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Cyril Ramaphosa

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Wakulemekezeka
Cyril Ramaphosa
Ramaphosa in 2022
5th President of South Africa
Udindo wasono
Nyengo:
16 February 2018
Deputy David Mabuza
Paul Mashatile
Kupokela Jacob Zuma
18th Chairperson of the African Union
Nyengo:
10 February 2020 – 6 February 2021
Kupokela Abdel Fattah el-Sisi[1]
Kuwiska na Felix Tshisekedi
14th President of the African National Congress
Udindo wasono
Nyengo:
18 December 2017
Deputy David Mabuza
Paul Mashatile
Kupokela Jacob Zuma
7th Deputy President of South Africa
Nyengo:
26 May 2014 – 15 February 2018
Mlongozgi charu Jacob Zuma
Kupokela Kgalema Motlanthe
Kuwiska na David Mabuza
9th Deputy President of the African National Congress
Nyengo:
18 December 2012 – 18 December 2017
Mlongozgi charu Jacob Zuma
Kupokela Kgalema Motlanthe
Kuwiska na David Mabuza
13th Secretary-General of the African National Congress
Nyengo:
1 March 1991 – 18 December 1997
Mlongozgi charu Nelson Mandela
Kupokela Alfred Baphethuxolo Nzo
Kuwiska na Kgalema Motlanthe
1st Secretary-General of the National Union of Mineworkers
Nyengo:
August 1982 – June 1991
Kupokela Position established
Kuwiska na Kgalema Motlanthe
1st Chancellor of the University of Mpumalanga
Nyengo:
2 April 2016 – 1 July 2021
Vice-Chancellor Thoko Mayekiso
Kupokela Position established
Kuwiska na Mandisa Maya
Umoyo wamunthu
Kubabika Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa
(1952-11-17) 17 November 1952 (vyaka 71)
Soweto, Transvaal Province, Union of South Africa
Chipani African National Congress
Nthengwa *
Hope Ramaphosa
(m. 1978; div. 1989)

Nomazizi Mtshotshisa
(m. 1991; div. 1993)

(m. 1996)
Ŵana 5
Sukulu University of Limpopo
University of South Africa
Ntchito
  • Businessman

  • politician
  • lawyer
  • trade union leader
  • philanthropist

  • anti-apartheid activist
Webusaiti Foundation website Presidency website

Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa (wakababika pa 17 November 1952) ni munthu wa bizinesi na wandale wa ku South Africa uyo pasono wakuteŵetera nga president wankhondi wa South Africa. Ramaphosa uyo kale wakaŵa munthu wakulimbana na apartheid, mulongozgi wa wupu wa banthu, kweniso wamalonda, ni purezidenti wa African National Congress (ANC).

Ramaphosa wakazgoka munthu wakumanyikwa comene mu caru cose apo wakaŵa mulembi mukuru wa wupu ukuru comene na wankhongono comene wa ŵantchito wa ku South Africa.[2]Mu 1991, wakasankhika kuŵa mulembi mukuru wa ANC mu nyengo ya Nelson Mandela ndipo wakazgoka muyowoyeri mukuru wa ANC mu nyengo ya kudumbiskana uko kukamalizga apartheid. Wakasankhika kuŵa mulaŵiliri wa wupu wakulongozga wupu uwu pamanyuma pa mavoti ghakwamba gha demokilase mu 1994 ndipo ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakagomezganga kuti ndiyo wakeneranga kuŵa mulondezgi wa Mandela. Ndipouli, Ramaphosa wakaleka ndyali mu 1996 ndipo wakamanyikwa kuti ni munthu wa bizinesi, kusazgapo mwenecho wa McDonald's South Africa, mulongozgi wa MTN, muteŵeti wa Lonmin, na uyo wakambiska Shanduka Group.

Wakawelera ku ndyali mu Disembala 2012 pa Msonkhano wa 53 wa ANC ndipo wakaŵa wachiwiri kwa purezidenti wa South Africa pasi pa purezidenti Jacob Zuma kuyambira 2014 mpaka 2018. Kweniso wakaŵa mulaŵiliri wa National Planning Commission. Pa ungano wa 54 wa ANC pa 18 Disembala 2017, wakasankhika kuŵa purezidenti wa ANC. Pakati pajumpha myezi yiŵiri, zuŵa limoza kufuma apo Zuma wakafumirapo pa 14 February 2018, National Assembly (NA) yikasora Ramaphosa kuŵa purezidenti wa South Africa. Wakamba mulimo wake wakudanga wa kuŵa purezidenti mu mwezi wa Meyi 2019 pamanyuma pakuti chipani cha ANC chawina pa chisankho cha 2019 ku South Africa. Apo wakaŵa purezidenti, Ramaphosa wakaŵa purezidenti wa African Union kufuma mu 2020 mpaka 2021[1]ndipo wakulongozga ivyo chalo cha South Africa chikucita pa nthenda ya COVID-19.

