Nyasaland

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Kufuma Wikipedia

Nyasaland Protectorate
Mbendela Coat of arms
(1925–1964)
Royal anthem
God Save the King (1907–1952)
God Save the Queen (1952–1964)
Pasono Protectorate
Msumba WabomaZomba
Languages
Mitundu ya Ŵanthu {{{ethnic_groups}}}
Mtundu wa Boma Constitutional monarchy
Establishment
 -  Establishment 6 July 1907 
 -  Federation 1 August 1953 
 -  Dissolution 31 December 1963 
 -  Independence 6 July 1964 
Ukulu wa Malo
 -  Malo 102,564 km2
39,600 sq mi
Chiŵelengelo cha ŵanthu
 -  1924 census 6,930,000[1]
Ndalama
Mtundu Wanyengo CAT (UTC+2)

Nyasaland [2]likaŵa zina lakale la charu cha Malaŵi chakulongozgeka na charu cha Britain icho chikaŵa na mazaza pa charu cha Africa ilo likakhazikiskika mu 1907. Pakati pa 1953 na 1963, charu cha Nyasaland chikaŵa mu vyaru vya Rhodesia na Nyasaland. Nkhondo iyi yikati yamara, charu cha Nyasaland chikamba kujiyimira pachekha kufuma ku Britain pa 6 July 1964.

Mbiri ya charu cha Nyasaland yikulongora kuti mu nyengo yakwambilira, ŵanthu ŵanandi ku Africa ŵakataya malo ghawo. Mu Janyuwale 1915, Muliska John Chilembwe wakayezga kuwukira ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa. Ŵalara ŵa boma ŵakasintha vinyake ivyo ŵakachitanga. Kwambira mu ma 1930, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakasambira chomene, ŵanandi awo ŵakasambira ku United Kingdom, ŵakamba kuchita ndyali. Ŵakambiska mawupu ghanyake, ndipo pamanyuma pa 1944, ŵakambiska bungwe la Nyasaland African Congress (NAC).[Pakukhumbika ukaboni apa]

Mu 1953, apo charu cha Nyasaland chikapangika kuti chiŵe mu wupu wa Southern na Northern Rhodesia, pakawuka vivulupi chifukwa ŵanthu ŵakakondwanga yayi na vinthu ivi. Pakuti NAC yikatondeka kukanizga ivi, yikamara. Nyengo yichoko waka, muwiro unyake wa ŵawukirano uwo ukaŵa na nkharo yiwemi, ukawuskaso gulu ili. Ŵakamupempha Hastings Banda kuti wawelere ku caru cawo na kucitolera ku wanangwa wa Malawi mu 1964.[Pakukhumbika ukaboni apa]

Chiŵelengero cha ŵanthu

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Nyasaland, 1911

Kafukufuku uyu wakachitika mu 1911, ndipo wakaŵa wakwamba kufuma apo boma la Nyasaland likasinthira zina. Ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mu charu ichi ŵakaŵa: Ŵafrika, awo ŵakamanyikwanga kuti "ŵakukhala mu charu ichi": 969,183, Ŵazungu 766, Ŵasiliya 481. Mu Malichi 1920, ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakaŵa 1,015 ndipo ŵa ku Asia ŵakaŵa 515. Mu 1919, ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ŵakakwana 561,600 ŵanalume na 664,400 ŵanakazi. Msumba ukuru wa Blantyre ukaŵa na ŵanthu 300 ŵa ku Europe.[3] Ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe awo ŵakakhalanga mu caru ici ŵakaŵa ŵachoko comene, ŵakaŵa 1,948 pera mu 1945. Kuzakafika mu 1960, ciŵelengero cawo cikakwera kufika pa 9,500, kweni pamanyuma pake cikakhira cifukwa ca nkhondo ya wanangwa. Ŵanandi awo ŵakakhalanga mu msumba uwu ŵakaŵa ŵa fuko la ku Asia, ndipo ŵanandi ŵakaŵa ŵamalonda..[4]

Ŵanthu ŵa mu cigaŵa ici ŵakaŵa ŵanandi, kweni ŵakaŵavya fundo yakupulikikwa makora. Mu khoti linyake ku Nyasaland mu 1929, mweruzgi wakati: "Munthu uyo ni mwenekaya wa mu Africa ni uyo ni wa mtundu unyake yayi, kwali wa ku Europe panji ku Asia. Mtundu panji uko munthu wali kufuma vikuthemba pa uko wakababikira yayi. Mtundu wa ŵanthu ukuthemba pa ndopa izo zikwenda mu misipa yawo".[5] Mwakupambana na ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe awo ŵakafuma ku Britain, ŵanthu ŵa ku Nyasaland ŵakaŵa na wanangwa wa kukhala ku Britain yayi, kweni ŵakaŵa na wanangwa wa kukhala ku Britain. Lizgu lakuti'mweneko' likagwiliskirika nchito pa macenjezgo ghose agho ghakacitika mu vyaru ivyo vikaŵa pasi pa muwuso wa Britain m'paka mu 1945.

Ŵanthu awo ŵakalembeka mu nyengo ya makoloni kweniso awo ŵakalembeka pambere charu chindambe kujiyimira paŵekha, ŵalipo ŵanandi chomene. Ŵanthu awo ŵakukhala mu charu ichi ni awo ŵali na malo ghakukhalako.[Pakukhumbika ukaboni apa]

Chaka Chiŵelengero cha ŵanthu Chiŵelengero cha ŵanthu Kukwera kwapachaka
1901 736,724
1911 969,183 2.8%
1921 1,199,934 2.2%
1926 1,280,885 1,290,885 1.5%
1931 1,569,888 1,599,888 4.4%
1945 2,044,707 2,178,013+ 2.2%
1966 4,020,724 4,286,724+ 3.3%

Ukaboni: Lipoti laumaliro la kalembera wa 1966 wa ku Malawi, Zomba, 1968.

Ŵanthu awo ŵakalembeka mu nyengo ya makoloni ŵakamanyanga makora yayi: mu 1901 na 1911, ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ŵakakhalanga mwakuyana na msonkho uwo ŵakakhomanga mu nyumba za ŵanthu. Pa kalembera wa mu 1921, 1926, na 1931, ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ŵakalembeka yayi. Kafukufuku uyo wakacitika mu 1945 wakaŵa muwemi comene, kweni wakaŵa waunenesko yayi. Pa kalembera wa mu 1921, 1931, na 1945, wose ŵakalembapo unandi wa ŵanthu awo ŵakasamukira ku Mozambique. Awo ŵakalembeka pambere chaka cha 1945 chindafike ŵakalongosora makora yayi unandi wa ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa kweniso unandi wa ŵanthu awo ŵakafumanga ku Nyasaland..[6]

Mu nyengo yose iyo ŵanthu ŵakakhalanga mu vyaru ivi, ŵanthu ŵakakhalanga chomene mu vyaru vya ku Nyasaland na Malawi. Nangauli ŵanthu ŵakasazgikiranga mwaluŵiro comene pakati pa 1901 na 1931, kweni cifukwa ca unandi wa ŵana awo ŵakafwanga na matenda gha mu vyaru vya mu mphepo, ciŵelengero ici cikasazgikiranga comene. Vikuwoneka kuti ciŵelengero ici cikasazgikira cifukwa ca ŵanthu ŵakufuma ku Mozambique. Kwamba mu 1931 m'paka mu 1945, chiŵelengero cha ŵana chikakwera kaŵiri, panji chifukwa chakuti ŵadokotala ŵakamba kuŵawovwira makora. Nangauli ŵanthu ŵakalutilira kuluta ku vyaru vinyake mu nyengo ya ukoloni, kweni ŵakakhwaskika viŵi yayi.[7]

Pa kalembera wa mu 1921, pakaŵa ŵanthu 108,204 awo ŵakaŵa "Anguru" (Ŵalendo ŵakufuma ku Mozambique awo ŵakayowoyanga chiyowoyero cha Lomwe). Vikuwoneka kuti ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakalembeka mu mazina gha mafuko ghanyake nawo ŵakambuka mphaka kufuma ku Mozambique. Kweniso vikulongora kuti pakati pa 1921 na 1931, chiŵelengero cha ŵanthu awo ŵakafuma ku vigaŵa vinyake, chomenechomene ku Mozambique na Northern Rhodesia, chikakwera chomene. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakasamukira ku vyaru vinyake mu 1926. Pakati pa 1931 na 1945, chiŵelengero cha ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Anguru chikasazgikira chomene. Pa ŵanthu wose awo ŵakalembeka mu 1966, pakaŵa ŵanthu 283,854 ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakababikira ku vyaru vinyake.

