyengo, visopa, mitheto, na mitheto, kweniso vinthu ivyo vikupangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵambeso kuvwara makora ku Cameroon ni vinthu ivyo vikupangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵambeso kuvwara makora.

Vinthu vinyake vyakuvwara ivyo ŵanthu ŵakutemwa ni: Pagnes, malaya agho ŵanakazi ŵa ku Cameroon ŵakuvwara; Chechia, chisoti chakutchuka; kwa, thumba la ŵanalume; na Gandura, malaya gha ŵanalume. Ŵanalume na ŵanakazi ŵakugwiliskira ntchito vyakuvwara ivi, kweni vikupambana mu vigaŵa.

Imane Ayissi njumoza wa ŵanthu ŵakumanyikwa chomene mu charu cha Cameroon.[72]

Local arts and crafts

A woman weaves a basket near Lake Ossa, Littoral Region. Cameroonians practise such handicrafts throughout the country.

Mu caru cose ici, ŵanthu ŵakucita vinthu vya maluso na vya mawoko kuti ŵaguliske, kutozga, na kusopa. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakutemwa kujoba vinthu mu makuni. Dongo liwemi comene la ku mapiri gha kumanjiliro gha dazi likugwiriskirika nchito pakupanga viŵiya vya dongo na vyakupangira vinthu. Ŵanyake awo ŵakugwira ntchito iyi ni awo ŵakukhomera matumba, ŵakunozga mphete, ŵakunozga mkuŵa na mkuŵa, ŵakutozga na kupenta mphonje, ŵakukhomera, na kupanga vikumba. Nyumba za ŵanthu ŵa ku Mbororo izo ŵakazengeranga ku malo ghakupambanapambana, zikapangika na mathabwa na mahamba. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakutemwa kuzenga nyumba izo zili na simenti na tini. Vinthu vyakusanguluska ivyo vikuchitika mazuŵa ghano vikusangika mu vyaru vinandi nga ni Doual'art, Africréa, na Art Wash, Atelier Viking, ArtBakery.[73]

Literature

Mabuku gha ku Cameroon ghakuyowoya chomene vya ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe na ŵa ku Africa. Ŵanthu ŵanyake awo ŵakalembako mabuku nga ni Louis-Marie Pouka na Sankie Maimo, ŵakasambizgika na ŵamishonale ŵa ku Europe. Pamanyuma pa Nkhondo Yachiŵiri ya Caru Cose, ŵalembi nga ni Mongo Beti na Ferdinand Oyono ŵakasanda na kususka ukoloni na kukana kusangana na ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake.[74][75][76]

Films and literature

Pakati pajumpha nyengo yichoko waka kufuma apo charu chikapokera wanangwa, ŵanthu ŵanyake awo ŵakachitanga mafilimu nga ni Jean-Paul Ngassa na Thérèse Sita-Bella, ŵakasanda nkhani zakuyana waka. Mu m'ma 1960, Mongo Beti, Ferdinand Léopold Oyono, na ŵanyake ŵakasanda nkhani za umo ŵanthu ŵakugwilira ntchito mu vyaru vinyake. Pakati pa m'ma 1970, ŵanthu awo ŵakapanganga mafilimu nga ni Jean-Pierre Dikongué Pipa na Daniel Kamwa, ŵakadumbiskana nkhani ya mphindano pakati pa ŵanthu ŵa mu nyengo yakale na ŵa mu nyengo ya ŵakaronga. Mu vyaka 20 vyakunthazi, mabuku na mafilimu ghakaŵa na nkhani za ku Cameroon.[77]

Maseŵera

Cameroon faces Germany at Zentralstadion in Leipzig, 17 November 2004.

Ndondomeko ya boma yikukhozgera comene maseŵero ghose. Maseŵero ghakumanyikwa nga nkhunjilira mu boti na kulimbana, ndipo ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 400 ŵakuchita chiphalizgano cha Mount Cameroon Race of Hope chaka chilichose. Charu cha Cameroon ntchimoza mwa vyaru vichoko chomene ivyo vili pa chigaŵa cha vyakumwera ivyo vyachitako maseŵero gha pa nyengo ya chiwuvi.