Chuma cha Ramaphosa chikukwana R6.4 billion ($450 million) mu 2018. Wakususkika cifukwa ca kacitiro ka bizinesi yake, kusazgapo kacitiro kake kaukali nga ni mulongozgi wa Lonmin ku ŵantchito ŵa ku Marikana mu sabata iyo yikadankha kukoma ŵanthu ku Marikana.

Pa 19 Disembala 2022 chikapharazgika kuti Msonkhano wa 55 wa ANC wasankha Ramaphosa kukhala pulezidenti wachiwiri wa ANC..[3]

Umoyo Wakwambilira[lemba | kulemba source]

Ramaphosa wakababika ku Soweto, Johannesburg, pa 17 November 1952, ku ŵapapi ŵa Venda. Ni mwana wachiŵiri pa ŵana ŵatatu ŵa Erdmuth na wapolisi Samuel Ramaphosa. Wakasambira ku sukulu ya Tshilidzi Primary School na Sekano Ntoane High School ku Soweto. Mu chaka cha 1971, wakamalizga masambiro ghake ku Mphaphuli High School ku Sibasa, Venda uko wakasankhika kuŵa mulongozgi wa Student Christian Movement. Pamanyuma wakalembeska kuti wasambire malango ku University of the North (Turfloop) mu chigaŵa cha Limpopo mu chaka cha 1972.[4]

Apo wakaŵa ku yunivesite, Ramaphosa wakachitanga ndyali ndipo wakanjira gulu la South African Students Organisation (SASO) na Black People's Convention (BPC). Ivi vikapangiska kuti mu 1974 ŵakamujalire mu jele kwa myezi 11 mwakuyana na cipaturo 6 ca Dango la Vigeŵenga, 1967, cifukwa ca kunozga maungano gha ŵanthu awo ŵakakolerana na Frelimo. Mu 1976 wakakakikaso, pamanyuma pa vivulupi mu Soweto, ndipo wakakhala myezi yinkhondi na umoza pa John Vorster Square mwakuyana na Terrorism Act. Wakati wafumiskika, wakazgoka loya wa kampani ya malango ya Johannesburg ndipo wakalutizga masambiro ghake gha malango kwizira mu kalata na University of South Africa (UNISA), uko wakasanga digiri ya Bachelor of Procurationis (B.A.) mu 1981.[5]

Kulimbana na apartheid na kulimbikira ntchito[lemba | kulemba source]

Wakati wamalizga masambiro gha vya malango na kupokera digirii, Ramaphosa wakanjira mu wupu wa Council of Unions of South Africa (CUSA) nga ni pharazgi mu dipatimenti ya malango. Mu 1982, CUSA yikapempha Ramaphosa kuti wambiske wupu wa ŵantchito ŵa migodi; wupu uphya uwu ukambiska mu chaka chenechicho ndipo ukacemeka National Union of Mineworkers (NUM). Ramaphosa wakakakika ku Lebowa, chifukwa cha kunozga panji kunozgekera kuti wanjire mu ungano ku Namakgale uwo ukakanizgika na jaji wa ku malo agha.[6]

Mu Ogasiti 1982, CUSA yikadumura kupanga National Union of Mineworkers (NUM), ndipo mu Disembala Ramaphosa wakazgoka Secretary wake wakwamba. Ramaphosa ndiyo wakambiska ungano uwu pakunozgekera kuwumbika kwa Congress of the South African Trade Union (COSATU). Wakayowoyapo pa ungano wa ku Durban mu Disembala 1985. Mu Malichi 1986, wakaŵa mu gulu la COSATU ilo likakumana na African National Congress ku Lusaka, Zambia.

Ramaphosa wakasankhika kuŵa mulembi mulara wakwamba wa wupu uwu, udindo uwo wakawufiska mpaka apo wakafumako mu Juni 1991, wati wasankhika kuŵa mulembi mulara wa African National Congress (ANC). Mu muwuso wake, wupu uwu ukakura kufuma pa ŵanthu 6,000 mu 1982 kufika pa 300,000 mu 1992, ndipo ukaŵa na ŵantchito pafupifupi hafu ya ŵanthu ŵafipa mu migodi ya ku South Africa. Pakuŵa Secretary General, iyo, James Motlatsi (president wa NUM), na Elijah Barayi (vice president wa NUM) nawo ŵakalongozga ŵantchito ŵa migodi mu umoza mwa migodi yikuru mu mbiri ya South Africa.