Ŵanalume ndiwo ŵakaluta ku vyaru vinyake, comenecomene ku Southern Rhodesia na South Africa. Vikuwoneka kuti ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakusamukira ku vyaru vinyake. Boma la Nyasaland likati mu 1935, ŵanalume ŵakukwana 58,000 ŵakagwiranga nchito kuwaro kwa charu ichi. Pa kalembera wa ku Southern Rhodesia wa mu 1931 pera, pakaŵa ŵanalume 54,000 ŵa ku Nyasaland, ntheura kuyana na ivyo vikalembeka kale, awo ŵakagwiranga ntchito mu vyaru vinyake ŵakaŵa ŵachoko. Mu 1937, ŵanalume ŵakujumpha 90,000 ŵakagwiranga nchito ku caru cinyake.

Kuzakafika mu 1945, ŵanalume pafupifupi 124,000 na ŵanakazi pafupifupi 9,500 ŵakaŵavya nyumba. Ŵantchito ŵanandi ŵakasamukira ku vyaru vya kumpoto na vyapakati: mu 1937, pa ŵanthu 91,000 ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakaŵavya nchito, ŵankhondi na yumoza pera ndiwo ŵakafuma ku vigaŵa vya kumwera uko kukaŵa nchito zinandi. Ŵanthu ŵakalutilira kusama na kuluta ku vyaru vinyake. Kuyana na maukaboni, mu 1963, ŵanalume pafupifupi 170,000 ŵakagwira nchito ku vyaru vinyake: 120,000 ku Southern Rhodesia, 30,000 ku South Africa, na 20,000 ku Zambia.[8]

Kulamulira

Pakati

Mapu gha charu cha Nyasaland gha mu 1935
Mapu gha Rhodesia na Nyasaland

Mu nyengo yose ya pakati pa 1907 na 1953, charu cha Nyasaland chikalongozgekanga na boma la United Kingdom. Boma la Britain ndilo likalongozganga boma ili. Pakuti charu cha Nyasaland chikakhumbikwiranga wovwiri wa ndyali kwizira mu vyawanangwa na ngongoli, ŵalara ŵa boma ŵakaphalirangaso ofesi ya ndarama za boma.[9] Kwambira mu 1953 m'paka kuumaliro wa 1963, charu cha Nyasaland chikaŵa mu wupu wa Rhodesia na Nyasaland. Nyasaland yikalutilira kuŵa boma lakuvikilirika, ndipo ŵalongozgi ŵake ŵakaŵa na udindo wa boma, ŵantchito na mawupu gha ŵantchito, masambiro gha ku Africa gha ku pulayimale na sekondale, ulimi na makuni gha ku Africa, na polisi..[10]

Mazaza ghanandi agho ŵakaŵanga nagho ŵakagaŵira boma. Wupu uwu ndiwo ukendeskanga vinthu vya ku caru cose, kuvikilira ŵanthu, kuluta ku caru cinyake, masambiro ghapacanya, mendero, maofesi gha boma na vinthu vikuruvikuru vya ndyali. Ofesi ya Colonial Office yikalutilira kuŵa na mazaza pa nkhani za mu Africa na za ŵanthu ŵa mu Africa. Boma la Nyasaland likamara pa Disembala 31, 1963.

Ŵalaraŵalara ŵanandi ŵakateŵeteranga mu vigaŵa vinyake, kweni ŵakateŵeteranga na ŵalongozgi ŵa maofesi awo ŵakateŵeteranga mu charu cha Nyasaland. Ŵanyake mwa ŵalaraŵalara aŵa ŵakateŵeteranga mu makhoti ghaŵiri agho ghakapelekanga ulongozgi ku ŵakazembe. Mu 1907, mu wupu uwu mukaŵa waka ŵalara ŵa boma kuti ŵapeleke ulongozgi ku ŵakazembe pa nkhani za malango. M'paka mu 1961, Kazembe wakaŵa na mazaza ghakuzomerezga dango lililose ilo lalembeka na Wupu Wakulongozga. Wupu Wakulongozga ukaŵa wupu ucoko comene uwo ukacitanga upharazgi. Wose pamoza ŵakaŵa ŵalara ŵa boma m'paka mu 1949, apo ŵaŵiri awo ŵakaŵa "ŵambura mauteŵeti" ŵakasazgikira ku ŵamazaza 8.[11][12]

The composition of the Legislative Council gradually became more representative. In 1930, its six "non-official" members were no longer nominated by the governor but were selected by as association representing white planters and businessmen. Until 1949, African interests were represented by one white missionary. That year the governor appointed three Africans and an Asian to join six white "non-official" and 10 official members.

From 1955, its six white "non-official" members were elected; five Africans (but no Asians) were nominated. Only in 1961 were all Legislative Council seats filled by election: the Malawi Congress Party won 22 of 28 seats. The party was also nominated to seven of the 10 Executive Council seats.[13][14]

Vyachilokolo

Kufuma mu 1892, boma ili likagaŵika mu vigaŵa, ndipo mu chigaŵa chilichose mukaŵa Mulara wa Ndalama. Pakwamba kukaŵa vigaŵa pafupifupi 12, kweni apo charu chikamba kujiyimira paŵekha, vikaŵa pafupifupi 20. Mu 1907, ŵantchito 12 na ŵantchito 26 awo ŵakateŵeteranga mu ofesi iyi, ŵakaŵa na mulimo wa kupokera msonkho na msonkho wa ku nyumba za ŵanthu. Kwambira mu 1920, ŵalara ŵa vigaŵa ŵakapelekanga lipoti ku ŵalara ŵa vigaŵa vitatu vya kumpoto, pakati, na kumwera. Iwo ŵakaphaliranga mulara wa boma wa ku Zomba. Chiŵelengero cha ŵalara ŵa vigaŵa na awo ŵakaŵawovwiranga chikakwera pachokopachoko kufika pa 51 mu 1937 na 120 mu 1961.[15]

Mu vigaŵa vinandi vya ufumu uwu mukaŵa ŵalongozgi ŵachoko waka. Pakwamba, ŵa ku Britain ŵakayezga kuti ŵaleke kuŵa na mazaza pa ŵalongozgi awo ŵakaŵa ŵankhongono. Kwambira mu 1912, ŵanthu ŵakasankhanga ŵalongozgi ŵa vigaŵa na ŵalongozgi ŵa mizi kuŵa ŵimiliri pakati pa boma na ŵanthu ŵa mu chigaŵa. Mulara waliyose wakeneranga kusankha mazaza agho wangapeleka ku ŵalongozgi ŵa chigaŵa chake. Ŵanyake ŵakasankha ŵalongozgi awo ŵakaŵa kale na mazaza.[16]

Mu 1933, boma la Britain likamba kulamulira ŵanthu mwakudunjika yayi. Boma likazomerezga ŵalongozgi na makhoti ghawo kuti ŵaŵe na mazaza, kweni ŵakaŵa na mazaza ghachoko waka na ndalama zichoko waka. Ŵalara ŵa boma ŵakakhazikiskanga makhoti gha ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha kuti ghapwererenge milandu yakukhwaskana na malango gha cikaya. Kweni Sir Charles Golding, kazembe wa caru ici kufuma mu 1924 mpaka 1929, wakagomezganga kuti ndondomeko ya ŵalongozgi ŵa cikaya yili kunangika ndipo njambura kugomezgeka. Makhoti gha ku America ghakaŵavya mazaza pa malo gha ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe. Ŵakaŵa pasi pa ŵalara ŵa vigaŵa, ndipo boma likagwiliskiranga ntchito malango gha vyakurya agho ŵanthu ŵakakondwanga nagho yayi. Iwo ndiwo ŵakeruzganga milandu yinandi iyo yikaŵanga mu vigaŵa vya ufumu uwu.

