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Chuma cha Malaŵi

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Kufuma Wikipedia

Economy of Malawi
Lilongwe, the financial centre of Malawi
NdalamaMalawian kwacha (MWK)
1 July - 30 June
Wupu wamalonda
AU, AfCFTA (signed), WTO, SADC, COMESA
Country group
Vyakuŵelenga
GDP
  • Increase $7.522 billion (nominal, 2019 est.)[3]
  • Increase $25.167 billion (PPP, 2019 est.)[3]
GDP rank
GDP growth
  • 4.0% (2017) 3.5% (2018)
  • 4.4% (2019e) 4.8% (2020f)[4]
GDP per capita
  • Increase $371 (nominal, 2019 est.)[3]
  • Increase $1,240 (PPP, 2019 est.)[3]
GDP per capita rank
GDP by sector
agriculture 29.4%, industry 15.8%, services 56.1% (2016 est.)
8.4% (2020 est.)[3]
Population below poverty line
  • 51.5% (2016)[5]
  • 70.3% on less than $1.90/day (2016)[6]
44.7 medium (2016)[7]
Labour force
  • Increase 8,156,049 (2019)[10]
  • 39.1% employment rate (2017)[11]
Labour force by occupation
agriculture: 76.9%, industry: 4.1%, services: 19% (2013 est.)
Increase 109th (medium, 2020)[12]
External
Exports$1.443 billion (2017 est.)
Export goods
tobacco (55%), dried legumes (8.8%), sugar (6.7%), tea (5.7%), cotton (2%), peanuts, coffee, soy (2015 est.)
Main export partners
Zimbabwe 13.1%, Mozambique 11.8%, Belgium 10.7%, South Africa 6.3%, Netherlands 5%, UK 4.7%, Germany 4.3%, US 4.2% (2017)
Imports$2.388 billion (2017 est.)
Import goods
food, petroleum products, semi-manufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment
Main import partners
South Africa 20.7%, China 14.2%, India 11.6%, UAE 7%, Netherlands 4.4% (2017)
FDI stock
$129.5 million (2014)
$1.861 billion (2017 est.)
Public finances
50.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
Revenues$1.347 billion (2013 est.)
Expenses$1.4 billion (2013 est.)
Economic aid$1.174 million (2012)
$364.2 million (31 December 2013 est.)
Main data source: CIA World Fact Book
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.
Lilongwe market.

Chuma cha Malawi chili na ndalama zakukwana $7.522 billion pa GDP pa chaka cha 2019, ndipo chikupangika chomene na ulimi, ndipo ŵanthu pafupifupi 80% ŵakukhala ku mizi. Charu ichi chili kumwera kwa Africa, ndipo chili pakati pa vyaru ivyo vindapulikiske makora. Mu 2017, vyakurya vikapangiska pafupifupi chigaŵa chimoza pa vigaŵa vitatu vya GDP na pafupifupi 80% ya ndalama izo ŵanthu ŵakuguliska. Chuma cha charu ichi chikuthemba pa ndalama zinandi izo zikufuma ku wupu wa IMF, World Bank, na vyaru vinyake. Boma lili na masuzgo ghakuru comene: kukhozga vyakurya ivyo vikuguliskika ku vyaru vinyake, kunozga masukulu na maofesi gha munkhwala, kumazga masuzgo gha makuni, na HIV/AIDS mu Africa. Malaŵi ni caru cambura kukura comene kuyana na wupu wa United Nations.

Ulimi[lemba | kulemba source]

Cinthu cakuzirwa comene ico Malawi wakuguliska ku vyaru vinyake ni hona, uyo wakapangiska pafupifupi cigaŵa cacitatu (30%) ca ndalama izo ŵakaguliskanga ku vyaru vinyake mu 2012. Mu 2000, caru ici cikaŵa pa nambara 10 pa vyakurya vikuruvikuru pa caru cose. Cifukwa cakuti caru ici cikuthemba comene hona, cuma cikusuzgika comene cifukwa cakuti mitengo ya hona pa caru cose yikukhizga ndipo caru cose cikuphalira ŵanthu kuti ŵaleke kukhweŵa comene. Malaŵi wakuthemba chomene hona, ndipo kufuma mu 2007 m'paka 2008, hona wakwera kufuma pa 53% kufika pa 70% pa ndalama izo ŵanthu ŵakuguliska.[13][14]

A Malawi tea estate

Charu ichi chikuthemba chomene pa tiyi, mkaka na khofi, ndipo vyakurya ivi pamoza na hona vikupangiska kuti Malawi wapokere ndalama zinandi chomene. Mu 1878, ŵanthu ŵakamba kumwa tiyi. Viŵeto vinandi vikulimika mu Mulanje na Thyolo. Vyakumera vinyake ni katoni, mbuto, mbuto za mbuto, ng'ombe na mbuzi. Makampani gha hona na gha shuga ndigho ghakupanga vinthu vinandi.