Mu Disembala 1988, Ramaphosa na ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakumanyikwa ŵa mu tawuni ya Soweto ŵakakumana na meya wa tawuni iyi kuti ŵadumbiskane za suzgo la kukanizga ŵanthu kugura nyumba.

Mu 1985, NUM yikapatuka ku CUSA ndipo yikovwira kukhazikiska Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU). Apo wupu wa COSATU ukakolerana na wupu wa United Democratic Front (UDF) kwimikana na boma la P. W. Botha, Ramaphosa wakatora udindo wa kulongozga mu ivyo vikamanyikwa kuti Mass Democratic Movement (MDM).

Ramaphosa wayowoyapo kuti ni munthu wakujipeleka pa vya demokilase.[7]

Kukwera kwa ANC (1990-1996)[lemba | kulemba source]

Pati pajumpha nyengo yitali kufuma apo ANC yikakanizgikira mu 1990, Ramaphosa wakalutilira kuŵa pafupi na gulu ili. Mu Janyuwale 1990, wakaluta na ŵakayidi ŵa ndyali ŵa ANC ku ofesi yikuru ya ANC ku Lusaka, Zambia; ndipo, mu chaka chenechichi, wakaŵa mulongozgi wa komiti ya kupokelera ŵanthu, iyo yikakolerananga na ndondomeko ya kufumiska Nelson Mandela mu jele, kusazgapo maungano gha viphikiro. Ramaphosa wakasankhika kuŵa Secretary General wa ANC pa 48th National Conference ku Durban mu July 1991, ndipo pamasinda wakazgoka mulongozgi wa gulu la ANC ku maungano agho ghakamara apartheid. Kweniso wakaŵa pulofesa wa malango pa Stanford University mu Okutobala 1991.

Pamanyuma pa mavoti ghakwamba gha demokilase mu 1994, wakazgoka Member of Parliament (MP) ndipo wakasankhika kuŵa Chairman wa Constitutional Assembly pa 24 May 1994, udindo wakuzirwa mu boma la Mandela la National Unity. Wakasoleka kuŵa Secretary General wa ANC pa ungano wa 49th National Conference mu December 1994. Ndipouli, mu 1996, wakaleka milimo ya ANC na ya mu Nyumba ya Malamulo ndipo wakapharazga kuti wafumengepo pa ndyali, cifukwa cakuti wakakhuŵara cifukwa cakuti Thabo Mbeki wakasankhika kuŵa mulondezgi wa Mandela..[8][9]

Ntchito ya bizinesi (1996-2014)[lemba | kulemba source]

Wakati waleka ndyali, Ramaphosa wakazgoka munthu wa bizinesi, ndipo wakasanga chandulo na ndondomeko ya Black Economic Empowerment (BEE). Pakati pa maudindo ghanyake, wakaŵa mulaŵiliri wa Shanduka Group, kampani iyo wakayambiska, iyo yikasanganga ndalama mu vyakupangira vinthu, nkhongono, katundu, mabanki, inshuwalansi, na ma telefoni (SEACOM). Mu 2014, Shanduka wakaŵa na ndalama zakujumpha R20 biliyoni, ndipo Tshivhase Trust ya mbumba ya Ramaphosa ndiyo yikaŵa na masheya ghanandi. Ramaphosa wakaŵa purezidenti wa Bidvest, MTN, ndipo kwambira mu Malichi 2007, Mondi, wupu wakulongozga wa mapepara na ma packaging. Mu maudindo ghanyake agho wakacitanga, wakaŵa mu wupu wa Macsteel Holdings, Alexander Forbes, SABMiller, Lonmin, Anglo American, na Standard Bank. Mu 2011, Ramaphosa wakalipira phangano la vyaka 20 kuti wagwire nchito mu malo ghakurya gha 145 gha McDonald mu South Africa. Kweniso wakaŵa mu wupu wa International Advisory Board wa Coca-Cola Company na wa Unilever Africa Advisory Council.