Kwambira mu 1902, boma la Britain likakhazikiska dango la Cingelezi, ndipo likakhazikiska khoti likuru lakuyana na la Cingelezi. Khoti la Apilu la ku East Africa ku Zanzibar ndilo likapulikizganga madandawuro agha. Dango la cikaya likazomerezgekanga (kweni likaŵa lakukhumbikwa yayi) para ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ŵakakhalanga mu caru ici. Pakwamba, ŵasilikari ŵa King's African Rifles ndiwo ŵakendeskanga vinthu, ndipo ŵanyake ŵakateŵeteranga na ŵapolisi ŵa vigaŵa. Ŵakapanga ŵapolisi ŵakumanyikwa comene mu 1922 kweni mu 1945 ŵakaŵa na ŵapolisi 500 pera.[17]

Nkhondo Yachiŵiri ya Caru Cose yikati yamara, boma likasazgirako ndalama izo likagwiliskiranga nchito ŵapolisi na kusazgirako ŵasilikari ŵake ku vigaŵa vya ku mizi. Mu 1952, Sukulu Yakusambizga Ŵapolisi yikajulika, ndipo mu 1959, ŵasilikari ŵakakwana 750. Vinthu vikasintha chomene mu 1959, apo ŵanthu ŵakamba kukhozgera wanangwa wa charu ichi. Boma likapharazga kuti kuli suzgo, ndipo ŵasilikari ŵakiza kufuma ku Rhodesia na Tanganyika. Mwaluŵiro ŵasilikari ŵakasazgikira na kufika pafupifupi 3,000. Gulu la Malawi Congress Party likati lakora mazaza mu 1962, likapokera ŵapolisi 3,000, kusazgapo ŵalaraŵalara ŵa boma la Britain.[18]

Malo

Vyachisisi

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe awo ŵakakhumbanga kupoka malo ghakurughakuru ŵakasuzgikanga chomene pa nkhani ya ndyali kweniso umoyo wa ŵanthu. Pakati pa 1892 na 1894, mahekitala 3,705,255, pafupifupi mahekitala 1.5 miliyoni panji 15% ya malo ghose gha Protectorate, ghakaŵa gha ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe. Pa malo agha, 2,702,379 million acres, panji kuti mahekitala ghakujumpha 1 miliyoni, agho ghakaŵa kumpoto kwa charu ichi ghakaŵa gha British South Africa Company. Kweni malo ghanandi agho ghakasidika, ghakaŵa ghakukwana maekala pafupifupi 867,000, panji mahekitala ghakujumpha 350,000, ndipo ghakaŵa na malo ghawemi chomene gha kulima mu chigaŵa cha Shire Highlands, icho chikaŵa na ŵanthu ŵanandi chomene..[19]

Mulara wakwamba wa boma la Britain, Sir Harry Johnston, wakagomezganga kuti malo gha Shire Highlands ghaŵenge malo ghakukhala ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Europe. Pamanyuma wakawona kuti nchinthu ciheni comene. Iyo wakazomerezga kuti ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Africa ŵakakhumbikwiranga malo ghakukwana kuti ŵakhalengemo. Ŵanyake awo ŵakapoka malo ghakukwana yayi. Malo ghakukwana maekala 250,000 gha malo ghakale gha ufumu ghaguliskika nga ni malo ghakukhalapo waka panji ghakachita lenti, ndipo pafupifupi maekala 400,000 ghanyake, agho ghakalembeka mu Certificates of Claim, ghakaguliskika panji kupika lenti mu malo ghakukwana maekala 1,000. Ŵanandi mwa ŵanthu aŵa ŵakaŵa ŵa ku Europe awo ŵakiza ku Nyasaland kuti ŵalimenge hona.

Kuzakafika mu 1920, wupu wakuwona vya caru uwo ukaŵikika na boma la Nyasaland ukayowoya kuti caru cinyake cipelekekenge ku ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa kuti ŵakhazikiske minda yicoko na yacipakati ya ku Europe. Ofesi ya Colonial Office yikakana fundo iyi.

Kuumaliro wa vyaka vya m'ma 1800, ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakatora malo ghanandi agho ghakaŵa ghakutowa comene mu vigaŵa vya Shire Highlands. Pa malo ghakujumpha 350,000 mu Shire Highlands, chigaŵa chimoza pera pa vigaŵa vinayi chikaŵa cha malo ghaheni. Maekala ghanyake 660,000 ghakaŵa mu malo gha dongo, agho ghakaŵa na malo ghakukwana maekala 1.3 miliyoni mu vigaŵa vya Shire Highlands. Kweni vigaŵa vikuruvikuru viŵiri, cimoza kufuma ku tawuni ya Zomba kuya ku Blantyre-Limbe ndipo caciŵiri kufuma ku Limbe kuya ku tawuni ya Thyolo, vikaŵa pafupifupi vyose vya malo. Mu vigaŵa viŵiri ivi, malo gha ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ghakaŵa ghacoko comene ndipo ghakaŵa na ŵanthu ŵanandi comene.[20]

Mu vyaka vyakwambilira vya muwuso wa boma ili, malo ghanandi ghakaŵa ghambura kulima. Ŵanthu aŵa ŵakakhumbanga ŵantchito ndipo ŵakachiskanga ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa kuti ŵakhalenge mu malo agha. Kuyana na L. Kuzakafika mu ma 1880, malo ghakuru gha ku Shire Highlands ghakaŵa kuti ghamara chifukwa cha nkhondo panji kupoka ŵazga. Mu ma 1880 na 1890, ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakamba kupoka malo agha. Pa nyengo iyi, ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ŵakaŵa ŵachoko chomene. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakati ŵafika mu Africa, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakaleka kulima minda yawo. Ŵanthu ŵakwambilira ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakachimbilira ku malo ghakuvikilirika, kanandi ŵakaweranga yayi ku malo agha.[21][22]

Ŵantchito ŵaphya (ŵeneawo kanandi ŵakacemekanga kuti "Anguru" ŵakufuma ku Mozambique) ŵakaŵaciskanga kuti ŵasamire ku malo agha na kulima vyakurya vyawo kweni ŵakeneranga kulipira renti. Mu vyaka vyakwambilira, ŵanthu ŵakagwiranga nchito kwa myezi yiŵiri pa caka. Nyengo yikati yajumphapo, ŵeneco ŵa nyumba ŵakakhumbikwiranga kugwira nchito nyengo yitali kuti ŵapeleke "renti". Mu 1911, ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakakhalanga mu vigaŵa ivi ŵakaŵa pafupifupi 9%. Malo agha ghakaŵa na malo ghakukwana 5% gha charu chose, kweni ghakaŵa pafupifupi 15% gha malo ghose agho ghakaŵa ghakukolerana na ulimi. Ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mu malo agha ŵakaŵa ŵachoko chomene.

Makampani ghatatu ghakurughakuru ghakasunga malo mu vigaŵa vya Shire Highlands. Pakwamba, kampani ya British Central Africa Company yikaŵa na malo ghakukwana maekala 350,000, kweni pambere chaka cha 1928 chindafike, yikaŵa kuti yaguliska panji kupeleka maekala 50,000. Chikaŵa na malo ghakuru ghaŵiri, ghakukwana mahekita 100,000, mu malo gha Shire Highlands. Malo ghanyake ghose ghakaŵa pafupi na dambo la Shire. Kwambira kuumaliro wa m'ma 1920, likapokeranga ndalama za renti ku ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakakhalanga mu malo ghambura kulongozgeka. A. L. Bruce Estates Ltd wakaŵa na malo ghakukwana 160,000 acres, comenecomene mu malo gha Magomero mu Zomba, na Chiradzulu. Pambere vyaka vya m'ma 1940 vindafike, malo agha ghakaŵa kuti ghamara kuguliskika ndipo ŵakakhumbanga kulima. Blantyre and East Africa Ltd, yikaŵa na malo ghakukwana maekala 157,000 mu vigaŵa vya Blantyre na Zomba, kweni mu 1925, yikaguliska malo agha ku ŵalimi ŵachoko waka. M'paka m'ma 1930, likaguliskanga vyakurya vya awo ŵakakhalanga mwenemumo..[23][24][25]

Mu 1920, Komiti ya Vyaru yikaghanaghaniraso umo vikaŵira na ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakakhalanga pa malo gha ŵanthu ŵekhaŵekha. Ŵanthu wose awo ŵakakhalanga mu nyumba iyi, padera pa ŵacekuru na vyokoro, ŵakalipanga ndalama za renti mwakugwilira nchito panji kuguliska vyakurya ku mweneko wa nyumba. Mu 1928, boma likapeleka malango agha, pamanyuma pakuti ŵanthu 115,000 ŵa ku Africa (10%) ŵakakhalanga pa malo ghakusungirako ŵanthu.