Kwamba kale, charu cha Malawi chikuthemba chomene pa vyakurya, ndipo mu ma 1980, chikaguliskanga vyakurya vinandi ku vyaru vinyake ivyo vikaŵa pafupi na charu ichi. Ŵanthu pafupifupi 90 pa 100 ŵali mu vyaru ivi ŵakulima. Ŵalimi ŵachokoŵachoko ŵakupanda vyakurya vyakupambanapambana, nga ni chimanga, nyungu, mpunga, maniyu, hona, na phere. Usambazi wa ndalama ukuŵa mu mawoko gha ŵanthu ŵachoko waka. Vinthu vinandi ivyo vikupangika mu Malawi vili kuzingilizga msumba wa Blantyre.

Nyanja ya Malawi na ya Chilwa ni zinandi chomene mu chigaŵa ichi. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Malawi ŵakutemwa chomene somba. Somba zakomira zikupelekekaso ku vyaru vinyake. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakuloŵa somba na mawoko. Ndipouli, Maldeco Fisheries yili na maboti ghanandi ghakuloŵeska somba ndipo yikuliska viŵeto vya somba kumwera kwa Nyanja ya Malawi.

Somba zakomira pa cirwa ca Likoma

Malaŵi walije vinthu vinandi vyakuthupi. Wupu unyake wa ku South Africa na Australia ukulima uranium mu migodi kufupi na Karonga. Ku chigaŵa cha Mzimba, ŵanthu ŵakugwiliskira nchito malasha. Charu cha Malawi chikuthemba chomene pa vyakurya ivyo vikufuma ku vyaru vinyake. Ndalama zinandi izo ŵakugwiliskira nchito pakuguliska vinthu, izo zingaŵa kuti ni 30 peresenti ya ndalama izo ŵakuguliska, zikovwira kuti vinthu vileke kwenda makora. Malaŵi wakwenera kwiza na mafuta ghose agho wakuguliska. Vinyake ivyo vikusuzga ni ukavu wa ŵantchito ŵakumanya nchito, suzgo la kusanga vyakuzomerezga ŵanthu awo ŵafuma ku vyaru vinyake kuti ŵagwirenge nchito, maburoko, vimbundi, kweniso misewu, magesi, maji, na mawupu agho ghakovwira kuti vinthu vileke kwenda makora mu Malawi. Ndipouli, vinthu ivyo boma lacita sonosono apa kuti liŵawovwire kunozga misewu, pamoza na cigaŵa ca ŵekha mu vyalo vya njanji na vya kwendera matelefoni, vyapangiska kuti malo gha ndalama ghaŵe ghakutowa comene.

Munthu wakuguliska vinthu mumphepete mwa msewu ku Blantyre

Ivi ni vigaŵa 20 vya viŵelengero vya vyakurya vya ku Malawi mu 2009. (Maukaboni ghambura kuzomerezgeka ghafuma ku FAO) [15]

Mbewu Ndalam mu International dollars (1000) Production in tonnes FAO source
Maize 462,330 3,582,500
Cassava 404,764 3,823,240
Tobacco 331,542 208,155
Groundnuts 116,638 275,176
Bananas (excluding plantains) 95,152 400,000 F
Sugar cane 82,093 2,500,000 F
Indigenous cattle meat 80,688 0
Pigeon peas 80,274 184,156
Beans, dry 75,706 164,712
Fresh fruit 74,456 213,321 Im
Plantains 72,634 351,812 Im
Indigenous pig meat 68,788 0
Tea 55,895 52,559 P
Indigenous goat meat 53,512 0
Mangoes, mangosteens and guavas 49,527 82,659 Im
Cotton lint 39,017 27,300 F
Paddy rice 36,896 135,988
Fresh vegetables 30,530 162,012 Im
Indigenous chicken meat 25,713 0
Cow peas 18,073 72,082