Vinthu vinandi ivyo Ramaphosa wakaŵa navyo vikapangiska kuti waŵe munthu musambazi comene mu South Africa. Kuyana na nyuzipepara ya Sunday Times, ndalama izo wakaŵa nazo zikaŵa R2.22 biliyoni, ndipo mu 2011 wakaŵa munthu wa 13 pa ŵanthu ŵasambazi chomene mu South Africa. Kweniso, pa maukaboni ghose agha pakaŵavya ndalama izo wakaŵa nazo mu kampani ya Shanduka.[10]

Kuŵeta ng'ombe[lemba | kulemba source]

Pa ulendo wake wa ku Uganda mu 2004, Ramaphosa wakamba kutemwa viŵeto vya Ankole. Cifukwa cakuti boma la South Africa likakana kumupa wanangwa wakunjira mu caru ici cifukwa cakuti ku Uganda kukaŵavya nthowa zakukwana zakumazgira matenda. M'malo mwake, Ramaphosa wakagura ng'ombe 43 kwa pulezidenti wa Uganda Yoweri Museveni na kuzitumizga ku Kenya, uko zikapangika munthumbo; viŵaro ivi vikafumiskika na kutumizgika ku South Africa, kuti viŵikike mu ng'ombe izo zili mu quarantine. Mu Ogasiti 2017, Ramaphosa wakaŵa na ng'ombe 100 za Ankole pa famu yake ya Ntaba Nyoni ku Mpumalanga.[11][12] Mu chaka chenechicho, wakalemba buku lakuti Cattle of the Ages: Stories, and Portraits of the Ankole Cattle of Southern Africa..[13]

Ntchito za boma[lemba | kulemba source]

Nangauli wakaleka vya ndyali, kweni nyengo zinyake Ramaphosa wakachitanga vinthu vyakumanyikwa mu vyaru vinyake kweniso mu South Africa. Wakazgoka Vice Chairman wakwamba wa Commonwealth Business Council, ndipo mu 1998, Chairman wa South Africa's BEE Commission. Mu 2000, wakasankhika kuŵa mulaŵiliri wa vilwero ku Independent International Commission on Decommissioning, ndipo wakaŵa na mulimo wa kulaŵilira vyilwero vya Irish Republican Army ku Northern Ireland. Ndipo, mu mwezi wa Epulero wa chaka cha 2010, wakasankhika na President Jacob Zuma ku National Planning Commission, uko wakateŵeteranga nga ni Deputy Chairperson kwa Minister mu Presidency Trevor Manuel.

Mu nyengo ya suzgo ya ku Kenya ya 2007-2008, iyo yikati yacitika pamanyuma pa kusankhika kwa President Mwai Kibaki mu Disembala 2007, Ramaphosa wakasankhika na Kofi Annan kuti waŵe mulaŵiliri mukuru wa nkhani za nyengo yitali. Ndipouli, boma la Kibaki likasuska kuti Ramaphosa walipo, ndipo likati wakaŵa na bizinesi na Raila Odinga uyo wakasuskanga Kibaki. Kuyana na Ramaphosa, Odinga wakamuwona mu 2007, kweni wakaŵavya "vyakuzirwa vyapadera" ivyo vikamupangiska kuti watemwenge cigaŵa cimoza panji cinyake; ndipouli, wakayowoya kuti wangaŵa yayi muphemaniski muwemi kwambura "kugomezga na kugomezga kwa vigaŵa vyose" ndiposo kuti wakakhumbanga yayi kuŵa cikhuŵazgo ku maungano. Ntheura wakafumako ku maungano agha pa Febuluwale 4. Ndipouli, wakawelera ku mulimo wa kukhazikiska mtende mu chaka cha 2014, apo - pakuŵa wachiŵiri wa mulongozgi wa National Planning Commission - wakachitanga mulimo wa thenga lapadera la purezidenti wa South Africa ku South Sudan mu nyengo ya nkhondo ya ku South Sudan.

Ramaphosa wakalutilira kupokelera ŵanthu awo ŵakimikika mu Komiti Yakulamulira ya ANC: pa ungano wa 50 wa ANC mu 1997, wakapokera mavoti ghanandi kuluska waliyose. Ndipo pa ungano wa 51 wa ANC mu 2002, wakapokera mavoti ghanandi chomene. Pambere ungano wa chalo wa 52 undachitike mu chaka cha 2007, wakakananga mphekesera izo zikayowoyanga kuti wakukhumba kunjira mu mpikisano wakunjira m'malo mwa Mbeki kuŵa purezidenti wa ANC..[14]

Wachiwiri kwa Wapampando wa ANC (2012~2017)[lemba | kulemba source]

