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Charu cha Senegal
République du Sénégal (French)
Mbendela Chidindo cha Boma
Chiluso: "Un Peuple, Un But, Une Foi" (French)
"One People, One Goal, One Faith"
Nyimbo: 
"Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons"
"Everyone, strum your koras, strike the balafons"
Makhalilo gha  Senegal  (apo pati biliŵili)
Makhalilo gha  Senegal  (apo pati biliŵili)
Makhalilo gha  Senegal  (apo pati biliŵili)
Msumba Waboma
kweneso Msumba Usani
Dakar
Chiyowoyelo chaboma French
Lingua franca
National languages
Mitundu ya Ŵanthu (2019)
Vipembezo
Mwenecharu Senegalese
Mtundu wa Boma Unitary presidential republic[4]
 -  President Macky Sall
 -  Prime Minister Amadou Ba
 -  President of the National Assembly Amadou Mame Diop
Independence
 -  Republic established 25 November 1958 
 -  from France[lower-alpha 4] 4 April 1960 
 -  Withdrawal from
the Mali Federation
20 August 1960 
 -  from France[lower-alpha 5] 20 June 1960 
 -  as Senegal 22 September 1960 
 -  dissolution of the Senegambia Confederation 30 September 1989 
Ukulu wa Malo
 -  Malo 196,712 km2 (86th)
76,000 sq mi
 -  Maji (%) 2.1
Chiŵelengelo cha ŵanthu
 -  2021 estimate 17,196,308[5] (72nd)
 -  2016 census 16,624,000[6] (73rd)
 -  Density 68.7/km2 (134th)
208.5/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2022 estimate
 -  Total Increase$72.703 billion[7] (106th)
 -  Per capita Increase $4,113[7] (156th)
GDP (nominal) 2022 estimate
 -  Total Increase$27.542 billion[7][8] (111th)
 -  Per capita Increase$1,558[7] (157th)
Gini (2011)40.3[9]
medium
HDI (2021)Decrease 0.511[10]
low ·170th
Ndalama West African CFA franc (XOF)
Mtundu Wanyengo GMT (UTC )
Kalembelo kasiku dd/mm/yyyy
Woko la galimoto right
Intaneti yacharu .sn

Senegal (/ˌsɛnᵻˈɡɔːl/ )[11][12] kuzunula mwaboma, Charu cha Sengegal,[lower-alpha 6] ni caru ca ku West Africa, mumphepete mwa nyanja ya Atlantic. Charu cha Senegal chili kumpoto na Mauritania, kumafumiro gha dazi na Mali, kumwera na kumafumiro gha dazi na Guinea-Bissau. Charu cha Senegal chili pafupi na charu cha Gambia, ndipo chili mumphepete mwa Mlonga wa Gambia. Charu cha Senegal chili na mphaka na charu cha Cape Verde. Msumba wa Dakar ndiwo ni msumba ukuru wa vyachuma na ndyali mu Senegal.

Charu cha Senegal ndicho chili kumanjiliro gha dazi comene mu caru ca Old World, panji Afro-Eurasia.[13] Zina ili likwiza cifukwa ca mlonga wa Senegal, uwo uli kumafumiro gha dazi na kumpoto. Nyengo yake ni ya ku Sahelian, kweni nyengo zinyake kukuŵa vula. Charu cha Senegal chili na malo ghakukwana makilomita pafupifupi 197,000 ndipo ŵanthu ŵake ŵalipo 17 miliyoni.[14][15] Boma ili lili na boma la pulezidenti; kufuma waka apo likambira mu 1960, charu ichi ntchakukhora chomene mu Africa.[16]

Charu cha Senegal chili na ngongoli zinandi, ndipo chili pa nambara 170. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakukhala mumphepete mwa nyanja ndipo ŵakugwira ntchito zaulimi na vyakurya. Charu ichi chilije vinthu vinandi vyakuthupi, kweni vinthu vikwenda makora pa nkhani ya masambiro. Charu cha Senegal chili mu wupu wa African Union, United Nations, Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, na Community of Sahel-Saharan States. Pa caru cose, Senegal ni caru ico cikumanyikwa comene cifukwa ca mpikisano wa Paris-Dakar Rally.[17]

Charu cha Senegal chili na ngongoli zinandi, ndipo chili pa nambara 170. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakukhala mumphepete mwa nyanja ndipo ŵakugwira ntchito zaulimi na vyakurya. Charu ichi chilije vinthu vinandi vyakuthupi, kweni vinthu vikwenda makora pa nkhani ya masambiro. Charu cha Senegal chili mu wupu wa African Union, United Nations, Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, na Community of Sahel-Saharan States. Pa caru cose, Senegal ni caru ico cikumanyikwa comene cifukwa ca mpikisano wa Paris-Dakar Rally.[18]

Zina[lemba | kulemba source]

Charu cha Senegal chili na zina la Mlonga wa Senegal. Zina la mlonga uwu likwenera kuti lili kufuma ku lizgu la Chiphwitikizi ilo likung'anamura zina la mlonga wa Zenaga. Kweniso lingaŵa zina la chiuta mukuru mu cisopa ca Serer (Rog Sene) na ogal, kung'anamura maji mu ciyowoyero ca Serer. Kweniso vingachitika kuti lizgu ili likufuma ku lizgu la Chiwolophu lakuti "Sunuu Gaal", ilo likung'anamura "bwato lithu".[19]

Mbili[lemba | kulemba source]

Vyaka vyakwambilira na vyakumanyuma[lemba | kulemba source]

Ivyo ŵanthu ŵakufukura vinthu vyakale ŵali kusanga mu chigaŵa ichi vikulongora kuti ŵanthu ŵakakhalanga mu charu ichi mu nyengo yakale chomene. Mu vyaka vya m'ma 700 C.E., kukaŵa maufumu ghanyake: Takrur mu vyaka vya m'ma 900 C.E., Namandiru na Jolof Empire mu vyaka vya m'ma 1200 C.E. na 14 C.E. Kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Senegal kukaŵa mu ufumu wa Ghana.

Chisilamu chikamba kwizira mwa Toucouleur na Soninke awo ŵakakolerana na ufumu wa Almoravid wa ku Maghreb. Gulu ili likasuskika chomene na ŵanthu ŵa chisopa cha Serer.[20][21]

Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1300 na 1400, chigaŵa ichi chikakhwaskika na maufumu gha kumafumiro gha dazi. Mu cigaŵa ca Senegambia, pakati pa 1300 na 1900, ciŵelengero ca ŵanthu pafupifupi ciŵelengero cimoza ca ŵanthu ŵatatu cikaŵa ŵazga.[22]

Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1400, ufumu wa Jolof ukaŵa wankhongono chomene, ndipo ukakolerana na maufumu gha Cayor, Baol, Siné, Saloum, Waalo, Futa Tooro, na Bambouk. Ufumu uwu ukaŵa wa vyaru vyakupambanapambana ivyo vikakolerana mwakujipeleka.[23][24]Ufumu uwu ukazengeka na Ndiadiane Ndiaye, uyo wakaŵa Serer na Toucouleur, ndipo wakakolerana na mitundu yinandi, kweni ukamara mu 1549 apo Amari Ngone Sobel Fall wakatimba na kukoma Lele Fouli Fak.

Nyengo ya Ŵakoloni[lemba | kulemba source]

Ufumu wa Portugal ukaŵa ufumu wakwamba wa ku Europe kuwukira charu cha Senegal, ndipo ukamba na Dinis Dias mu 1444 apo wakafika pa chirwa cha Gorée.