Maseŵero gha ku Cameroon ghakwendeskeka na bola. Pali magulu ghanandi gha maseŵero gha bola gha ŵanthu awo ŵakutemwa maseŵero agha. Gulu la chalo ili ndilo likutchuka chomene mu Africa kwambira apo likachitiska maseŵera gha FIFA World Cup mu 1982 na 1990. Charu cha Cameroon chawina maseŵera gha Africa Cup of Nations maulendo ghankhondi na mendulo ya golide pa maseŵera gha Olimpiki gha mu 2000.

Charu cha Cameroon ndicho chikapokelera nkhonya ya chalo cha Africa ya ŵanakazi mu November-December 2016, nkhonya ya chalo cha Africa ya 2020 na nkhonya ya chalo cha Africa ya 2021. Gulu la ŵanakazi la mpira likucemeka kuti "Indomitable Lionesses", ndipo nga umo viliri na ŵanalume, nalo ndakukondwa pa caru cose, nangauli lindasangepo njombe yikuru.

Cricket nayo yikanjira mu Cameroon nga ni maseŵero agho ghakwiza sono apo wupu wa Cameroon Cricket Federation ukuchitako maseŵero gha pa caru cose

Charu cha Cameroon chili na ŵasepuka ŵanandi ŵa National Basketball Association kusazgapo Pascal Siakam, Joel Embiid, D. J. Wakayama Strawberry, Ruben Boumtje-Boumtje, Christian Koloko, na Luc Mbah a Moute.

Mlembi wakale wa UFC heavyweight Francis Ngannou amachokera ku Cameroon.[78]

Wonaniso

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Ukaboni

  • DeLancey, Mark W.; DeLancey, Mark Dike (2000). Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cameroon (3rd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0810837751.
  • Hudgens, Jim; Trillo, Richard (1999). West Africa: The Rough Guide (3rd ed.). London: Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1858284682.
  • Mbaku, John Mukum (2005). Culture and Customs of Cameroon. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0313332319.
  • Neba, Aaron (1999). Modern Geography of the Republic of Cameroon (3rd ed.). Bamenda: Neba Publishers.
  • West, Ben (2004). Cameroon: The Bradt Travel Guide. Guilford, Connecticut: The Globe Pequot Press. ISBN 978-1841620787.

Notes

Vyakulemba vinyake

  • "Cameroon – Annual Report 2007". Archived from the original on 26 Meyi 2007. Retrieved 7 Febuluwale 2007. . Reporters without Borders. Retrieved 6 April 2007.
  • "Cameroon". Archived from the original on 13 Janyuwale 2007. Retrieved 6 Janyuwale 2007. . Human Development Report 2006. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 6 April 2007.
  • Cana, Frank Richardson (1911). "Cameroon" . Encyclopædia Britannica (in English). Vol. 5 (11th ed.). pp. 110–113.
  • Fonge, Fuabeh P. (1997). Modernization without Development in Africa: Patterns of Change and Continuity in Post-Independence Cameroonian Public Service. Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, Inc.
  • MacDonald, Brian S. (1997). "Case Study 4: Cameroon", Military Spending in Developing Countries: How Much Is Too Much? McGill-Queen's University Press.
  • Njeuma, Dorothy L. (no date). "Country Profiles: Cameroon". The Boston College Center for International Higher Education. Retrieved 11 April 2008.
  • Rechniewski, Elizabeth. "1947: Decolonisation in the Shadow of the Cold War: the Case of French Cameroon." Australian & New Zealand Journal of European Studies 9.3 (2017). online
  • Sa'ah, Randy Joe (23 June 2006). "Cameroon girls battle 'breast ironing'". BBC News. Retrieved 6 April 2007.
  • Wright, Susannah, ed. (2006). Cameroon. Madrid: MTH Multimedia S.L.
  • "World Economic and Financial Surveys". World Economic Outlook Database, International Monetary Fund. September 2006. Retrieved 6 April 2007.

Vigaŵa vya kuwalo

Boma
Trade

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