Pambere chaka cha 1928 chindafike, ŵanthu ŵakeneranga kulipira renti ya chaka na chaka ya mashilingi 6. Pamasinda pa 1928, ndalama zakugulira nyumba zikaŵa £1 pa malo ghakukwana maekala 8, nangauli malo ghanyake ghakaŵa na ndalama zichoko. Kuti ŵaleke kuchita nthena, ŵakeneranga kupeleka vyakurya vyakukwana mashilingi 30 m'malo mwa £1. Ŵeneco ŵa malo ŵakeneranga kufumiska ŵanthu 10 pa 100 pa vilimika vinkhondi vilivyose kwambura kulongora cifukwa, kweniso ŵana ŵanalume ŵa ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mu malo agha ŵakeneranga kufumiskika para ŵafika vyaka 16. Cilato cikaŵa cakuti ŵanthu ŵaleke kujunthana, kweni malo ghakukwana ghakukhala ŵanthu awo ŵakacimbizgika ghakaŵa ghacoko. Kwambira mu 1943, ŵanthu ŵakakana kufumiskika mu nyumba zawo.[26]

Kuŵa na Chipulikano

Dango la Britain la mu 1902 likati malo ghose gha ku Nyasaland agho ghakaŵa ghambura kupelekeka nga ni malo gha Ufumu. Mu 1904, Kazembe wakapika mazaza gha kusunga malo gha Crown Land (ghakachemekanga Native Trust Land) kuti ghakovwire ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa. Mu 1936, dango la 1936 la Native Trust Lands Order likakanizga kuti malo ghose gha Native Trust Land ghaŵe gha ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa. Malango agha ghakakhumbanga kuti ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ŵamanye kuti ŵali na wanangwa wa kupoka caru cawo na kuŵawovwira kuti ŵaleke kopa kuti caru cawo cingaŵa cawo. Ŵanthu ŵakakhumbikwiranga kuŵakhozga cifukwa mu 1920, apo caru ca Native Trust cikaŵa na malo ghakukwana maekala 6.6 miliyoni, pakaŵa nkhani yakukhwaskana na ivyo ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe na ŵa ku Africa ŵakakhumbanga. Boma likati nangauli ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ŵangaŵa ŵanandi comene mu vilimika 30, kweni nchamacitiko kuti ŵanthu ŵambe kukhala mu malo ghanyake kuwaro kwa malo gha Shire Highlands..[27]

Mu vigaŵa vyose vya ufumu uwu, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakakhalanga ku mizi m'malo mwa mu matawuni, ndipo ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 90% ŵakakhalanga ku mizi ya ku Africa. Dango la cikaya ndilo likaŵawovwiranga kuti ŵasange malo gha kulima. Fundo iyi yikaŵa yakupambana, kweni kanandi munthu uyo wakapika panji kupokera malo (kwambura kuŵa nagho) wakaŵanga na wanangwa wa kulima kwa nyengo yambura kumara. Ŵanthu ŵakagomezganga kuti ŵalongozgi ŵa vigaŵa vyawo ŵapelekenge malo ku ŵanthu ŵa mu vigaŵa ivi, kweni ŵaleke kupeleka ku ŵanthu ŵakuwaro. Mu nyengo yakwambilira, malango gha cikaya ghakaŵa ghambura kuzomerezgeka, ndipo ŵanthu ŵakamanyanga yayi panji kuvikilira malo agho ghakaŵako.[28][29]

Ŵanyake ŵakuti mu nyengo yose iyo charu cha Malawi chikaŵa pasi pa muwuso wa ŵasilikari m'paka mu 1982, charu ichi chikaŵa na malo ghakukwana kuti ŵanthu ŵakhalenge makora. Nangauli mu 1920, wupu wakuwona vya malo ukawonanga kuti mu caru mukaŵa ŵanthu ŵanandi yayi, kweni ukati mu vigaŵa ivyo ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakagwiranga nchito, comenecomene mu minda ya tiyi panji kufupi na matawuni, mbumba zikaŵa na malo gha maekala ghaŵiri pera. Kuzakafika mu 1946, ŵanthu ŵakakhalanga chomene mu vigaŵa ivi.[30]

Kupangikaso

Kwambira mu 1938, boma likamba kugura malo ghachoko waka agho ghakaŵa ghambura kugwiliskirika ntchito. Vinthu ivi vikaŵa vyakukwana yayi, ndipo mu 1942, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Africa mu cigaŵa ca Blantyre awo ŵakaŵaphalira kuti ŵaleke nchito ŵakakana cifukwa kukaŵavya malo ghanyake. Pakati pajumpha vilimika viŵiri, suzgo lenelili likaŵaso mu cigaŵa ca Cholo, ico cikaŵa na ŵanthu ŵanandi.[31]

Mu 1946, boma la Nyasaland likimika komiti yakuchemeka Abrahams Commission (panji kuti Land Commission) kuti yigeŵerere nkhani za malo pamanyuma pa viwawa na masuzgo agho ghakaŵapo pakati pa ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe mu 1943 na 1945. Wakaŵa na munthu yumoza pera, Sir Sidney Abrahams, uyo wakaphalira boma la Nyasaland kuti ligure malo ghose agho ghakaŵa gha ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe agho ghakaŵa gha Ufumu. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakakhalanga pa malo agha ŵakeneranga kusankhapo cimoza, ŵakeneranga kukhalapo pa malo agha nga mbazga panji ŵekhaŵekha panji kusamira ku malo gha ufumu. Fundo izi zikafiskika yayi m'paka mu 1952.

Lipoti la komiti ya Abrahams likapeleka maghanoghano ghakupambana. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Africa ŵakakolerana na fundo iyi, nga umo vikaŵira na kazembe wa charu ichi, Edmund Richards (uyo wakakhumbanga kuti paŵe komiti ya vyaru) kweniso Geoffrey Colby. Ŵenecho ŵa malo na ŵantchito ŵakasuskanga chomene, ndipo ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Europe ŵakamba kulimbana nayo.

Cifukwa ca lipoti la Abrahams, mu 1947, boma la Nyasaland likakhazikiska Komiti ya Kupanga Malo ya ŵantchito ŵa boma kuti yilangurenge umo ŵangagwiliskira nchito fundo zake na kusanga malo gha ŵanthu. Likayowoya kuti malo agho ghakaŵa ghambura kuzengeka panji agho ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Africa ŵakakhalanga, ndiwo ghakeneranga kuzengekaso. Malo agho ghangazengeka nga ni malo ghakuliskako viŵeto ghakeneranga kuvikilirika kuti ghaleke kulima mwambura ndondomeko. Kwambira mu 1948, ndondomeko ya kugura malo yikasazgikira comene, cifukwa cakuti ŵeneco ŵa malo ŵakamba kuŵa na mtima wa kukhumba kugura malo. Mu 1948, ŵanthu ŵakaghanaghananga kuti pa charu ichi pakaŵa malo ghakukwana mahekitala 487,000. Pa nyengo iyo caru cikazgoka cakupatura wanangwa mu 1964, pakaŵa waka mahekitala 171,000 gha malo agho ghakaŵa gha ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe..[32][33]

Chuma cha ulimi

Nangauli charu cha Nyasaland chili na vinthu vinyake vyakututuŵa, comenecomene malasha, kweni mu nyengo ya ukoloni ŵanthu ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito yayi vinthu ivi. Pakuti charu ichi chikaŵavya migodi, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakakhalanga mu vyaru ivi. Pakati pa vyaka vya m'ma 1800 na m'ma 1900, mu chipalamba cha Shire ŵakakuliranga maniyu, mpunga, mpunga na mpunga, mu chipalamba cha Shire ŵakakuliranga chimanga, maniyu, mbatata na mpunga, kweniso maniyu, mpunga na mpunga mumphepete mwa nyanja ya Nyasa (iyo sono ni Nyanja ya Malawi). Vipambi ivi vikalutilira kuŵa vyakurya vikuruvikuru mu nyengo yose iyo ŵanthu ŵakakhalanga mu vyaru vinyake, nangauli vikaŵa na mphoza zichoko na chimanga. Ŵanthu ŵakaliskanga chomene hona na makuni ghanyake gha makuni.[34]

Mu vyaru vyose ivyo vikaŵa pasi pa boma ili, dipatimenti ya vyakurya yikakhozgeranga ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe. Ŵakaŵavya maghanoghano ghakwenelera pa vyakurya vya mu Africa, ndipo ŵakatondeka kukhozga vyakurya ivi. Likayowoya kuti kulima makuni mu malo ghakupambanapambana, ndiko kukomeka na kotcha makuni. Malo agha ŵakaghagwiliskiranga nchito kwa vilimika vicoko waka pamanyuma pakuti ŵakamazga malo ghanyake.

Pakuyaniska na vyaru vya ku Europe, North America, na Asia, vyaru vinandi vya ku sub-Saharan Africa ni vyambura vyakurya vinandi. Nthowa yiwemi chomene yakulimira dongo ili ni vyaka 10 m'paka 15 ivyo munthu wakulimira pa malo ghambura kupambika vipasi. Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1930, ŵanthu ŵakamba kuchepeskako vyakumera mu malo agho muli ŵanthu ŵanandi. Kafukufuku uyo wacitika sonosono apa wakususkana na ivyo Dipatimenti ya Vyakurima yikayowoya kuti dongo lizamumara mwaluŵiro. Ici cikalongora kuti malo ghanandi mu Malawi ghakaŵa ghawemi kuti ŵalimi ŵachokoŵachoko ŵalimenge mbuto. Viŵaro vinandi vikuŵa na vinthu vyakukhumbikwa pa umoyo (panji vyambura kukhumbikwa) nangauli ni vyakukwana yayi, kweni chifukwa cha kunangika kwa nayitrogeni na phosphoro, vikovwira kuti ŵanthu ŵagwiliskirenge ntchito vyakurya vyakwimba.