Pakati pa vyaka vya m'ma 1400, Ŵapwitikizi ŵakiza ku Senegal, ndipo pamanyuma pake ŵamalonda ŵakufuma ku vyaru vinyake, kusazgapo ŵa ku France. Kwambira mu 15th century, maboma gha ku Europe nga ni Portugal, Netherlands, na Great Britain, ghakakolerana pa nkhani ya malonda.

Mu 1677, caru ca France cikamba kugura ŵazga pa cirwa ca Gorée, kufupi na Dakar, ico cikagwiranga nchito nga ni malo ghakulugulira ŵazga ku mafumu agho ghakatimbananga.[25][26]

Ŵamishonale ŵa ku Europe ŵakiza na Cikristu ku Senegal na ku Casamance mu ma 1800. Mu ma 1850, ŵanthu ŵa ku France ŵakamba kuthandazgikira mu charu cha Senegal, pamanyuma pakuti ŵamazga wuzga na kwamba kusambizga ŵanthu kuti ŵaleke kugwiliskira ntchito vigeŵenga. Ŵanthu ŵa ku France ŵakamba kuwukira na kupoka maufumu ghose, kupaturako Siné na Saloum, pasi pa muwusi Louis Faidherbe.[23][27]

Ŵamalonda ŵa ŵazga ŵa ku France ku Gorée, m'ma 1700

Yoro Dyao wakaŵa mulara wa chigaŵa cha Foss-Galodjina ndipo wakimikika pa Wâlo (Ouâlo) na Louis Faidherbe, uko wakateŵeteranga nga ni mulongozgi kufuma mu 1861 mpaka 1914. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Senegal awo ŵakasuskanga ŵanyawo na kuchepeskako malonda ghawo gha ŵazga ŵakalongozgekanga na Lat-Dior, Damel wa ku Cayor, na Maad a Sinig wa ku Siné.

Mu 1915, ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 300 ŵa ku Senegal ŵakaŵa pasi pa mazaza gha Australia, pambere Ŵaustralia ŵandatore Damaseko. Ivyo vikachitikanga ku France na Britain vikapangiska kuti vinthu vileke kwenda makora.

Pa Novembala 25, 1958, Senegal yikazgoka charu chakujiyimira paŵekha mu French Community.[28]

Kujilamulila[lemba | kulemba source]

Wupu wa Mali uwo ukaŵako nyengo yicoko waka

Mu Janyuwale 1959, Senegal na French Sudan vikasazgikana na kupanga Mali Federation, iyo yikaŵa yakujiyimira paŵekha pa 20 Juni 1960, cifukwa ca phangano la kusinthiska mazaza na France ilo likalembeka pa 4 Epulero 1960. Chifukwa cha masuzgo gha ndyali, wupu uwu ukabwanganduka pa 20 Ogasiti 1960 apo Senegal na French Sudan (ŵakazgoreka Republic of Mali) waliyose wakapharazga wanangwa wake.

Mu Ogasiti 1960, Léopold Sédar Senghor, mulembi, wandale, na munthu wa boma wakumanyikwa pa caru cose, wakasankhika kuŵa pulezidenti wakwamba wa Senegal. Senghor, uyo wakaŵa wakutemwa caru ca Africa, wakawoneseskanga kuti ŵanthu ŵa mu Africa ŵacitenge vinthu mwamahara.[29]

Pamanyuma pakuti Mali yaparanyika, pulezidenti Senghor na nduna yikuru Mamadou Dia ŵakalongozganga pamoza mu nyumba za malango. Mu Disembala 1962, mphindano zawo za ndyali zikapangiska kuti Prime Minister Dia wapange boma. Chiwukirano ichi chikathereskeka kwambura kuthiska ndopa ndipo Dia ŵakamukora na kumujalira mu jele. Boma la Senegal likapeleka dango liphya ilo likakhozga mazaza gha pulezidenti.

Senghor wakalekeleranga yayi ŵanthu awo ŵakamususkanga kuluska umo ŵalongozgi ŵanandi ŵa mu Africa ŵakacitira mu ma 1960. Ndipouli, kwa nyengo yicoko waka, boma likakanizga ŵanthu kucita ndyali. Chipani cha Senghor, Senegalese Progressive Union (sono ni Socialist Party of Senegal), ndicho chikaŵa chipani pera icho chikazomerezgeka na dango kufuma mu 1965 m'paka mu 1975. Mu caka caumaliro, Senghor wakazomerezga kuti paŵe vipani viŵiri vyakususka ivyo vikamba kugwira nchito mu 1976 - chipani ca Marxist (African Independence Party) na chipani ca liberal (Senegal Democratic Party).

Mu ma 1960 na kuuyambiro kwa ma 1970, ŵasilikari ŵa ku Portugal ŵakalutilira kuswa mphaka za Senegal. Pakuzgora, Senegal wakapempha wupu wa United Nations Security Council mu 1963, 1965, 1969 (pakuzgora kuponyera mabomba ku Portugal), 1971 na 1972.

1980 mpaka pano[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu 1980, Pulezidenti Senghor wakaleka ndyali. Chaka chakulondezgapo, mu 1981 wakapeleka mazaza kwa Abdou Diouf. Mamadou Dia, uyo wakaŵa nduna yikuru ya boma, wakathereskeka pa viphikiro vya mu 1983. Senghor wakasamira ku France, uko wakafwira na vilimika 95.

Mu ma 1980, Boubacar Lam wakasanga mbiri ya ŵanthu ŵa ku Senegal iyo yikapangika na Yoro Dyâo, uyo wakaŵa wa ku Tuculor, pambere Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Caru Cose yindambe.[30]

Pa Febuluwale 1, 1982, Senegal yikakolerana na Gambia na kupanga wupu wa Senegambia Confederation. Ndipouli, wupu uwu ukamara mu 1989. Nangauli pakaŵa maungano gha mtende, kweni gulu la ku mpoto ilo likukhumba kujipatura ku boma (Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance panji MFDC) mu chigaŵa cha Casamance, likulimbana na ŵasilikari ŵa boma kwambira mu 1982. Kukwambilira kwa vyaka vya m'ma 2000, nkhaza zachepa ndipo Pulezidenti Macky Sall wakachezga na ŵakugaluka ku Rome mu Disembala 2012.[31]

Abdou Diouf wakaŵa purezidenti pakati pa 1981 na 2000. Wakakhwimiska ŵanthu kuti ŵachiteko ndyali, kuchepeska umo boma likwendeskera vinthu vyachuma, kweniso kusazgirako ndyali za Senegal, comenecomene na vyaru vinyake ivyo vikukura. Nyengo zinyake vinthu vya ndyali vikapangiska kuti pa misewu paŵe vivulupi, mphindano pa mphaka, kweniso kuti mu chigaŵa cha Casamance kumwera muŵe vivulupi. Ndipouli, Senegal yikalutilira kukhozgera wanangwa wa ŵanthu. Abdou Diouf wakaŵa pulezidenti nyengo zinayi.

Mu nyengo ya Nkhondo ya ku Gulf, ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 500 ŵa ku Senegal ŵakanjilirapo pa Nkhondo ya Khafji na pa kampeni ya kuwombora Kuwait.