Key: F : FAO estimate, Im: FAO data based on imputation methodology, P : Provisional official data

Kachimbililo ka malonda[lemba | kulemba source]

Pa chithuzithuzi ichi pali vinthu vikuruvikuru ivyo vikachitika mu 1980 na 2017.[16]

Chaka 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
GDP in $

(PPP)

2.42 bil. 3.46 bil. 4.52 bil. 5.75 bil. 7.73 bil. 9.76 bil. 10.53 bil. 11.85 bil. 13.00 bil. 14.19 bil. 15.35 bil. 16.43 bil. 17.05 bil. 18.22 bil. 19.61 bil. 20.40 bil. 21.13 bil. 22.37 bil.
GDP per capita in $

(PPP)

368 449 450 539 640 714 750 820 876 929 977 1,016 1,025 1,065 1,114 1,127 1,134 1,167
GDP growth

(real)

0.4 % 4.6 % 5.7 % 13.8 % 0.8 % 3.3 % 4.7 % 9.6 % 7.6 % 8.3 % 6.9 % 4.9 % 1.9 % 5.2 % 5.7 % 3.0 % 2.3 % 4.0 %
Inflation

(in Percent)

19.2 % 10.6 % 11.9 % 83.1 % 29.6 % 15.4 % 13.9 % 8.0 % 8.7 % 8.4 % 7.4 % 7.6 % 21.3 % 28.3 % 23.8 % 21.9 % 21.7 % 11.5 %
Government debt

(Pct. of GDP)

... ... ... ... ... 107 % 28 % 28 % 36 % 36 % 30 % 31 % 44 % 59 % 55 % 61 % 60 % 59 %

Industry[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu 2013, viŵaro vya Malawi vikaŵa 10.7% pa GDP. Vigaŵa vikuruvikuru ni vyakurya, vyakuzenga, vinthu vyakugwiliskira nchito, simenti, vyakurya vyakuguliska vyakurya, kupanga vinthu vyakuguliska vyakurya, kupanga vinthu vya mu nyumba na hona.

Ivyo boma likucita kuti liŵike vinthu vinandi mu vyakurya na kwambiska malonda pa caru cose, vikutimbanizgika comene cifukwa ca vinthu viheni ivyo vikucitika, ŵanthu ŵambura kusambira makora, ndiposo suzgo la malonda. Kuti viŵawovwire kuti ŵagwiliskirenge ntchito nthowa na matekinoloje ghaphya, ndondomeko ya vyamalonda iyo yikapelekeka mu 2013, yikovwira kuti ŵagwirenge makora ntchito pa kafukufuku wa pa charu chose kweniso kuti ŵamanye makora vya matekinoloje agho ghalipo. Pa nyengo yeneiyo pera, boma la Russia lakwezga ndalama izo likugwiliskira nchito pa kafukufuku na vyakupangapanga kufika pa 1% ya GDP.

Food and beverages[lemba | kulemba source]

Vipasi na vipasi vinandi vikuguliskika ku vyaru vinyake, kweni vyakurya vyakunozgeka vikufuma ku vyaru vinyake. Mu 1965, Carlsberg yikajura kampani yake yakwamba ya kupanga moŵa kuwaro kwa Denmark mu msumba wa Blantyre. Kweniso kampani iyi yikupanga mabotolo gha vyakurya vya Coca-Cola. Mu 2013, ku Salima kukajulika malo ghakupangira mango kuti ghapange vipasi. Universal Industries yikugwira nchito mu mafakitale ghanandi gha vyakurya mu Blantyre, uko yikupanga maswiti, chips, mabisiketi, mkaka, vyakurya vya soya na vyakurya vya ŵana. Khofi na tiyi vikupangika na makampani ghaŵiri mu vigaŵa vya Thyolo, Mulanje na kuzingilizga Mzuzu.

Pharmaceutical companies[lemba | kulemba source]

Malaŵi wali na makampani ghanayi gha vyakurya. Ŵakupanga minkhwala yinandi yayi, comenecomene iyo yikukhumbikwa comene pa msika. Makampani agha ni Pharmanova Ltd., agho ndigho ghakupanga munkhwala ukuru comene mu Malawi, ndipo ghakulondezgapo ni SADM, Malawi Pharmacies (Pharmaceuticals Limited) na Kentam Products Limited.[17]

Forestry[lemba | kulemba source]

Lady carrying a solar panel.