Nangauli mu vyaka vyakwambilira vya m'ma 1900, vyaru vya ku Europe vikalimanga vyakurya vinandi ivyo vikatenge vipangikenge ku vyaru vinyake, kweni mu ma 1930, vyakurya vinandi (makamaka hona) vikapangikanga na ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa. Cakurya cakwamba ico ŵanthu ŵakamwanga cikaŵa khofi, ndipo ŵakamba kulima comene kufuma mu 1895, kweni cifukwa ca mpikisano wa ku Brazil uwo ukafika pa caru cose mu 1905, ndipo kukawa chilangalanga, khofi wakakhira na kwamba kulima hona na thonje. Vipambi vyose viŵiri ivi vikaŵako viŵi yayi, kweni chifukwa chakuti khofi wakukwera chomene, ŵalimi ŵakamba kulima hona ku Shire Highlands na katoni ku Shire Valley.[35]

Mu 1905, ŵanthu ŵakamba kulima tiyi mu malo gha Shire Highlands. Mu 1908, Shire Highlands Railway yikati yajulika, hona na tiyi vikakura chomene. Mu vilimika 56 ivyo boma ili likaŵirako, hona, tiyi na katoni vikaŵa vyakurya vikuru ivyo ŵakaguliskanga ku vyaru vinyake. Vinthu vikuru ivyo vikapangiska kuti vyakurya ivi vileke kuluta ku vyaru vinyake vikaŵa ndalama zinandi zakwendeskera vinthu kufuma ku Nyasaland kuluta ku nyanja, vipasi vya vyakurya vinandi, kweniso ŵalimi ŵa ku Africa ŵakasuskanga kulima katoni panji hona.[36]

Mbewu

Malo agho ŵalimi ŵa ku Europe ŵakaleranga hona ghakakwera kufuma pa maekala 4,500 mu 1911 kufika pa maekala 14,200 mu 1920, ndipo ŵakapambika matani 2,500 gha hona. Pambere chaka cha 1920 chindafike, ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ndiwo ŵakaguliskanga hona uyo wakadumulikanga. Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Caru Cose yikawovwira kuti hona wakure comene, kweni nkhondo yikati yamara, boma la United States la Virginia likakhumbanga kuti ŵagulire ndarama za kunozga vyakurya mu caru ici..[37]

Hona uyo ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito ukaŵa wambura kuzirwa. Mu 1921, ŵanthu ŵakaguliska matani 1,500 gha vyakurya ivyo vikaŵa na matani 3,500. Pakati pa 1919 na 1935, chiŵelengero chawo chikakhira kufuma pa 229 kufika pa 82. Mu ma 1920, hona uyo wakomekanga na josi likalutilira kuchepa. Mu 1924, ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ndiwo ŵakapanga 86% ya hona wa ku Malawi, 57% mu 1927, 28% mu 1933, na 16% mu 1936. Nangauli vyakurya ivi vikakhira, kweni vyakurya vya hona vikaŵa 65-80 peresenti ya vyakurya ivyo vikatolekera ku vyaru vinyake kufuma mu 1921 m'paka 1932.

Mu 1926, gulu linyake la ku India likamba kupanga hona. Kuzakafika mu 1935, 70% ya vyakurya vya hona vikaŵa mu chigaŵa cha Central, uko boma likaŵa na ŵalimi pafupifupi 30,000. Pakwamba, ŵanthu aŵa ŵakagwiranga nchito ya kulima minda ya Ufumu, kweni pamanyuma ŵakamba kugwiraso nchito ya kulima "Visiting Tenants". Unandi wa awo ŵakakuranga hona ukasinthanga m'paka apo Nkhondo Yachiŵiri ya Caru Cose yikambira, ntheura mu 1950 pakaŵa ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 104,500 awo ŵakakhalanga mu vigaŵa vyakujumpha 132,000 na kunozga matani 10,000 gha hona. Pafupifupi vigaŵa vitatu pa vigaŵa vinayi vya ŵanthu aŵa ŵakaŵa ŵalimi ŵachokoŵachoko awo ŵakakhalanga mu malo agho ŵanthu ŵakakhalanga. Pamanyuma, unandi wawo ukakhira, kweni mu 1965 ŵakaŵa 70,000, ndipo ŵakapanga matani 12,000. Nangauli mtengo wa hona uwo ŵakaguliskanga ukakuranga, kweni ukakhira comene mu 1935 cifukwa ca nkhombo ya tiyi.

Mu 1903, ŵalimi ŵachokoŵachoko ŵa ku Africa ndiwo ŵakamba kulima makuni gha katoni gha ku Eguputo. Kuzakafika mu 1905, ŵanthu ŵakamba kulima makuni gha katoni mu chigaŵa cha Shire Highlands. Makampani gha British Central Africa Company na African Lakes Corporation ghakakoperanga makuni gha makuni agha m'paka mu 1912, apo boma likakhazikiska misika ya makuni agha.

Mu 1905, ŵalimi ŵambura kumanya makora vyakurya ŵakapanda makuni gha katoni ghakukwana mahekita 22,000, kweni ŵakatumizga matani 140 gha katoni. Kuchepeska kwa malo agha kufika pa maekali 10,000 na kusazgirako utozi wake kukawovwira kuti katoni waŵe wakuzirwa chomene, ndipo mu 1917 wakafika pa 44% pa vyakurya ivyo vikatoleka ku vyaru vinyake. Chifukwa cha kusoŵa ŵanthu na kututuka kwa maji mu chipalamba cha Shire, mu 1918 mulimo wa kuzenga ukakhira kufika pa matani 365. Mu 1932, ŵanthu ŵakamba kuguliska matani 2,700 gha tirigu, ndipo mu 1935 ŵakaguliska matani 4,000. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ndiwo ŵakagwiranga ntchito iyi mu chipalamba cha Shire, chifukwa ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakagwiranga yayi. Cakuzirwa ca katundu wakuguliska wa thonje cikakhira kufuma pa 16% mu 1922 kufika pa 5% mu 1932, ndipo mu 1941 cikafika pa 10%, ndipo mu 1951 cikafika pa 7%. Makora gha makuni gha makuni.[38][39]

Tiyi wakwamba kutumizgika kufuma ku Nyasaland mu 1904 pamanyuma pakuti minda ya tiyi yakhazikiskika mu vigaŵa vya Mlanje District, ivyo pamasinda vikazgoka Cholo District. Vinthu ivyo ŵakaguliskanga ku vyaru vinyake vikakwera kufuma pa matani 375 mu 1922 kufika pa matani 1,250 mu 1932. Kuzirwa kwa tiyi kukakwera comene pamanyuma pa 1934, kufuma pa 6% mu 1932 kufika pa 20% mu 1935. Mu vyaka vitatu ivi, mu 1955, 1957, na 1960, mtengo wa tiyi uwo ŵakaguliskanga ukaluska wa hona. Ndipo m'paka pakati pa m'ma 1960, charu cha Nyasaland ndicho chikaŵa na malo ghakuru chomene gha tiyi mu Africa. Nangauli tiyi iyi yikaŵa yakuzirwa comene ku boma la Britain, kweni suzgo likuru pa caru cose likaŵa lakuti yikaŵanga yaucoko.