Mu 1999, mulongozgi wa chipani chinyake, Abdoulaye Wade, wakathereska Diouf pa mavoti agho ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yose ŵakawona kuti ngawanangwa. Pa nyengo iyi, boma la Senegal likaŵa kuti laŵa na mazaza ghaŵiri, ndipo likaŵa lakwamba kufuma ku chipani chimoza kuluta ku chinyake. Pa Disembala 30, 2004, pulezidenti Wade wakapharazga kuti wazamusayinira phangano la mtende na gulu lakujipatura mu chigaŵa cha Casamance. Ndipouli, ivi vicali kunthazi. Mu 2005, pakaŵa ungano unyake wa awo ŵakadumbiskana nkhani iyi, kweni m'paka sono ŵandafikepo pa fundo.

Mu Malichi 2012, pulezidenti wa sono Abdoulaye Wade wakatondeka pa chisankho cha pulezidenti ndipo Macky Sall wakasankhika kuŵa pulezidenti muphya wa Senegal. Pulezidenti Macky Sall wakasankhikaso mu mavoti gha 2019. Mulimo wa pulezidenti ukakhira kufuma pa vilimika vinkhondi na viŵiri kuya pa vinkhondi na viŵiri.

Kuyambira pa 3 March 2021, Senegal yakhala ikugwedezeka ndi ziwonetsero zambiri poyankha kumangidwa kwa Ousmane Sonko chifukwa chogwidwa ndi nkhanza komanso kusagwira bwino ntchito kwa mliri wa COVID-19. Mu Juni 2023, ŵanthu ŵakamba kuchita nkhaza chomene, ndipo wupu wa Amnesty International ukati ŵanthu 23 ŵakafwa, ŵanandi mwa ŵanthu aŵa ŵakafwa chifukwa cha kuphulika na ŵapolisi panji awo ŵakakolerananga nawo.[32]

Boma na ndale[lemba | kulemba source]

Macky Sall, Pulezidenti wa Senegal (2012-paka sono)
Abdoulaye Wade, Pulezidenti wa Senegal (2000~2012)

Pulezidenti wakwamba, Léopold Sédar Senghor, wakaŵa mulembi na mulembi, ndipo wakaŵa munthu wakwamba wa ku Africa uyo wakasankhika kuŵa mu wupu wa French Academy. Pulezidenti waciŵiri wa Senegal, Abdou Diouf, pamanyuma wakaŵa mulembi mukuru wa Organisation de la Francophonie. Pulezidenti wacitatu wakaŵa Abdoulaye Wade, loya. Pulezidenti wa sono ni Macky Sall, uyo wakasankhika mu Malichi 2012 ndipo wakasankhikaso mu February 2019.[33]

Mu Senegal muli vyaru vyakujumpha 80. Nyumba ya mafumu njimoza ndipo yili na mipando 150. Ku Senegal nako kuli ŵeruzgi ŵakujiyimira paŵekha. Makhoti ghapacanya comene agho ghakuwona vya bizinesi ni khoti la malango na la urunji.[4]

Political culture[lemba | kulemba source]

Pasono, Senegal yili na ndyali za demokilase, yimoza mwa vyaru ivyo vyacita makora comene kusintha kwa demokilase mu Africa. Ŵalara ŵa boma ŵakwimikika na pulezidenti. Ŵa Marabout, ŵalongozgi ŵa visopa vya visopo vyakupambanapambana mu Senegal, nawo ŵali na mazaza pa ndyali mu caru ici, comenecomene mu nyengo ya muwuso wa Wade. Mu 2009, Freedom House yikasintha malo gha Senegal kufuma ku "Free" kuya ku "Partly Free", chifukwa cha kukhazikika kwa mazaza mu boma. Mu 2014, charu ichi chikaŵaso na wanangwa wakusopa.

Mu 2008, charu cha Senegal chikaŵa pa malo gha nambara 12 pa Ibrahim Index of African Governance. Ndondomeko ya Ibrahim Index yikulongora umo maboma gha mu Africa ghakwendeskera vinthu (paka mu 2008 ghakaŵa mu vyaru vya ku Sub-Saharan Africa pera). Apo vyaru vya kumpoto kwa Africa vikasazgikako mu 2009, malo agho Senegal yikaŵa nagho mu 2008 ghakawerako na kufika pa nambara 15 (Tunisia, Eguputo, na Morocco ghakaŵa panthazi pa Senegal). Mu 2012, pa vyaru 52 vya mu Africa, charu cha Senegal chikaŵa pa nambara 16 pa vyaru vyose vya mu Africa.

Pa February 22, 2011, Senegal yikadumura ubwezi na Iran, yikati yikapeleka vilwero ku ŵakugaluka ivyo vikakoma ŵasilikari ŵa Senegal mu nkhondo ya ku Casamance.

Chisankho cha pulezidenti cha 2012 chikaŵa chakususka chifukwa cha kusoleka kwa pulezidenti Wade, pakuti ŵakususka ŵakayowoya kuti wangaŵa wakwenelera yayi kwimilira. Mu Juni 2011, magulu gha ŵawukirano ghakupambanapambana, kusazgapo M23 na Y'en a Marre, ghakawuka. Paumaliro, Macky Sall wa Alliance for the Republic ndiyo wakathereska, ndipo Wade wakapeleka mazaza kwa Sall. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku vyaru vinyake, nga ni ŵa EU, ŵakalumba kusintha uku.

Pa Seputembala 19, 2012, ŵanthu ŵakazomerezga kuti wupu wa Senate uleke kugwira ntchito kuti usunge ndalama zakukwana madola 15 miliyoni.

Mu Ogasiti 2017, chipani icho chili na mazaza pa charu chose chikatonda pa chisankho cha pa nyumba ya malango. Wupu wakulongozga wa Pulezidenti Macky Sall watora vithuzithuzi 125 pa vithuzithuzi 165. Mu 2019 purezidenti Macky Sall wakathereskeka mwambura kusuzgika mu chigaŵa chakwamba.[34]

Kugawikana kwa boma[lemba | kulemba source]

Vigaŵa vya Senegal

Charu cha Senegal chili na vigaŵa 14, ndipo chigaŵa chilichose chikuwusika na Conseil Régional (Wupu wa vigaŵa) uwo ukusankhika mwakuyana na unandi wa ŵanthu. Chigaŵa ichi chili na vigaŵa 45, vigaŵa 113, ndipo palije na chimoza icho chili na ntchito ya boma.[35]

Misumba yikuruyikuru ya vigaŵa vikuchemeka mwakuyana na vigaŵa vyawo:

Ubale na vyaru vinyake[lemba | kulemba source]

Charu cha Senegal chili na maudindo ghakuru mu mawupu gha vyaru vinandi ndipo chikaŵa mu wupu wa UN Security Council mu 1988-89 na 2015-2016. Mu 1997, wakasankhika kuŵa mu Komiti ya UN ya Wanangwa wa Ŵanthu. Cifukwa cakuti Senegal njabwezi la vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi, comenecomene France na United States, yikukhumba comene kuti vyaru vyakutukuka viwovwire vyaru vya caru cacitatu.

Charu cha Senegal chili paubwezi uwemi na vyaru vinyake. Nangauli vinthu vyendamo makora pa nkhani zinyake na Mauritania (kuvikilira mphaka, kunozga vyakurya, kunjizga ndyali mu vyaru vinyake), kweni ŵanthu pafupifupi 35,000 ŵa ku Mauritania (pa ŵanthu pafupifupi 40,000 awo ŵakachimbizgika mu charu chawo mu 1989) ŵachali mu Senegal.