Ramaphosa wakawelera ku mphala ya ndyali mu chaka cha 2012, pambere ungano wa 53 wa ANC undachitike, apo wakapokera ma nominations kuti waŵe Deputy President wa ANC. Pa 20 May 2012, Derek Hanekom, MP wa ANC, wakakhwimiska Ramaphosa kuti wakhalirenge pa mpando wa ANC, wakati, "Tikukhumba ŵalongozgi ŵa mtundu wa Cyril. Nkhumanya kuti Cyril wakumanya comene bizinesi, kweni nkhakhumbanga kuti waŵike ndalama zake zose mu thumba na kwamba uteŵeti wapachanya". Ramaphosa wakakanaso ivyo ŵanthu ŵakayowoyanga, wakati: "Mungamanya yayi ivyo Hanekom wakayowoya. Wakaŵa kuseka waka".[15]

Nadi, Ramaphosa wakasimikizga yayi kuti wazomera kuŵa wachiŵiri wa pulezidenti mpaka pa Disembala 16, zuŵa limoza pambere ungano undambe. Ndipouli, wakapokera wovwiri wakukhora kufuma kwa President Jacob Zuma ∙ chibwezi icho chikawonekanga nga ni chiyezgo cha Zuma kuti "waŵe wavinjeru na kulanga" Kgalema Motlanthe, uyo wakayezga Zuma kuti waŵe pulezidenti kweni uyo chigaŵa chake chikaŵa chakuyana na cha Ramaphosa, chifukwa cha umo ŵakakhalira mu wupu wa vyamalonda kweniso mbiri yawo yiweme. Ramaphosa wakasankhika kuŵa Vice President wa ANC pa 18 December mu kuwina kukuru: wakapokera mavoti 3,018, apo Mathews Phosa wakapokera mavoti 470 ndipo Tokyo Sexwale wakapokera mavoti 463.[16][17]

Wachiwiri kwa Purezidenti wa South Africa (2014~2018)[lemba | kulemba source]

Ramaphosa wakukumana na pulezidenti wa Chile Michelle Bachelet ku Santiago, Meyi 2014.

Pamanyuma pakusankhika ku mavoti gha 2014, President Zuma wakasora Ramaphosa kuŵa Vice President wa South Africa pa 25 May 2014; Ramaphosa wakalapizga na Chief Justice Mogoeng Mogoeng zuŵa lakulondezgapo.[18]

Wakati wasankhika kuŵa wachiŵiri wa purezidenti wa ANC, Ramaphosa wakamba kuleka milimo yakupambanapambana ya bizinesi, ndipo mu 2014 wakamalizga ndondomeko iyi, nga umo malango gha Executive Ethics Code ghakukhumbira. Ici cikapangiska kuti wafumeko ku Shanduka, ku McDonald's South Africa, ku Lonmin, uyo wakupangiska platinamu, na ku makampani ghanyake ghose agho ghangaŵa na suzgo la vyakukhumba vya ŵanthu, comenecomene mu vyaru ivyo boma likulongozga. Vinthu vinyake ivyo wakaŵa navyo, nga ni kampani yakuguliska masheya, minda yake ya viŵeto, katundu wake, na kampani yakuguliska magalimoto gha maseŵero, vikaŵikika mu thumba la wupu wakwendeska vinthu. Rejista ya Nyumba ya Malamulo ya 2014 yikulongora kuti Ramaphosa wakaŵa na masheya gha kampani ghakujumpha R76 miliyoni (nangauli chiŵerengero ichi chikasazgapo masheya agho wakaŵa nagho pamoza na ŵanthu ŵanyake), kweniso wakaŵa na nyumba zakukwana 30 ku Johannesburg na nyumba ziŵiri ku Cape Town.[19][20]

Ntchito ya mu nyumba[lemba | kulemba source]

Padera pa milimo yake ya muwuso wa chalo, Ramaphosa wakapika udindo wa kulongozga milimo ya boma mu chalo ku National Assembly kuyana na chigaŵa cha 91 (4) cha malango gha chalo ichi. Pa 3 June, Zuma wakamwimika kuŵa Chairman wa National Planning Commission, na Jeff Radebe kuŵa Deputy wake. Mwakusazgirapo, Ramaphosa wakaŵa na udindo wa kupanga ndondomeko ya kukhazikiska malipiro ghapachanya pa caru cose, na kulongozga maungano pa nkhani iyi pakati pa boma la Zuma na ŵimiliri ŵa ŵantchito na ŵamalonda. Ndondomeko iyi yikazomerezgeka na nduna mu Novembala 2017.