Vyakumera ivi vikaŵa vichoko chomene pambere chaka cha 1951 chindafike apo vikafika matani 316, kweni boma likakhozga kulima na kupeleka mitengo yiwemi. Pa nyengo iyo charu ichi chikamba kujiyimira paŵekha, vyakurya ivyo vikafumanga mu vyaru vinyake vikakwana matani 25,000 pa chaka. Kweniso ŵanthu ŵakuliska makuni agha kuti ŵarye. Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1930 na 1940, charu cha Nyasaland chikamba kupanga mafuta gha Tung ndipo mahekita ghakujumpha 20,000 ghakaŵikika makuni gha Tung. Pamanyuma pa 1953, mtengo wa mafuta pa caru cose ukakhira ndipo mulimo wa kupanga ukakhira cifukwa mafuta gha Tung ghakaŵa ghapacoko kugura. M'paka apo kukaŵa njara mu 1949, mbuto iyi ŵakayitumanga ku vyaru vinyake yayi, kweni boma likakhozga chomene vyakurya ivi. Pa nyengo iyi, caru cikaŵa kuti caleka kutumiza vyakurya.[40]

Njala na zinja

Njara yikaŵanga nyengo zose mu nyengo iyo ŵanthu ŵakakhalanga mu vyaru vinyake pambere ŵandambe kuwusa. Kanandi njara yikenderanga lumoza na nkhondo, nga umo vikaŵira kumwera kwa charu ichi mu 1863.[41][42] Fundo yimoza yakuti ŵanthu ŵa mu vyaru vya ku Africa ŵakasuzgikanga na njara yikaŵa yakuti ŵanthu ŵa mu vyaru vyawo ŵakasuzgikanga na ukavu chifukwa cha kupoka malo gha vyakurya panji kuchichizga ŵalimi kuti ŵalimenge (pakuchepeska nkhongono zawo zakupangira vyakurya). Kuŵapo kwa chuma cha msika kukapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵaleke kulondezga nthowa zinyake izo ŵanthu ŵakalondezganga pambere ŵandafike mu charu ichi, nga ni kulima vyakurya vinyake para vyakurya vikumara, kuwunjika vyakurya vyamuthengere panji kupenja wovwiri ku ŵabali panji ŵabwezi..[43]

Ku Nyasaland kukaŵa njara mu 1918 kweniso nyengo zinandi pakati pa 1920 na 1924. Kweni boma likachitapo kanthu yayi m'paka apo vinthu vikasuzgikira chomene. Mu 1922 na 1923, charu ichi chikapoka matani 2,000 gha vyakurya kuti viwovwire ŵanthu awo ŵakaŵa na njara. Nangauli ivi vikacitika mu vigaŵa vicoko kuluska mu 1949, kweni boma likanozgekera makora yayi kuti limazge njara.[44][45]

Mu Novembala na Disembala 1949, vula yikamara myezi yinandi pambere nyengo iyi yindize ndipo mu malo gha Shire Highlands mukaŵa njara. Ŵantchito ŵa boma na ŵamishonale, ŵantchito ŵanandi ŵa mu matawuni, na ŵanyakeso awo ŵakakhalanga mu malo ghakusangirapo ŵanthu ŵakalyeranga bweka panji kupokera ndalama zakukwana. Awo ŵakaŵa ŵambura nkhongono, nga ni vyokoro panji ŵawoli awo ŵakaŵaleka, ŵacekuru, ŵana, na ŵakavu, ndiwo ŵakasuzgikanga comene, ndipo mbumba zikaŵawovwiranga yayi ŵabali ŵawo ŵakutali. Mu 1949 na 1950, ŵanthu ŵakagura vyakurya vyakukwana matani 25,000, nangauli pakwamba vikachedwa kufika. Ŵalaraŵalara ŵa boma ŵakatenge ŵanthu 100 m'paka 200 ndiwo ŵakafwa, kweni nambara yeneko yikwenera kuti yikaŵa yikuru chomene..[46][47][48]

Mayendelo

Mtundu wa Maple wa Chauncy pa Nyanja ya Nyasa

Kufuma waka apo Livingstone wakendera charu ichi mu 1859, nthowa za maji za ku Zambesi, Shire, na Nyanja ya Nyasa zikawonekanga nga ni nthowa yiwemi chomene yakwendera ku Nyasaland. Malo gha Zambesi-Lower Shire na Upper Shire-Lake Nyasa ghakaŵa kutali chomene, ghakaŵa makilomita 80 mu Middle Shire. Malo ghakurughakuru gha vyamalonda gha boma la Blantyre na Shire Highlands ghakaŵa pa mtunda wa makilomita 40 kufuma ku Shire. M'paka mu 1914, maboti gha matani 100 ghakwendeskeka na maji ghakukwana 100 panji kuchepera apa ghakaŵa pakati pa malo gha Chinde ku Zambezi na Lower Shire. Boma la Britain likapoka malo gha ku Chinde agho ghakaŵa nga ni dowoko la nyanja kwa vyaka 99, ndipo ŵanthu ŵakendangamo pa sitima za ku Union-Castle Line na German East Africa Line. Mulimo wakwendeska sitima ya Union-Castle ukambiraso pakati pa 1918 na 1922 apo dowoko la Chinde likapwetekeka na chimphepo.[49]

M'paka apo njanji iyi yikambira mu 1907, ŵanthu ŵakendanga mu maboti ghachokoghachoko ku Chiromo kuti ŵalute mtunda wa makilomita 80 m'paka ku Chikwawa. Maji gha mu Nyanja ya Nyasa ghakamara mu 1896 m'paka mu 1934. Mu 1908, doko likuru likasamukira ku Port Herald kufuma ku Chiromo. Kweni mu 1912, chikaŵa chakusuzga na chambura machitiko kugwiliskira ntchito Port Herald. Pakuti njanji iyi yikaluta ku Zambezi mu 1914, yikafika ku Lower Shire, ndipo maji ghakamara mu Upper Shire. Kweni m'paka sono, njanji iyi yikulutilira kwenda pa Nyanja ya Nyasa.

Pa nyengo iyi, ngalaŵa zinandi izo zikendanga pa nyanja zikaŵa ku Fort Johnston. Mtengo wawo ukakwera mu 1935 apo njanji ya kumpoto kufuma ku Blantyre yikafika pa Nyanja ya Nyasa, ndipo ku Salima kukaŵa malo ghakwambira njanji ya Lake Services. Malo ghanyake gha ku nyanja ghakaŵa ghambura kukwana, ndipo misewu yiwemi yinandi yikaŵa yichoko.

Misewu ya njanji yingawovwira kuti ŵanthu ŵendenge pa maji, ndipo pakuti Nyasaland yikaŵa pa mtunda wa makilomita ghakujumpha 320 (200 mi) kufuma ku dowoko la ku Indian Ocean, njanji yifupi iyo yikendanga ku dowoko la mu mlonga yikaŵa yiwemi chomene kuluska njanji iyo yikendanga ku mtunda. Shire Highlands Railway yikajura msewu kufuma ku Blantyre kuya ku Chiromo mu 1907 ndipo yikafika ku Port Herald, 182 km (113 mi) kufuma ku Blantyre mu 1908. Mu 1914, kampani ya British South Africa Company yikazenga njanji ya Central African Railway, comenecomene mu Mozambique, ya mtunda wa makilomita 98 kufuma ku Port Herald kuya ku Chindio kumpoto kwa mlonga wa Zambezi. Kufuma pa malo agha, katundu wakendanga pa sitima za pa milonga kuluta ku Chinde, kufuma apo wakendanga pa nyanja kuluta ku Beira. Sitima ya ku Central Africa yikaŵa yambura kuzengeka makora ndipo yikakhumbikwiranga kunozgeka.[50]

Mu 1922 chimphepo chikuru chikapweteka chomene chirwa cha Chinde ndipo chikaŵa chakwenelera yayi kunyamura sitima zikuruzikuru. Maboti ghanyake ghakaŵa gha Beira, agho ghakazgoka dowoko likuru kukwambilira kwa vyaka vya m'ma 1900, na la Quelimane. Beira wakaŵa na ŵanthu ŵanandi, kweni mu ma 1920 vinthu vikasintha chomene. Trans-Zambezia Railway, iyo yikazengeka pakati pa 1919 na 1922, yikaŵa mtunda wa makilomita 269 (167 mi) kufuma ku mphaka ya kumwera kwa Mlonga wa Zambezi kuti yifike ku mzere ukuru kufuma ku Beira kuya ku Rhodesia. Awo ŵakambiska mulimo uwu ŵakaŵa na vyakukhumba mu dowoko la Beira, ndipo ŵakasulako mtengo wake wapachanya na uwemi wake ku Nyasaland.[51][52]

Ngalaŵa iyo yikendanga pa maji ya Zambezi, iyo yikagwiliskiranga ntchito maboti ghakukunkhulira boti, yikaŵa na malo ghachoko waka ndipo yikaŵa yakutondeka kukumana na Beira. Nyengo zinyake mu chaka, mlonga uwu ukaŵanga wambura maji, ndipo nyengo zinyake ukazura. Mu 1935, boti ili likasinthika na Zambezi Bridge, ilo likaŵa litali makilomita ghakujumpha ghatatu. Mu chaka chenechichi, ŵakamalizga kusazgirako chigaŵa cha kumpoto kufuma ku Blantyre m'paka ku Nyanja ya Nyasa.

Mu 1946 pera, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakafika pa mlatho wa Zambezi na ku chigaŵa chakumpoto kwa mlatho uwu. Njanji iyi yikaŵa yakukwana yayi kunyamura katundu munandi. Ndalama izo ŵakagwiliskiranga ntchito pakusunga vinthu zikaŵa zinandi ndipo katundu wakendeskekanga mwaluŵiro yayi. Nangauli njanji iyi yikaŵa yakudura kweniso yikaŵa yambura kovwira, kweni yikaŵa nthowa yikuru yakwendeskera vinthu mu charu cha Nyasaland. Mu 1964, boma la Mozambique likapempha kuti paŵe njanji yinyake yakuya ku Nacala.