Charu cha Senegal chili paubwezi uwemi na mawupu ghakurughakuru gha pa caru cose, kusazgapo wupu wa Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), African Union (AU), na wupu wa Sahel-Saharan States.[36]

Ŵankhondo[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu nyengo ya nkhondo ya ku Casamance, ŵanthu ŵakagwiliskiranga ntchito mabomba ghakwimira boma.

Gulu la nkhondo la Senegal lili na ŵasilikari pafupifupi 17,000. Ŵasilikari ŵa ku Senegal ŵakusambizgika, kupika vilwero, na wovwiri kufuma ku France na United States, kweniso ku Germany.

Pakuti ŵasilikari ŵakunjilirapo yayi pa ndyali, vyawovwira kuti charu cha Senegal chiŵe chakukhora. Senegal yikawovwirapo pa ntchito zinandi zakusungilira mtende. Sonosono apa, mu 2000, Senegal yikatumizga gulu ku Democratic Republic of Congo kuti likateŵetere mu gulu la United Nations MONUC, ndipo yikakolerana kutumizga gulu linyake ku Sierra Leone.

Mu 2015, Senegal yikawovwirapo pa nkhondo ya Saudi Arabia ku Yemen kwimikana na ma Houthi.[37]

Malango[lemba | kulemba source]

Charu cha Senegal ni charu cha ŵanthu yayi, nga umo Dango likulongosolera.

Pakukhumba kumazga vimbundi, boma likapanga ofesi yakuwona vya vimbundi (OFNAC) na komiti yakuwona vya kuwezgerapo na kuwezgerapo vinthu ivyo vyazunulika mwambura kuzomerezgeka. Kuyana na Business Anti-Corruption Portal, Pulezidenti Sall wakalenga OFNAC kuti yisinthe Commission Nationale de Lutte Contre la non Transparence, la Corruption et la Concussion (CNLCC). Ŵanyake ŵakuti OFNAC ni nthowa yiwemi comene yakumazgira vimbundi kuluska CNLCC iyo yikaŵako mu nyengo ya pulezidenti wakale Wade. Ntchito ya OFNAC nkhulimbana na vimbundi, kunanga ndalama za boma na upusikizgi. Ofnac wali na mazaza ghakupeleka mulandu (kuchita kafukufuku payekha). Wupu wa OFNAC uli na ŵanthu 12 awo ŵakwimikika na dango.

Kugonana kwa ŵanalume panji ŵanakazi ŵekhaŵekha nkhwakukanizgika mu Senegal. Kuyana na kafukufuku uyo wakachitika mu 2013, ŵanthu 96 pa 100 ŵaliwose ku Senegal ŵakugomezga kuti kugonana kwa ŵanalume panji ŵanakazi pera nkhwakuzomerezgeka yayi. Anthu a gulu la LGBTQ ku Senegal akuti akumva kuti alibe chitetezo.[38]

Makhalilo gha charu[lemba | kulemba source]

Senegal mapu gha Köppen climate classification
Malo gha Casamance

Charu cha Senegal chili kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Africa. Charu ichi chili pakati pa latitude 12° na 17°N, kweniso longitude 11° na 18°W.

Charu cha Senegal chili na nyanja ya Atlantic kumanjiliro gha dazi, Mauritania kumpoto, Mali kumafumiro gha dazi, na Guinea na Guinea-Bissau kumwera.[39]

Charu cha Senegal chili na vyakumera vya mchenga vya kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Sahel. Pano paliso malo ghapachanya chomene mu Senegal, Baunez ridge agho ghali pa mtunda wa makilomita 2.7 kumwera kwa Nepen Diakha pa mamita 648. Malire gha kumpoto ni Mlonga wa Senegal. Msumba ukuru wa Dakar uli ku Cap-Vert peninsula, kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Africa.[39]

Virwa vya Cape Verde vili pa mtunda wa makilomita 560 kufuma ku Senegal, kweni Cape-Vert ("Cape Green") ni malo agho ghakumanyikwa na nyanja. Malo agha ghali musi mwa "Les Mammelles", ndipo ni mtunda wa mamita 105.[39]

Ku Senegal kuli vigaŵa vinayi: Nkhorongo ya ku Guinea, Sahelian Acacia, Western Sudan, na mangrove. Charu ichi chili na chiŵelengero cha 7.11/10, ndipo chili pa malo 56 pa vyaru 172.[39]

Nyengo[lemba | kulemba source]

Mphepete mwa nyanja ku N'Gor

Charu cha Senegal chili na mphepo zakotcha chomene, ndipo chaka chose chikuŵa na chithukivu. Mu nyengo ya chilangalanga (Disembala m'paka Epulero) kukufuma mphepo yakuzizima. Ku Dakar kukulokwa maji pafupifupi 600 mm pa chaka, kufuma mu Juni m'paka Okutobala, ndipo pa nyengo iyi kutentha kwa msumba ukuŵa pa 30 °C (86.0 °F) m'paka pa 24.2 °C (75.6 °F)..[40]

Mu vigaŵa vya mukati mu charu muli mphepo zinandi kuluska mu vigaŵa vya mumphepete mwa nyanja (Mwachiyelezgero, mu chigaŵa cha Kaolack na Tambacounda mu mwezi wa Meyi, zuŵa lililose mu charu muli mphepo zinandi chomene.

Ku Tambacounda, uko kuli chigaŵa chakutali chomene, chomenechomene pa mphaka ya Mali uko chipalamba chikwamba, matenthedwe ghakufika pa 54 °C. Chigaŵa chakumpoto chomene cha charu ichi chili na mphepo yakotcha chomene, ndipo chigaŵa chapakati chili na mphepo yakotcha chomene. Charu cha Senegal chili na dazi kweniso maji ngakomira.

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Chuma[lemba | kulemba source]

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Umo vinthu viliri mu Senegal na Gambia kwambira mu 1950

Malonda na ma kamupani[lemba | kulemba source]

Chiŵelengero cha malonda gha ku Senegal, 2019

Vigaŵa vikuruvikuru ni vyakurya, migodi, simenti, vyakurya vyakupangika na ŵanthu, vyakumera, vyakuvwara, mafuta, na vyakusanguluska. Vinthu ivyo ŵakuguliska ku vyaru vinyake ni somba, vyakumera, katoni, salu, phere, na calcium phosphate. Msika ukuru chomene wa vyakurya ivyo vikuguliskika ku vyaru vinyake ni Mali (20.4%), Switzerland (12.2%), na India (8.3%).[41]

Pakuŵa ciŵaro ca wupu wa West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), Senegal yikuyezgayezga kuti yikolerane na vyaru vinyake. Kweniso charu cha Senegal chili mu wupu wa African Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law.

Mu 1996, charu cha Senegal chikaŵa na Intaneti, ndipo ivi vikapangiska kuti vinthu vyendenge makora chomene pa nkhani ya umanyi. Pa caru ici, nchito ya ŵantu ŵekha ndiyo yikupangiska 82 peresenti ya GDP. Kweni suzgo linyake ndakuti, mu misumba ya ku Senegal muli masuzgo ghakuru nga ni unandi wa ŵanthu ŵambura nchito, kusankhana kwa vinthu pa umoyo wa ŵanthu, ucigeŵenga wa ŵawukirano, na kumwa minkhwala yakuzweteska wongo.