Mu Julayi 2014, Ramaphosa wakachemera kuti mu charu muŵe umoza pamanyuma pakuti Julius Malema wayowoya kuti chigaŵa cha Afrikaans cha sumu ya fuko chikwenera kuwuskikapo. Ramaphosa wakati, "Tikuzenga mtundu ndipo tikwenera kupeleka woko la ubwezi, woko la kuwezgerapo mtende ku awo ŵakuwona kuti sumu ya fuko yikuŵayimiraso yayi, ndipo ici cingacitika ku vigaŵa vyose viŵiri". Kuumaliro wa nyengo ya Zuma, Ramaphosa nayo wakamba kuyowoyapo pa wumba vya vimbundi mu boma la Zuma..[21]

Ubale na vyaru vinyake[lemba | kulemba source]

Ramaphosa pa ungano wa Global Open Government Summit ku Mexico City, Okutobala 2015.

Mu chaka cha 2018, Ramaphosa, mu malo gha Zuma, wakalongozga wupu wa South Africa ku World Economic Forum ku Davos, kukhozga ndalama na bizinesi mu South Africa. Ulendo wake unyake ku vyaru vinyake ukasazgapo ulendo wa mazuŵa ghaŵiri ku Vietnam na Singapore, uwo ukaŵa na vilato vya kukhozga ubwezi wa malonda, kweniso mwaŵi wakuti South Africa yisambirepo kanthu pa umo charu cha Singapore chikugwilira nchito. Ramaphosa wakalutizga kuteŵetera nga ni nthumi yapadera ya Zuma pa nyengo ya kuphalirana vya nkhondo ya South Sudan, ndipo wakakhwaskananga na South African Development Community (SADC) mu Lesotho.[22]

Wapampando wa ANC (2017~pano)[lemba | kulemba source]

Kusankhika[lemba | kulemba source]

Ramaphosa wakimilira pa mpando wa ANC mu 2017, apo nyengo ya Zuma yikamara. Nangauli wakazomerezgeka na NUM mu Seputembala 2016, kweni kampeni yake yikayamba mu Epulero 2017. Pansi pa chikwangwani cha #CR17 Siyavuma, Ramaphosa adasankha pulogalamu yolimbana ndi katangale, ndikugogomezera ndondomeko zachuma zomwe zimapangitsa kuti ntchito zamakampani ndi ndalama ziziyenda bwino. Wakakhozgeka na wupu wa Cosatu na wa SACP; na wupu wa chigaŵa wa ANC wa Northern Cape, Eastern Cape, na Gauteng; na ŵandyali kusazgapo nduna ya masambiro Angie Motshekga, nduna yakale ya vya ndalama Pravin Gordhan, pulezidenti wa Cosatu Sdumo Dlamini, na nduna yikuru ya KwaZulu-Natal Senzo Mchunu.

Mulwani mukuru wa Ramaphosa wakaŵa Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, uyo wakaŵa na wovwiri wa Zuma, mfumu wake wakale. Pa 18 Disembala 2017, wakasankhika kuŵa purezidenti wa ANC pa ungano wa 54 wa chipani ichi, wakatonda Dlamini-Zuma na mavoti 2,440 pa 2,261..[23][24]

Kukhalaso mulamulili[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu kayowoyero kake kakwamba pakuŵa mulongozgi wa ANC, Ramaphosa wakalayizga kuti wazamumazga vimbundi mu chipani. Wakalongozga ivyo wakayowoya kuti ni kampeni ya "kusinthiska" ANC mukati na kuwezgerapo umanyi na kawonekero kake. Pakati pa vinthu vinyake, upharazgi uwu ukapangiska kuti ŵeruzgi ŵa ANC awo ŵakususkika na vimbundi ŵaleke kugwira ntchito. Ivi vikapangiska kuti ŵaŵe pa chibwezi na mulembi mukuru wa ANC, Ace Magashule, uyo wakati walekeskeka mu chipani mu Meyi 2021, wakayezga kuwezgera mwa kumususka Ramaphosa, kumupa mulandu wa kuswa malango pa ndalama za kampeni ya CR2017. Ivyo Magashule wakacita vikaŵa vyambura kuzomerezgeka cifukwa cakuti wakalekeskeka.