Nkhorongo zikuruzikuru izo ŵanthu ŵakuzenga zili mu mapiri gha Viphya, kuzingilizga Mulanje na Zomba. Makuni agho ghakugwiliskirika nchito pakuzenga na kupanga vinthu vya mu nyumba ni nchito yakuzirwa comene mu vigaŵa ivi. Ndipouli, vigaŵa vinandi mu Malaŵi vikuparanyika cifukwa ca kukora makuni mwambura kuzomerezgeka na boma kuti ŵapange malasha.

Electricity[lemba | kulemba source]

Boma la Malawi ndilo likupeleka magesi ku charu ichi. Malire agho ghalipo ghali pafupifupi 351MW. Ŵanthu pafupifupi 12 pa 100 ŵali na magesi, kuyana na ivyo vikalembeka na World Bank mu 2014.

Charu ichi chikuŵa na suzgo la kuŵavya magesi chifukwa cha chilangalanga icho chapangiska kuti magesi ghachepe chomene. Mlonga uwu ukupangiska magesi ghakukwana 300MW, ndipo ukupeleka 98 peresenti ya magesi ghose gha mu Malawi. Ndipouli, kuyana na fundo za wupu wa ESCOM, chilangalanga chikapangiska kuti nkhongono iyi yichepe kufika pa 160 MW..[18]

Services[lemba | kulemba source]

Vigaŵa vya mautumiki vikupangiska 51.7% ya GDP ya Malawi. Makampani agho ghakumanyikwa comene ni gha vyaulendo, malonda, kwendeska vinthu, masambiro, maofesi gha munkhwala, kwendera mawoko, na mabanki. Boma la Malawi lili na masheya mu makampani ghanandi ghakuzirwa, nga ni Malawian Airlines (51%) na Press Corporation Limited. Press Corporation Ltd. ni kampani yikuru comene ya mu caru ici, ndipo yili na mabungwe ghanyake mu vyaru nga ni hona, banki, shuga, somba, kupanga ethanol, kupanga njere, malonda, kwendera mawoko na mafuta.

International support[lemba | kulemba source]

Kwambira mu 1981, Malawi wachita ndondomeko ya kunozga vinthu mu vyaru ivyo vili na ndalama zinandi. Vinthu vinyake ivyo vikukhumbikwa pa ndondomeko iyi ni kukhwimiska nchito za boma na kucitako vinthu vinyake mwa kulekeska kwendeska mitengo na kupeleka malayisensi ku makampani, kulekeska malonda gha vyamalonda na kusinthiska ndalama, kunozga misonkho, kupanikizgira mabungwe gha boma, na kunozga uteŵeti wa boma. Malaŵi wakeneranga kupokera wovwiri wa kuchepeska ngongoli ya vyaru vikavu ivyo vili na ngongoli zinandi (HIPC) ndipo pasono wakunozgaso ndondomeko yake ya kuchepeska ukavu.

Malaŵi wali na mapangano gha malonda na vyaru viŵiri vikuruvikuru, vya South Africa na Zimbabwe. Boma likukumana na masuzgo nga nkhupanga makora masukulu na maofesi gha vyaumoyo mu Malaŵi - ivyo ni vyakuzirwa comene cifukwa ca kuthandazgika kwa HIV/AIDS - kweniso masuzgo gha cilengiwa nga nkhutema makuni, kunangika kwa dongo, na dongo ilo ndakughanda.

Former President Bingu wa Mutharika of Malawi spoke about the country's recent unilateral agricultural reforms at the World Economic Forum on Africa at the United Nations, September 2008.

Move towards economic independence[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu 2006, cifukwa ca kucepa kwa vyakurya, Malawi, kwizira mwa pulezidenti Bingu Mutharika, uyo wakaŵa nkhwantha ya vya cuma, wakambiska pulogiramu ya kupeleka vyakurya vyakovwira ŵanthu kuti ŵambeso kulima. Ŵanyake ŵakuti ndondomeko iyi, iyo yikukhozgeka na pulezidenti wa caru ici, yikovwira kuti ulimi wa ku Malawi uŵe uwemi comene, ndipo yikupangiska kuti Malawi waŵe wakuguliska vyakurya ku vyaru vyapafupi.