Charu cha Senegal ndicho chikupokera wovwiri ukuru wa vyaru vinyake. Ŵanyake mwa awo ŵakupeleka ndalama ni United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Japan, France, na China. Ŵateŵeti ŵakujipeleka ŵakujumpha 4,000 ŵa Peace Corps ŵateŵetera mu Senegal kwambira mu 1963.[41]

Ulimi[lemba | kulemba source]

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Kukola somba[lemba | kulemba source]

Fishing boats in Dakar

Senegal yili na malo gha somba gha mamayilo 12 (22 km; 14 mi) agho ghakuswa nyengo zose mu vyaka vyasonosono apa (kwambira mu 2014). Ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakuti somba za mu charu ichi zikukoma matani 300,000 pa chaka chifukwa cha ulovi wambura kuzomerezgeka. Boma la Senegal likayezga kukanizga somba zambura kuzomerezgeka izo zikuriskika na ngaraŵa zakukolera somba. Mu Janyuwale 2014, boma la Senegal likakora boti la Oleg Naydenov kufupi na mphaka ya ku Guinea-Bissau.[42]

Magesi[lemba | kulemba source]

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Ŵanthu[lemba | kulemba source]

Senegal's population from 1960 to 2017

Mu charu cha Senegal muli ŵanthu pafupifupi 16.9 miliyoni,[14][15] ndipo ŵanthu 42 pa 100 ŵaliwose ŵakukhala ku mizi. Mu vigaŵa ivi muli ŵanthu ŵakukwana 77 pa kilomita yimoza (200/sq mi) mu chigaŵa cha kumanjiliro gha dazi na pakati, ndipo mu chigaŵa cha kumafumiro gha dazi muli ŵanthu ŵakukwana 2.

Ŵanakazi[lemba | kulemba source]

Charu cha Senegal chikatumizga chikalata ku wupu wakuwona vya wanangwa wa ŵanakazi. Kweniso charu cha Senegal chili kusayina chikalata cha African Charter of Human and Peoples' Rights, icho chikaŵa pa ungano wa African Union mu 2003. Ndipouli, ŵanakazi ŵakususka boma cifukwa ca kuleka kufiska ndondomeko, malango na malemba ghanyake agho ghalembeka kuti ghawovwire kuvikilira wanangwa wa ŵanakazi.

Mtundu wa ŵanthu[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu Senegal muli ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yakupambanapambana, ndipo nga umo viliri mu vyaru vinandi vya kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Africa, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero vinandi. Wolof ndiwo mtundu ukuru chomene mu Senegal, ndipo uli na ŵanthu 36%. Ŵafula na Toucouleur (ŵakumanyikwaso na zina lakuti Halpulaar'en, kung'anamura kuti "ŵakuyowoya chiyowoyero cha ku pulara") (30%) ndiwo ni mtundu ukuru chomene. (Wonaniso cigaŵa ca Bedick.)

Ku Senegal kuli ŵanthu pafupifupi 50,000 ŵa ku Europe (ŵanandi ŵakaŵa ŵa ku France). Ŵanthu ŵachoko waka awo ŵakukhala mu Senegal, nga mba ku Lebanoni, Mauritania, na Morocco, ŵakukhala mu misumba na mu matawuni ghakuzingilizga Mbour. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Lebanon ŵakugwira nchito mu malonda. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Lebanon ŵakufuma ku tawuni ya Turo, iyo yikumanyikwa kuti "Little West Africa" ndipo yili na msewu ukuru wakuchemeka "Avenue du Senegal".[43]

Charu ichi chikaŵa na ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakufuma ku France awo ŵakafuma mu vyaru vinyake pakati pa Nkhondo Yachiŵiri ya Charu Chose na Senegal. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku France ŵakagura nyumba mu msumba wa Dakar panji mu misumba yinyake yikuruyikuru. Kweniso mu matawuni mukukhala ŵanthu ŵachoko waka ŵa ku Vietnam, kweniso ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku China awo ŵakuguliska malonda. Kweniso ku Senegal kuli ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakufuma ku Mauritania awo ŵakuchimbilira ku vyaru vinyake.

Lipoti linyake la wupu wa U.S. Komiti ya Ŵakuchimbira na Ŵakufuma mu Vyaru Vinyake, Senegal yili na ŵanthu ŵakuchimbira kwawo na awo ŵakupenja malo ghakubisamamo ŵakujumpha 23,800 mu 2007. Ŵanthu ŵanandi (20,200) ŵakufuma ku Mauritania. Ŵanthu awo ŵachimbira kwawo ŵakukhala ku N'dioum, Dodel, na ku mizi yinyake mu dambo la Mlonga wa Senegal.[44]

Viyowoyelo[lemba | kulemba source]

Cifurenci ni ciyowoyero ca boma, ico cikuyowoyeka na ŵanthu wose awo ŵakhala vyaka vinandi mu masukulu, ndipo ciyowoyero ici ndico cikusambizgika. Ŵanthu awo ŵakuyowoya Cifurenci ŵazamuŵa 26 peresenti mu 2022.[45] Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1500, vyaru vinandi vya ku Europe vikamba kuchita malonda mu Senegal. Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1800, caru ca France cikamba kulamulira comene Senegal, ndipo ici cikapangiska kuti ciŵelengero ca ŵanthu awo ŵakayowoyanga Cifurenci cikure comene. Cifurenci cikaŵa ciyowoyero cakuzomerezgeka mu 1960 apo caru ici cikapokera wanangwa.

Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakayowoyanga ciyowoyero cawo, kweni comenecomene ku Dakar, ciyowoyero ca Wolof ndicho cikayowoyeka comene. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Fula na Toucouleur ndiwo ŵakuyowoya Chipula. Chiyowoyero cha Serer chikuyowoyeka na ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yose (nga ni Pulezidenti Sall, uyo muwoli wake ni Serer). Ŵanthu ŵanandi mu Casamance ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero vya Jola. Pa caru cose ca Senegal pali viyowoyero 39. Viyowoyero vinyake ni Balanta-Ganja, Arabic, Jola-Fonyi, Mandinka, Mandjak, Mankanya, Noon (Serer-Noon), Pulaar, Serer, Soninke, na Wolof.

Cingelezi cikusambizgika nga ni ciyowoyero cinyake mu masukulu gha ku sekondare ndiposo mu masukulu ghanandi gha ku sekondare.[46] Ku Dakar kuli masukulu gha viyowoyero viŵiri agho 50% ya masambiro ghake ghakuŵa mu Cingelezi. Sukulu ya Senegalese American Bilingual School (SABS), Yavuz Selim, na The West African College of the Atlantic (WACA) zikusambizga ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakuyowoya Chingelezi makora mu mapulogiramu gha vyaka vinayi. Cingelezi cikugwiliskirika nchito comene mu vyasayansi na mu vyamalonda, kusazgapo ŵa Modou-Modou.

Chiphwitikizi cha Creole, icho ŵanthu ŵakuchichema kuti Chiphwitikizi, ni chiyowoyero cha ŵanthu ŵachoko chomene mu chigaŵa cha Ziguinchor, mu chigaŵa cha Casamance. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Cape Verde ŵakuyowoya Chiphwitikizi chakuchemeka Creole. Chiphwitikizi chikamba kusambizgika mu sukulu za sekondare mu 1961 ku Dakar na pulezidenti wakwamba wa charu ichi, Léopold Sédar Senghor. Pasono sukulu iyi yikuchitika mu vigaŵa vinandi vya Senegal kweniso mu masukulu ghapachanya. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakuyowoya chiyowoyero ichi mu Casamance chifukwa cha umo ŵanthu ŵakukhalira.[47]

Aerial view of Yoff Commune, Dakar

Ŵanthu awo ŵafuma ku vyaru vinyake ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero vyakupambanapambana nga ni Chibambara (vikwi 70,000), Chimooré (vikwi 37,000), Chi Kabuverdiano (vikwi 34,000), Chikrio (vikwi 6,100), Chivietnamese (vikwi 2,500), na Chiphwitikizi (vikwi 1,700), ndipo ŵanandi ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero ivi mu msumba wa Dakar.[46]

Nangauli ciyowoyero ca ku Senegal ni Cifurenci pera, kweni ciyowoyero ca ku Senegal ico cikucemeka kuti Wolof, cikovwira kuti ciyowoyeke makora mu caru.