Mu Disembala 2022, Ramaphosa wakasankhikaso mulongozgi wa ANC, kwimikana na Zweli Mkhize, kwa nyengo yachiŵiri ya vyaka vinkhondi. Chisankho chaparamende chichitike mu 2024, ndipo chipani cha ANC chikwenera kuti chikulutilira kuŵa chipani chikuru chomene mu South Africa, nangauli chikaŵa na mavoti 19.[citation needed]

Ulamuliro wa South Africa (2018~pano)[lemba | kulemba source]

Cyril Ramaphosa
Presidency of Cyril Ramaphosa
15 February 2018 – present
Cyril Ramaphosa
Cabinet1st Ramaphosa Cabinet
2nd Ramaphosa Cabinet
PartyAfrican National Congress
Election2019
SeatMahlamba Ndlopfu, Pretoria
Genadendal Residence, Cape Town

Ramaphosa pamoza na ŵalongozgi ŵanyake ŵa BRICS pa ungano wa BRICS wa 11, 2019.

Pamanyuma pa kufumiska kwa President Jacob Zuma mu February 2018, Ramaphosa wakasankhika kuŵa President wa South Africa pa 15 February 2018. Ramaphosa wakalapa mu nyumba ya ŵalendo ya Pulezidenti, Tuynhuys, na Chief Justice Mogoeng Mogoeng.

Msika ukakhira chomene zuŵa lakulondezgapo apo Ramaphosa wakamba kuwusa. Mabondi gha boma nagho ghakakura.

Pa 16 February 2018, Ramaphosa wakapeleka nkhani yake yakwamba ya umo chalo chiliri pakuŵa purezidenti wa South Africa, ndipo aka kakaŵa kakwamba mu chalo cha demokilase cha South Africa apo purezidenti wakapeleka nkhani yake ya umo chalo chiliri kwambura wachiŵiri wa purezidenti. Ramaphosa wakadidimizga kukhumbikwa kwa kukwezga chuma cha South Africa, kusazgirako vyalo na ntchito za ŵawukirano, kweniso kuchepeska ukuru wa nduna. Mu kayowoyero aka, Ramaphosa wakayowoyaso za kuzirwa kwa kusungilira chiharo cha Mandela.

Nkhani ya Ramaphosa yikapokelereka na ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakakolerana nayo yayi.

Pa 17 February 2018, Ramaphosa, pakuŵa mulongozgi wa South African National Defence Force, wakaluta ku Armed Forces Inter-Faith Service ku Mittah Seperepere Convention Centre ku Kimberley ndipo wakayowoyapo nkhani yake yakwamba pakuŵa purezidenti wa South Africa.[25]

Pa 26 February 2018, Ramaphosa, uyo wakatora ufumu wa Jacob Zuma, wakasinthaso boma lake kakwamba kufumiskapo banthu banandi awo ŵakaŵa na mphindano mu nyengo ya Zuma ndipo ŵakaŵa na ubwezi na banja la Gupta. Ramaphosa wakathya mulongozgi wa African National Congress na Premier wa Mpumalanga, David Mabuza, kuŵa mulongozgi wa chalo.

Pa 8 Meyi 2019, African National Congress yakulongozgeka na President Ramaphosa yikapokera mavoti 57.50% mu chisankho cha 2019 cha South Africa. Ramaphosa wakasankhika pa nyengo yakwamba kuŵa purezidenti pa 22 May 2019..[26]Pakuti Ramaphosa wakaŵa kuti wasankhika kuŵa pulezidenti kuti wafiske malo agho ghakaŵapo chifukwa cha kufumiska pulezidenti uyo wakaŵa kumanyuma kwake, dango likumuzomerezga kuteŵetera nyengo ziŵiri.

Pa ungano wa 2020 wa AU, Ramaphosa wakalongosora kuti wakukhozgera African Continental Free Trade Area ndipo wakayiyowoya kuti ni nthowa yikuru yakuwuskira vyamalonda na kujura nthowa yakuti Africa yikolerane na msika wa pa caru cose. Ramaphosa wakayowoyaso kuti phangano la malonda gha wanangwa lizamupangiska Africa kuŵa munthu wakuzirwa comene pa caru cose.[1]

Pa ungano wa 2020 wa AU, Ramaphosa wakalongosoraso kuti wakukhozgera kumazga mphambano pakati pa ŵanalume na ŵanakazi.

Boma lake likachitapo kanthu pa vivulupi vya 2021 ku South Africa, vivulupi vyakofya chomene kwambira pa nyengo ya Apartheid.[27]

Ndondomeko ya mukati[lemba | kulemba source]

Kufuma apo Ramaphosa wakambira kuwusa wapanga kusintha kwa malo na chuma kuŵa vyakuzirwa chomene, kweniso wakulimbana na nthenda ya listeriosis iyo yakoma ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 100 kwambira mu 2018.