Ndipouli, masuzgo gha vyachuma ghakachepa chomene mu nyengo ya Mutharika. Vyakudandawura vya vyachuma ndivyo vikapangiska kuti mu Julayi 2011, ku Malawi kuŵe vivulupi vya vyachuma.

Economic indicators[lemba | kulemba source]

Viŵelengero ivi vyafuma mu buku la CIA World Factbook, pekha usange pali vinyake.

GDP: purchasing power parity = $22.37 billion (2017 est.)

Interest rates advertised by Malawi Savings Bank in Nchalo, Malawi on 30 September 2008
Exchange rates advertised by a currency trader in Lilongwe on 7 October 2008
Reserve Bank of Malawi Mzuzu Branch under construction in Mzuzu, a fast-growing city. July 2008

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2017 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1200 (2017 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 28.1%

industry: 15.8%

services: 56.1% (2016 est.)

Population below poverty line: 50.7% (2010 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 23% (2014 est.)

Labor force: 7 million (2013 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 76.9%, industry and services 23.1% (2013 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:

revenues: $1.346 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: $1.556 billion (2017 est.)

Public Debt 59.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

Industries: tobacco, tea, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer goods, cotton, consumer goods, uranium and coal mining

Industrial production growth rate: 2.8% (2013 est.)

Electricity - production: 1.973 billion kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - consumption: 1.835 billion kWh (2010 est.)

Agriculture - products: tobacco, sugar cane, cotton, tea, maize, potatoes, cassava (tapioca), sorghum, pulses; cattle, goats

Exports: $1.427 billion (2013 est.)

Exports - commodities: tobacco, tea, sugar, cotton, coffee, peanuts, wood products, apparel, uranium and its compounds

Exports - partners: Canada 10.6%, Zimbabwe 9.3%, Germany 7.3%, South Africa 6.6%, Russia 6.5%, US 6.1%, China 4.2% (2012)

Imports: $2.42 billion (2013 est.)

Imports - commodities: food, petroleum products, semimanufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment

Imports - partners: South Africa 27%, China 16.6%, India 8.7%, Zambia 8.5%, Tanzania 5.1%, US 4.3% (2012)

Current account balance - $280.1 million (2013 est.)

Debt - external: $1.556 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:

$575.3 million (2005)

Foreign direct investment - inflow $129.5 million (2014)

Currency: 1 Malawian kwacha (MK) = 100 tambala

Exchange rates: Malawian kwachas per US dollar -730.00 (20/June/2016), 460.00 (20/Jan/2015), 360.00 (6/Feb/2013), 165.961 (1/Sep/2011), 145.179 (2009), 135.96 (2006), 108.894 (2005), 108.898 (2004), 97.433 (2003), 76.687 (2002)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Wonaniso[lemba | kulemba source]

Ukaboni[lemba | kulemba source]

  1. "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  2. "World Bank Country and Lending Groups". datahelpdesk.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  4. "Global Economic Prospects, January 2020 : Slow Growth, Policy Challenges" (PDF). openknowledge.worldbank.org. World Bank. p. 147. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  5. "Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty lines (% of population) - Malawi". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  6. "Poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a day (2011 PPP) (% of population) - Malawi". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  7. "GINI index (World Bank estimate) - Malawi". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  8. "Human Development Index (HDI)". hdr.undp.org. HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  9. "Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)". hdr.undp.org. HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  10. "Labor force, total - Malawi". data.worldbank.org. World Bank & ILO. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  11. "Employment to population ratio, 15+, total (%) (national estimate) - Malawi". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  12. "Ease of Doing Business in Malawi". Doingbusiness.org. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  13. CIA World Factbook
  14. J. Tyler Dickovick, Africa 2008, 43rd edition, Harpers Ferry, WV: Stryker-Post Publications, 2008. p. 278
  15. "Faostat".
  16. "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects" (in American English). Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  17. A Survey of Policy and Practice on the Use of Access to MedicinesRelated TRIPs Flexibilities in Malawi
  18. France-Presse, Agence (2017-12-08). "Malawi suffers blackouts as drought exposes 98% reliance on hydro power". The Guardian (in British English). ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-12-08.

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from World Factbook. CIA.

Lutizgani kufufuza[lemba | kulemba source]

  • Anthony and Doreen Young, A Geography of Malawi, Second edition. Evans Brothers, Limited, London (1978) ISBN 0-237-50296-8

Vigaŵa vya kuwaro[lemba | kulemba source]

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