Vigaŵa vya Senegal nga ni Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies na Ziguinchor ni vigaŵa vya International Association of Francophoneregions.

Misumba ikulu[lemba | kulemba source]

Msumba ukuru wa Dakar ndiwo ni msumba ukuru comene mu Senegal, uli na ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 2 miliyoni.[48] The second most populous city is Touba, a de jure communaute rurale (rural community), with over half a million people.[48]

 
 
Misumba panji matauni ghakulu mu charu cha Senegal
Kuyana na kalembera wa 2013[49]
Mndandanda Region Ŵanthu
Dakar
Dakar
1 Dakar Dakar 2,646,503 Pikine
Pikine
Kaolack
Kaolack
2 Touba Diourbel 753,315
3 Pikine Thiès 317,763
4 Kaolack Kaolack 233,708
5 M'bour Thiès 232,777
6 Rufisque Dakar 221,066
7 Ziguinchor Ziguinchor 205,294
8 Diourbel Diourbel 133,705
9 Tambacounda Tambacounda 107,293
10 Louga Louga 104,349

Chisopo[lemba | kulemba source]

Chisopo ku Senegal (PEW estimate, 2020)[50] ██ Islam (96.6%)██ Christianity (mostly Catholicism) (3.3%)██ Other (0.1%)

Charu cha Senegal chili na visopa vinandi, kweni chisopa chikuru mu charu ichi ni Chisilamu, ndipo ŵanthu 96.6% ndiwo ŵakugomezga chisopa ichi. Ŵanthu ŵacoko comene pa caru cose ndiwo ŵakugomezga kuti kuli vyamoyo, comenecomene mu vigaŵa vya kumwera kwa caru ici. Ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵa mtundu wa Serer ŵakulondezga chisopa cha Serer.[51][52]

Kuyana na kafukufuku uyo wakachitika mu 2012, ŵanthu 55% ŵa ku Senegal mba Sunni ŵa chisopa cha Maliki. Ŵanthu ŵa chisopa cha Chisilamu ku Senegal ŵakukolerana na gulu limoza ilo likuchemeka kuti tariqas, ilo likulongozgeka na khalifa (xaliifa mu Chiwofu, kufuma ku chiarabu cha khalīfa), uyo kanandi ni muzukuru wa uyo wakajintha gulu ili. Ma Tariqa gha Sufi ghaŵiri ghakurughakuru na ghakumanyikwa chomene mu Senegal ni Tijaniyya, agho magulu ghakurughakuru gha mu Senegal ghali mu matawuni gha Tivaouane na Kaolack ndipo ghali na ŵalondezgi ŵanandi mu vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Africa, na Murīdiyya (Murid), awo ŵali mu tawuni ya Touba ndipo ŵali na ŵalondezgi ŵanandi mu Senegal.[53]

Our Lady of Victories Cathedral, a Catholic church in Dakar

Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Halpulaar (awo ŵakuyowoya chiyowoyero cha Pulaar), awo ni Ŵafula, awo ŵakukhala mu chigaŵa cha Sahel kufuma ku Chad m'paka ku Senegal, kweniso ŵa mtundu wa Toucouleurs, ŵalipo 23.8 peresenti.[4] Mbunenesko kuti ndiwo ŵakaŵa ŵakwamba kuŵa Ŵasilamu. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Toucouleurs, panji Halpulaar awo ŵakakhalanga ku Senegal River Valley kumpoto, ŵakang'anamukira ku Chisilamu vyaka pafupifupi 1,000 ivyo vyajumpha. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Wolof ŵakatonda, kweni Ŵaseri ŵakaŵatinkha.

Ndipouli, ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakakhalanga kumwera kwa Dambo la Senegal ŵakaŵa kuti ŵandazgoke Ŵasilamu. Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Serer ndiwo ŵakamanyikwa chomene chifukwa ŵakasuska chisopa cha Chisilamu kwa vyaka vyakujumpha 1,000. Nangauli ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Serer Mbakhristu panji Ŵasilamu, kweni ŵakang'anamukira ku Chisilamu sonosono ndipo ŵakachita mwakujipeleka yayi.[54]

Kusambizgika kwa visambizgo vya mu Baibolo (ivyo mu Chiwofu vikuchemeka daara) mu nyengo ya ukoloni kukakura chomene chifukwa cha mulimo wa Tidjâniyya. Mu vikaya vya Ŵamuridi, awo ŵakuŵika comene mahara pa mulimo kuluska pa mabuku gha mu Baibolo, lizgu lakuti daara kanandi likung'anamura magulu agho ghakuteŵetera mulongozgi wa cisopa. Magulu ghanyake gha Chisilamu ni gulu lakale chomene la Qādiriyya na la Laayeen la ku Senegal, ilo ndakumanyikwa chomene pakati pa ŵanthu ŵa ku Lebu. Mazuŵa ghano, ŵana ŵanandi ŵa ku Senegal ŵakusambira pa daaras kwa vyaka vinandi, ndipo ŵakumanya makora Koran. Ŵanyake ŵakulutilira kusambira vya cisopa pa macouncil (majlis) panji ku masukulu gha Cirabu ghaŵene na ku masukulu gha Cifurenci na Cirabu agho ghali na ndalama za boma.

Ŵanthu ŵachokoŵachoko ŵa Katolika ŵakusangika chomene mu vigaŵa vya mumphepete mwa nyanja nga ni Serer, Jola, Mankanya, na Balant, kweniso ku mafumiro gha dazi kwa Senegal. Ŵalendo ndiwo ŵakuluta ku matchalitchi gha Chiprotesitanti, kweni mu hafu yachiŵiri ya vyaka vya m'ma 1900, matchalitchi gha Chiprotesitanti agho ghakalongozgekanga na ŵalongozgi ŵa ku Senegal ghakafuma ku mitundu yakupambanapambana. Ku Dakar, ŵanthu ŵa ku Lebanon, Cape Verde, Europe, na America, kweniso ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵa mu vyaru vinyake vya ku Africa, kweniso ŵanthu ŵa ku Senegal, ŵakuchita mitheto ya Chikatolika na Chiprotesitanti. Nangauli visopa vinandi mu Senegal ni vya Ciislamu, kweni pulezidenti wakwamba wa caru ici, Léopold Sédar Senghor, wakaŵa wa cisopa ca Serer.

Chisopa cha Serer chikusazgapo kugomezga kuti kuli chiuta mukuru uyo wakuchemeka Roog (Koox pakati pa Cangin), kusanda vinthu vya mu mlengalenga kwa Serer, kusanda vinthu vya mu mlengalenga, na viphikiro vya kuwukwa nga ni chiphikiro cha chaka chilichose cha Xooy (panji Khoy) icho chikuchitiskika na Serer Saltigues (ŵasembe na ŵasembe ŵanakazi). Vikondwelero vya Ŵasilamu vya ku Senegambia (Senegal na Gambia) nga ni Tobaski, Gamo, Koriteh, Weri Kor, na vinyake, vyose ni mazgu ghakufuma ku cisopa ca Serer. Yikaŵa viphikiro vyakale vya ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Serer ivyo vikafuma mu chisopa cha Serer, mu Chisilamu yayi.[55]

Chiphikiro cha Boukout nchimoza mwa viphikiro vya cisopa ca Jola.