Mu nyengo yakwambilira ya muwuso wa Ŵaroma, misewu yikaŵa yakutowa comene, ndipo yikaŵa yakusuzga kwenda mu nyengo ya vula. Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1920, misewu iyo yikaŵa yakwenelera kwendeska magalimoto yikapangika kumwera kwa charu ichi ndipo yikanjira m'malo mwa misewu iyo ŵanthu ŵakendangamo. Kweni misewu yichoko waka iyo yikendanga nyengo zose yikaŵa mu chigaŵa cha kumpoto m'paka m'ma 1930, ntheura misewu yinandi yikendanga kumwera. Ŵanthu ŵakamba kwenda pa msewu m'malo mwa njanji, kweni boma likakanizga nthowa iyi. Apo ŵakamalizganga kusazgirako njanji ya kumpoto, ŵakaleka kufiska ivyo ŵakayowoya vyakuti ku Salima kuŵe msewu wakwendamo ŵanthu ŵanandi na kunozga misewu mu chigaŵa cha Central kuti ŵawovwirepo pakukuzga chigaŵa cha Central Nyasaland na Eastern Zambia. Kwenda pa msewu kukaŵa kwakusuzga, ndipo pa nyengo iyo boma likapokera wanangwa uwu kukaŵa misewu yichoko waka..[53][54]

Mu 1934, ndege zikamba kwenda mwakudumura, ndipo sabata yiliyose ndege za Rhodesian and Nyasaland Airways zikendanga kufuma ku chipatala cha ndege ku Chileka kuluta ku Salisbury. Mu 1935, msumba wa Blantyre (Chile) nawo ukaŵa ku chigaŵa cha Beira. Ndege zose zikamara mu 1940, kweni mu 1946 Central African Airways Corporation, yakukhozgeka na maboma gha Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia na Nyasaland yikambaso maulendo. Ntchito ya Salisbury na Blantyre yikaluta ku Nairobi, ndipo yikasazgirako ntchito ya Blantyre na Lilongwe na Lusaka. Wupu uwu ukazgoka Air Malawi mu 1964.[55][56]

Chikhaze

Tchalitchi la John Chilembwe, la Providence Industrial Mission, likapokeka na ŵasilikari ŵa boma mu 1915 na kubwangandulika

Ŵanthu ŵakamba kususka muwuso wa ŵakoloni kufuma ku vigaŵa viŵiri. Cakwamba, matchalitchi gha mu Africa ghakaleka kuwusika na ŵamishonale ŵa ku Europe ndipo kwizira mu Watch Tower na magulu ghanyake, ghakasambizga visambizgo vya Cikristu ca Millenium ivyo ŵamazaza ŵakaviwonanga kuti ni vyakupusika. Caciŵiri, ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakasambizgika na ŵamishonale panji ku vyaru vinyake, ŵakakhumbanga kuti vinthu viŵayendere makora pa umoyo wawo, ŵasange ndalama zinandi, ndiposo ŵalutilire kucita ndyali kwizira mu mawupu ghakucemeka kuti "Misangano ya Ŵeneco". Vyose ivi vikaŵa vya mtende, kweni John Chilembwe wakawuska vivulupi mu 1915, kulongora kuti ŵanthu ŵa mu Africa ŵakaŵa ŵakusuzgika maghanoghano chifukwa cha chisopa chawo.[57][58]

Pamanyuma pa chigaluka cha Chilembwe, ŵanthu ŵakaleka kugazgana m'paka m'ma 1930 ndipo ŵakamba kulimbikira kuti ŵasambizge makora ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa. Kuŵa na mazaza pa ndyali kukaŵa kutali comene. Mu 1930, boma la Britain likati ŵazungu awo ŵakakhalanga kumpoto kwa Zambezi ŵangakhazikiska yayi maboma gha ŵanthu ŵachoko waka.[59]

Boma la Southern Rhodesia likapangiska kuti paŵe Komiti ya Ufumu yakudumbiskana umo vyaru vitatu ivi viŵirenge. Nangauli ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ŵakazomerezga yayi kuti ŵaŵe mu charu cha Southern Rhodesia, kweni lipoti la komiti ya Bledisloe ilo likalembeka mu 1939 likakana yayi kuti mu charu ichi muŵengeso ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake.

Chifukwa cha uheni wa boma la Southern Rhodesia, ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ŵakakhumbanga wanangwa wa ndyali, ndipo mu 1944, mawupu ghakupambanapambana gha ku malo agha ghakakolerana na kwambiska bungwe la Nyasaland African Congress (NAC). Cimoza mwa vinthu vyakwamba ivyo ŵakakhumbanga cikaŵa cakuti ŵa ku Africa ŵimilire mu wupu wakuzenga malango, ndipo ŵakazomerezga mu 1949. Kwambira mu 1946, Hastings Banda, uyo pa nyengo iyo wakakhalanga ku Britain, wakawovwira NAC pa nkhani za ndyali. Nangauli ŵakaŵawovwira, kweni ŵakalutilira yayi m'paka mu 1948, apo ŵakambiraso kusopa kwaunenesko.[60]

Maboma gha Britain agho ghakaŵako nkhondo yikati yamara ghakakhorwa kuti ku Africa kwaŵanga na ndalama zichoko, ntheura ŵakakolerana kuti ŵaŵe na boma lakuzomerezgana, m'malo mwa kuwungana uko boma la Southern Rhodesia likakhumbanga. Ivyo ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ŵakasuskanga vikalembeka mu chikalata icho Hastings Banda wakanozga ku Nyasaland na Harry Nkumbula ku Northern Rhodesia mu 1951. Ŵanthu aŵa ŵakagomezganga kuti ŵanthu ŵatuŵa ŵa ku Southern Rhodesia ndiwo ŵazamunjira mu ndyali chifukwa cha mazaza ghawo.

Mu 1953, boma la Rhodesia na Nyasaland likapokeka na ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakasuskanga boma ili. Mu 1953, NAC yikalimbana na wupu wa federation ndipo yikapempha kuti boma liŵe lakujiyimira palekha. Awo ŵakakolerananga na gulu ili ŵakasuskanga misonkho na malango. Kukwambilira kwa chaka cha 1954, boma likamazga kampeni yake ndipo ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakaleka kulithaska. Pakati pajumpha nyengo yicoko waka, boma la Britain likayezga kupoka mazaza pa vinthu vya mu Africa kufuma ku ofesi ya British Colonial Office. Kweniso likasintha vinthu vinyake ivyo Britain likakhumbanga kuzakacita pamanyuma pa nkhondo.

Mu 1955, ofesi ya Colonial Office yikazomera fundo ya kazembe wa Nyasaland yakuti ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ŵaŵepo mu wupu wakuzenga malango kufuma pa ŵanthu ŵatatu kufika pa ŵanthu ŵankhondi. Pakuti mipingo iyi yikapokeleranga ivyo ŵanthu ŵakakhumbanga, yikapika mwaŵi wa kwimika ŵanthu ŵa mu wupu wakulamulira. Ici cikacitika mu 1956 apo Henry Chipembere na Kanyama Chiume, ŵaŵiri ŵa mu wupu wa Congress, ŵakasankhika pamoza na ŵanthu ŵatatu ŵakuzika, kusazgapo ŵanthu ŵaŵiri awo ŵakakolerana na wupu wa Congress. Ivi vikapangiska kuti mu 1956 na 1957, chiŵelengero cha ŵanthu ŵa mu Congress chikure mwaluŵiro.