Ŵanthu ŵachoko waka ŵa fuko la Bani Israel awo ŵakukhala mu chipalamba cha Senegal ŵakugomezga kuti ŵali kufuma ku mtundu wa Chiyuda. Gulu la Mahayana la cisopa ca Cibuda mu Senegal likuciskika na cigaŵa cicoko comene ca ŵanthu ŵa ku Vietnam awo ŵali ku caru ici. Cikhristu ca Bahá'í mu Senegal cikamba pamanyuma pakuti 'Abdu'l-Bahá, mwana wa uyo wakambiska cisopa ici, wakayowoya kuti ku Africa ndiko ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakwenera kuluta. Ŵabaha'i ŵakwamba kufika mu cigaŵa ca French West Africa ico cikazgoka Senegal ŵakafika mu 1953. Ungano wauzimu wakwamba wa Bahá'í mu Senegal ukasankhika mu 1966 mu Dakar. Mu 1975, ŵa Baha'i ŵakasora wupu wakwamba wa ku Senegal. Kuyana na lipoti la 2005 la wupu wakuwona vya chisopa (Association of Religion Data Archives), ŵanthu ŵa ku Senegal ŵalipo 22,000.[56]

Umoyo[lemba | kulemba source]

Development of life expectancy

Mu 2016, vyaka ivyo ŵanthu ŵakakhaliranga kuti ŵakhalenge para ŵababa vikaŵa 66,8 (64,7 kwa ŵanalume, 68,7 kwa ŵanakazi).[57] Ndalama izo boma likagwiliskira nchito pa vya umoyo zikaŵa 2.4 peresenti ya GDP mu 2004, apo ndalama izo boma likagwiliskira nchito pa vya umoyo zikaŵa 3.5 peresenti. Ndalama izo munthu waliyose wakugwiliskira nchito pa umoyo wake zikaŵa $72 (PPP) mu 2004. Kufumira mu 2005 m'paka mu 2013, chiŵelengero cha ŵana awo ŵakubaba chikaŵa pakati pa 5 na 5.3, ndipo mu misumba chikaŵa 4.1 ndipo ku mizi 6.3, nga umo ukawoneranga kafukufuku wa boma (6.4 mu 1986 na 5.7 mu 1997). Kuuyambiro wa vyaka vya m'ma 2000 kukaŵa ŵadokotala 6 pa ŵanthu 100,000.[58] Mu 1950, ŵana 157 pa ŵanthu 1,000 awo ŵakababika ŵamoyo ndiwo ŵakafwanga ku Senegal. Kweni kufuma nyengo iyo, chiŵerengero ichi chakhalako kankhondi pa ŵanthu 1,000 mu 2018. Mu vyaka vinkhondi ivyo vyajumpha, ŵana ŵanandi ŵakufwa na maleriya. Lipoti la wupu wa UNICEF la mu 2013 likati, pa ŵanakazi wose mu Senegal, 26 pa ŵanakazi 100 ŵaliwose ŵali kupokera nthumbo.

Mu Malichi 2020, nthenda ya COVID-19 yikamba mu Senegal, ndipo yikapangiska kuti mu charu ichi muŵeko nyengo yakufikira panyumba.

Mu Julayi 2021, ku Senegal kukaŵa na ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakalwara nthenda iyi.

Mu Juni 2021, wupu wakuwona vya umoyo wa ŵanthu wose ku Senegal ukambiska sunucmu.com (SunuCMU), webusayiti iyo wupu uwu ukugomezga kuti yingawovwira kuti umoyo wa ŵanthu uŵe uwemi. Webusayiti iyi njimoza mwa vinthu ivyo Mubali Mohammad Abdallah Dionne, uyo ni nduna ya boma, wakukhumba kuti viŵe vya digito. Iyo wakukhumba kuti wovwiri wa munkhwala mu Senegal uŵe wakovwira kweniso wakukhazikika. Senegal yikukhumba kuti mu vyaka viŵiri kufuma apo yikambira ntchito ya SunuCMU, ŵanthu 75 pa 100 ŵafike pa sukulu iyi.[59]

Masambilo[lemba | kulemba source]

Students in Senegal

Ndime 21 na 22 za Dango ilo likapelekeka mu Janyuwale 2001 zikovwira kuti ŵana wose ŵasambire. Ŵana ŵa vyaka 16 ŵakusambira kwambura kulipira. Unduna wa vya Ntchito ukati masukulu gha boma ghangakwaniska yayi kusambizga ŵana awo ŵakukhumba kusambira sukulu.[60]Chiphwitikizi chikusambizgika mu masukulu gha sekondare, chifukwa cha unandi wa ŵanthu ŵa ku Cape Verde. Ku Zinguichor na Dakar kuli ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakuyowoya Ciphwitikizi.

Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakumanya yayi kuŵazga, comenecomene ŵanakazi. Mu 2005, chiŵelengero cha ŵana awo ŵakalembeskanga sukulu iyi chikaŵa 69 peresenti. Ndalama izo boma likagwiliskira nchito pa masambiro zikaŵa 5.4 peresenti ya GDP ya 2002-2005. Charu cha Senegal chili pa malo 105 pa Global Innovation Index mu 2021, kufuma pa malo 96 mu 2019.[61][62][63][64]

Mwambo[lemba | kulemba source]

Charu cha Senegal nchakumanyikwa cifukwa ca maluso gha ŵanthu ŵa ku vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Africa ghakuyowoya nkhani. Ntchito ya kuzenga njoka iyi yikwenda kufuma ku muwiro na muwiro ndipo yikukhumba kuti munthu wasambire vinandi pa nkhani ya mbumba, mbiri, na sumu. Ŵagriot ŵakovwira ŵanthu ŵa ku West Africa.[65]

Chipilala cha African Renaissance Monument, icho ŵakazenga mu 2010 ku Dakar, ndicho ntchakutowa chomene mu Africa. Ku Dakar nako kuli chiphikiro cha mafilimu chakuchemeka Recidak.

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Senegal ŵakukondwelera chiphikiro cha Eid al-Fitr. Nangauli mu tawuni ya Dakar muli Ŵasilamu ŵanandi, kweni ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakukondweleraso Khisimasi iyo Ŵakhristu ŵakuchita.[17]

Cuisine[lemba | kulemba source]

Pakuti Senegal yili pafupi na Nyanja ya Atlantic, somba njakuzirwa comene. Nkhuku, mwana wa mberere, phere, mazira, na nyama ya ng'ombe vikugwiliskirika nchito mu vyakurya vya ku Senegal, kweni nkhumba yayi, cifukwa ŵanthu ŵanandi mu caru ici mba Cisilamu. Mu vyakurya vinandi vya ku Senegal, mukusangika vyakumera vyakuchemeka peanuts, couscous, mpunga utuŵa, mbatata, mankhwaŵa, viŵiya vyamawoko ghafipa, na vyakurya vinyake. Kanandi nyama na mphangwe ŵakuviphika panji kuviphika mu vyakumera na vyakununkhira, ndipo ŵakuviŵika pa mpunga panji couscous.