Ŵabali ŵachoko waka ŵa African Congress ku Nyasaland ŵakagomezganga chomene yayi ivyo T. D. T. Banda, mulongozgi wawo wakachitanga. Dr. Banda wakapharazga kuti wawelerenge mu caru ici usange wapika mazaza gha kuwusa mu Congress. Pamanyuma pa phangano ili, wakawelera ku Nyasaland mu Julayi 1958 ndipo T D T Banda wakafumiskika.[61]

Kujilamulila

Ŵalongozgi ŵa Banda na ŵa Congress Party ŵakamba kampeni yakulimbana na federeeshoni, kuti paŵe kusintha kwa malango gha boma. Pakuti ŵanthu ŵakasuskanga malango gha boma pa nkhani ya kulima, pakaŵa ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakasuskanga. Mu Janyuwale 1958, Banda wakapeleka fundo za kusintha malango ku boma kwa kazembe, Sir Robert Armitage. Ŵakakhumbanga kuti mu wupu wakulongozga muŵe ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Africa.[62][63]

Kazembe wakakana fundo izi, ndipo cifukwa ca kuleka kwendera fundo za boma, mu Nyumba ya Malamulo mukaŵa fundo yakuti ŵanthu ŵambeso kususka boma. Apo ŵalondezgi ŵa Congress ŵakamba kuŵa ŵankhaza comene ndipo ŵalongozgi ŵa Congress ŵakamba kuyowoya vinthu vyakukhuŵazga, Armitage wakakana kucita vinthu vinyake kweni wakanozgekera kuti ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakakike. Pa Febuluwale 21, ŵasilikari ŵa ku Europe ŵa ku Rhodesia Regiment ŵakanjira mu charu cha Nyasaland ndipo mu mazuŵa ghakulondezgapo, ŵapolisi na ŵasilikari ŵakamba kuwukira ŵanthu awo ŵakambiska viwawa mu malo ghanandi, ndipo ŵanthu ŵanayi ŵakafwa.

Pakughanaghana za kukora ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakaŵa mu wupu wa Congress, Armitage wakakhwaskika na lipoti ilo ŵapolisi ŵakapokera kufuma kwa munthu munyake uyo wakaŵaphalira za ungano wa ŵalongozgi ŵa Congress uko, mulongozgi wa Special Branch wakayowoya kuti ŵakakhumbanga kukoma ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe na Asia, kweniso ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakasuskanga Congress. Pakaŵavya ukaboni wakuti pakaŵa pulani yiliyose, ndipo boma la Nyasaland likakana kuchitapo kanthu mwaluŵiro kwimikana na Banda panji ŵalongozgi ŵanyake ŵa Congress kweni likalutilira kuyowoyeskana nawo mpaka kuumaliro wa February.

Pa ungano wa Nyumba ya Commons pa 3 Malichi 1959, zuŵa ilo boma likapharazgira dango la vyakofya, Alan Lennox-Boyd, Secretary of Colonial Affairs, wakati vikamanyikwa makora kuti boma likakhumbanga kukoma ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Europe, Asia, na ku Africa. Uwu ukaŵa ulendo wakwamba kuti ŵanthu ŵayowoyepo vya kukoma munthu, ndipo pamasinda, mu nkhani yeneyiyi, Julian Amery, uyo wakaŵa nduna ya boma pa ofesi ya Colonial Office, wakakhozgera ivyo Lennox-Boyd wakayowoya, wakati kuli "... chiŵembu cha kukoma munthu" na "kukoma ŵanthu ŵanandi... ku Kenya".[64]

Komiti ya Devlin yikadandawura comene cifukwa ca "ndondomeko ya kukoma ŵanthu", iyo yikakayikira usange yikaŵako nadi. Komiti iyi yikayowoyaso kuti Banda wakamanyanga yayi ivyo ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵa mu Congress ŵakayowoyanga vyakukhwaskana na kuwukira ŵa ku Europe.

Pa 3 Malichi 1959, Sir Robert Armitage, uyo wakaŵa kazembe wa Nyasaland, wakapharazga dango la vyakofya pa charu chose cha Nyasaland. Hastings Banda, pulezidenti wake na mamembara ghanyake gha komiti yake, pamoza na ŵalara ŵa boma ŵakujumpha 100. Zuŵa lakulondezgapo, wupu wa African Congress wa ku Nyasaland ukakanizgika. Awo ŵakakakika ŵakakakika kwambura kweruzgika, ndipo ciŵelengero ca awo ŵakakakika cikakwera kufika pa 1,300. Ŵanyakeso ŵakujumpha 2,000 ŵakajalirika mu jele cifukwa ca milandu yakukhwaskana na suzgo iyi, kusazgapo viwawa na kunanga vinthu. Cakulinga ca ndondomeko izi cikaŵa cakuti boma la Nyasaland liwezge dango na ndondomeko pamanyuma pa kuswa malango uko kukakura pamanyuma pa kuwelera kwa Dr. Banda. M'malo mwa kucitapo kanthu mwaluŵiro, ŵanthu 51 ŵa ku Africa ŵakakomeka ndipo ŵanandi ŵakapwetekeka.

Pa ŵanthu aŵa, 20 ŵakakomeka ku Nkhata Bay uko ŵakayidi ŵa ku Northern Region ŵakakhalanga pambere ŵandasamuskike kumwera. Mulongozgi munyake wa boma wakakhwimiska ŵanthu ŵanandi kuti ŵawunganenge kuti ŵafwatuke. Ŵasilikari awo ŵakeneranga kufika mu tawuni iyi kukwambilira kwa Malichi 3 ŵakacedwa, ndipo ŵakati ŵafika, mulara wa boma uyo wakawona kuti vinthu vyamba kwenda makora, wakaŵaphalira kuti ŵabombe. Ŵanthu ŵanyake 12 ŵakakomeka m'paka pa 19 March, comenecomene apo ŵasilikari ŵa Royal Rhodesia Regiment panji Kings African Rifles ŵakajura moto pa ŵanthu awo ŵakacitanga viwawa. Ŵanthu ŵanyake 51 awo ŵakafwa ŵakafwa pa nkhondo iyo yikacitika ku Northern Region. Gulu ili likakanizgika mu 1958 ndipo mu 1959 likambaso kucemeka Malawi Congress Party.[65][66]

Pamanyuma pa suzgo iyi, komiti iyo yikadangiliranga na Lord Devlin yikavumbura maubudi gha boma la Nyasaland. Wupu uwu ukati ntchakukhumbikwa kuŵika dango la vyakofya kuti paŵeso bata na kulekeska kuti vinthu vileke kunangika, kweni ukadandawura na ivyo ŵapolisi na ŵasilikari ŵakachita. Likakana kuti pali "ciŵembu" cilicose, kweni likati:

Chithunzi:Chitukuko

Lipoti ili likati boma la Nyasaland laleka kukhozgeka na ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa. Paumaliro, likayowoya kuti boma la Britain likwenera kudumbiskana na ŵalongozgi ŵa mu Africa za ivyo vicitikenge munthazi. Lipoti la Komiti ya Devlin ndilo likaŵa ciyelezgero cimoza pera ca mweruzgi wa ku Britain uyo wakawonanga usange ivyo boma la atsamunda likacita pakukoma ŵanthu ŵakususka vikaŵa vyakwenelera. Ivyo Devlin wakayowoya vyakuti boma likagwiliskira ntchito nkhongono zinandi kweniso kuti charu cha Nyasaland chikaŵa "chigaŵa cha ŵapolisi", vikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵambuke mu ndyali. Lipoti lake likakanika ndipo boma likamba kuŵika dango la vyakofya m'paka mu Juni 1960.

Pakwamba, boma la Britain likayezga kukhazikiska mtende mwa kwimika ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵa ku Africa (awo ŵakaŵa ŵakukolerana na Malawi Congress Party yayi) mu wupu wa malango. Mwaluŵiro likadumura kuti wupu wa Rhodesia na Nyasaland ungalutilira yayi. Wakawuskika pa Disembala 31, 1963, kweni pambere ivi vindachitike wakaleka kuŵa na ntchito ku Nyasaland. Kweniso likadumura kuti charu cha Nyasaland na Northern Rhodesia viŵe na boma lakwenelera. Banda wakafumiskika mu Epulero 1960 ndipo ŵakamuchema ku London kuti ŵakadumbiskane vya boma lakwenelera.

Pamanyuma pa chipani cha Malawi Congress Party kutonda pa mavoti gha mu August 1961, Banda na banthu ŵanyake ŵanayi ŵa Malawi Congress Party panji awo ŵakamukhozganga ŵakakanjira mu Executive Council nga nduna zakusoleka pamoza na banthu ŵankhondi. Pamanyuma pa ungano wa malango uwo ukacitikira ku London mu 1962, charu cha Nyasaland chikaŵa na boma lakujiwusa wekha. Boma la Malawi likamba kujiyimira palokha pa 6 July 1964 ndipo Banda wakaŵa nduna yikuru.Ndipo chalo ichi chikazgoka Republic of Malawi, chalo icho chili mukati mwa Commonwealth, pa 6 July 1966, na Banda kuŵa president.[67]

Mbiri ya boma

[68]

Evolution of the Nyasaland Protectorate

Kufuma mu 1953 m'paka mu 1964, charu cha Nyasaland chikakolerana na vyaru vya Northern Rhodesia na Southern Rhodesia.

Mndandanda wa mabwana

Mndandanda wa ŵaweruzgi ŵakulu

Mndandanda wa wowonelela boma

Ŵanthu ŵakumanyikwa awo ŵakababika mu Nyasaland

Ukaboni

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