Majusi ghakutowa ghakufuma ku bisap, ginger, buy, mango, panji vipambi vinyake panji makuni ghamuthengere. Vyakurya vyakunowa ivyo ŵanthu ŵa ku Senegal ŵakuphika ni vyakunowa chomene. Kanandi ŵakurya na vipambi viphya ndipo kanandi ŵakumwa khofi panji tiyi.

Music[lemba | kulemba source]

Kora player from Senegal

Senegal yikumanyikwa mu Africa yose chifukwa cha sumu zake, chifukwa cha kutchuka kwa mbalax, iyo yikamba kufuma ku Serer percussive tradition chomene chomene Njuup. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakutemwa kwimba viŵeya. Kanandi ŵakugwiliskira nchito sabala pa viphikiro vyapadera nga ni maukwati. Vyakwimbira vinyake ni tama, ndipo vikugwiliskirika nchito mu mitundu yinandi. Ŵakwimba ŵanyake ŵa ku Senegal awo ŵakumanyikwa pa caru cose ni Ismael Lô, Cheikh Lô, Orchestra Baobab, Baaba Maal, Akon Thione Seck, Viviane, Fallou Dieng Titi, Seckou Keita na Pape Diouf.

Cinema[lemba | kulemba source]

Media[lemba | kulemba source]

Hospitality[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu cikaya ca ku Senegal, kupokelera ŵalendo nkhwakuzirwa comene mwakuti ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakuwona kuti nkhwakuzirwa comene. Lizgu la Chiwolophu ilo likung'anamura kupokelera ŵalendo ni "teranga" ndipo likukolerana chomene na kujikuzga kwa Senegal mwakuti timu ya charu ichi yikuchemeka kuti nkhalamu za ku Teranga.[65]

Maseŵera[lemba | kulemba source]

Senegalese Wrestling
Painting of footballer El Hadji Diouf in Dakar

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Senegal ŵakuchita maseŵero ghanandi. Maseŵero ghakucemeka kuti wrestling na football ngakutchuka comene mu caru ici. Boma la Senegal ndilo lizamuchitiska maseŵero gha Olimpiki gha ŵawukirano mu chaka cha 2026 ku Dakar.[66][67]

Ku Senegal, maseŵero ghakucemeka wrestling ngakumanyikwa comene ndipo ŵanthu ŵakutemwa comene maseŵero agha. Kanandi maseŵero agha ghakovwira ŵawukirano ŵanandi kuti ŵaleke ukavu.[68]

Senegalese football fans at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia

Mpira wa pasi ni maseŵero agho ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakutemwa ku Senegal. Mu 2022, timu ya chalo ichi yikathereska chalo cha Egypt pakutola chiphalizgano cha Africa Cup of Nations kwa nyengo yakwamba. Ŵakaŵa ŵamoza mwa ŵasilikari ŵankhondi pera ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakafika ku vigaŵa vyaumaliro vya FIFA World Cup. Charu cha Senegal chikapokera mpikisano wa 2018 FIFA World Cup ku Russia, na 2022 FIFA World Cup ku Qatar.

Kwamba kale, charu cha Senegal ndicho chili na ŵanthu ŵanandi chomene mu Africa. Gulu la ŵanalume likachita makora chomene kuluska charu chilichose cha ku Africa pa 2014 FIBA World Cup, apo ŵakafika ku play-off kakwamba. Gulu la ŵanakazi likapokera mendulo 19 pa maseŵero 20 gha ku Africa. Apo chalo ichi chikapokeleranga chiphalizgano cha FIFA Women's AfroBasket cha 2019, ŵanthu 15,000 ŵakiza ku Dakar Arena. Senegal yikaŵa yimoza mwa vyaru ivyo vikaŵa pakwamba kuchita maseŵero gha basketball.

Mu 2016, NBA yikapharazga za kukhazikiska Elite's Academy mu Africa, chomenechomene mu Senegal.

Charu ichi ndicho chikachitiskanga chiphalizgano cha Paris-Dakar kufuma mu 1979 m'paka mu 2007. Rally ya Dakar yikaŵa mpikisano wa njinga ya moto uwo ukafumanga ku Paris, France, kuya ku Dakar, Senegal. Awo ŵakacitanga maseŵero agha ŵakendanga mu magalimoto ghakupambanapambana. Mpikisano uwu ukachitika mu 2007, kweni mu 2008, mpikisano uwu ukafumiskika zuŵa limoza pamanyuma pakuti boma la Mauritania lalekeska. Kweniso ku Senegal kukachitika chiphalizgano cha Ocean X-Prix cha Extreme E.[69]

Wonaniso[lemba | kulemba source]

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Mazgo ghakulongosoleka[lemba | kulemba source]

  1. Information from the University of Pennsylvania's Center for African Studies estimates that about 90% of the Senegalese population understands or speaks Wolof as a first or second language.[1]
  2. Arabic is taught as a second language for religious reasons within the Senegalese educational system.[2]
  3. Article 1 of the 2001 Constitution of Senegal, which states that the national languages are Diola, Malinké, Pular, Sérère, Soninke and Wolof.[3]
  4. With French Sudan, as the Mali Federation.
  5. As the Sudanese Republic, with Senegal as the Mali Federation.
  6. (French: République du Sénégal; Wolof: Réewum Senegaal; Pulaar : 𞤈𞤫𞤲𞤣𞤢𞥄𞤲𞤣𞤭 𞤅𞤫𞤲𞤫𞤺𞤢𞥄𞤤𞤭 (Renndaandi Senegaali); Arabic: جمهورية السنغال Cumhûriyye es-Sinigâl)

Ukaboni[lemba | kulemba source]

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Vyakulemba vinyake[lemba | kulemba source]

  • Babou, Cheikh Anta, Fighting the Greater Jihad: Amadu Bamba and the Founding of the Muridiyya of Senegal, 1853–1913, (Ohio University Press, 2007)
  • Behrman, Lucy C, Muslim Brotherhood and Politics in Senegal, (iUniverse.com, 1999)
  • Buggenhage, Beth A, Muslim Families in Global Senegal: Money Takes Care of Shame, (Indiana University Press, 2012)
  • Bugul, Ken, The Abandoned Baobab: The Autobiography of a Senegalese Woman, (University of Virginia Press, 2008)
  • Cana, Frank Richardson (1911). "Senegal (colony)" . Encyclopædia Britannica (in English). Vol. 24 (11th ed.). pp. 640–644.
  • Foley, Ellen E, Your Pocket is What Cures You: The Politics of Health in Senegal, (Rutgers University Press, 2010)
  • Gellar, Sheldon, Democracy in Senegal: Tocquevillian Analytics in Africa, (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005)
  • Glover, John, Sufism and Jihad in Modern Senegal: The Murid Order, (University of Rochester Press, 2007)
  • Kane, Katharina, Lonely Planet Guide: The Gambia and Senegal, (Lonely Planet Publications, 2009)
  • Kueniza, Michelle, Education and Democracy in Senegal, (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011)
  • Mbacké, Khadim, Sufism and Religious Brotherhoods in Senegal, (Markus Wiener Publishing Inc., 2005)
  • Streissguth, Thomas, Senegal in Pictures, (Twentyfirst Century Books, 2009)
  • Various, Insight Guide: Gambia and Senegal, (APA Publications Pte Ltd., 2009)
  • Various, New Perspectives on Islam in Senegal: Conversion, Migration, Wealth, Power, and Femininity, (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009)
  • Various, Senegal: Essays in Statecraft, (Codesria, 2003)
  • Various, Street Children in Senegal, (GYAN France, 2006)

Vigaŵa vya kuwalo[lemba | kulemba source]

Trade

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