Mu Febuluwale 2018, Nyumba ya Malamulo ya ku South Africa yikavota na voti 241.83 kuti yambe kusintha fundo ya "property clause" mu ndyali kuti yivwire ŵanthu kupoka malo kwambura kulipira.

Pa 19 March 2018, Ramaphosa wakayimiska Tom Moyane pa udindo wa Commissioner wa South African Revenue Service pamanyuma pakuti Moyane wakana kufumapo.

Mu muwuso wake, African National Congress yikakhumba kusintha dango ilo likuzomerezga boma kuti litorenge minda ya ŵanthu ŵa ku South Africa. Iyo wakati usange boma lili na mazaza gha kupoka katundu kwambura kulipira, likovwira kuti vinthu vyendenge makora. Mu nyengo iyo rand yili pa malo ghapacanya comene mu vilimika viŵiri, ŵasayansi ŵa vya cuma ŵakukayika usange ndondomeko iyi yingaŵa yiwemi.

Pa 14 August 2018, Ramaphosa wakasora Dr. Silas Ramaite pakuteŵetera nga ni Muteŵeti wa Wupu Wakulongozga wa Boma (NDPP) pamanyuma pakuti Khoti la Malango likadumura kuti Mulara Shaun Abrahams wakasankhika mwambura kuzomerezgeka na pulezidenti wakale, Jacob Zuma.

Charu cha South Africa chili pa mutu wa nkhani pa charu chose chifukwa cha ŵanthu ŵakuwukira ŵanthu ŵakufuma ku vyaru vinyake, ndipo ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakuŵapa mulandu ŵanthu ŵakufuma ku vyaru vinyake chifukwa cha masuzgo gha vyachuma.

Pa 10 June 2021, Ramaphosa wakapharazga kuti boma lake lizamukwezga chiŵelengero cha magesi agho makampani ghapadera ghangapanga kwambura laisensi - kufuma pa 1 Megawatt kufika pa 100 Megawatts. Chigamulo ichi chikapangika kuti chizgore masuzgo agho chalo chikukumana nagho pa nyengo ya suzgo la magesi, na kupeleka "oomph" mu mazgu gha Ramaphosa, kuti chuma cha South Africa chiwelere.

Pa 11 February, 2022, Ramaphosa wakapharazga kuti boma lake lizamukhazikiska malonda gha cannabis mu South Africa, pakukhumba kukwezga vyakurya na vyakurya.

Ramaphosa wakambiska ntchito ya Youth Employment Service (YES) kuti waŵape nchito ŵawukirano miliyoni yimoza na kuŵapa maukaboni ghanandi pa nchito, ndipo boma la South Africa likambiska ndondomeko ya Employment Tax Incentive, iyo yingawovwira kuti mabwana ghachepeskeko ndalama izo ŵakugwiliskira nchito ŵawukirano.

Pa 14 August 2018, Pulezidenti Ramaphosa wakayowoyapo pakwambiska ndondomeko ya Sanitation Appropriate For Education (SAFE) ku Pretoria kuti wazgore masuzgo gha vyaumoyo agho masukulu ghakavu chomene gha mu chalo ichi ghakukumana nagho..[28][29]

Ndondomeko ya vyaru vinyake[lemba | kulemba source]

Mapu agho ghakulongora vyaru ivyo Ramaphosa wakendera nga ni pulezidenti.
Ramaphosa na President wa Russia Vladimir Putin mu 2018.

Ramaphosa wakacita ulendo wake wakudanga wa pa caru cose pakuŵa purezidenti wa South Africa ku Angola ndipo wakakumana na purezidenti João Lourenço pakuŵa purezidenti wa Southern African Development Community (SADC) kuti ŵadumbiskane vya mtende na kuvikilira. Ramaphosa wakachita ulendo wake wakudanga wa chalo cha South Africa pa 2 March 2018 ku Republic of Angola ndipo wakakumana na President João Lourenço nga ndi mulongozgi wa SADC.

Pa 20 March, 2018, Ramaphosa wakaluta ku Kigali, Rwanda pamoza na Minister wa vyalo vya kuwaro Lindiwe Sisulu, ndipo wakakumana na President Paul Kagame na kuyowoya za kuwezgerapo ubwezi pakati pa South Africa na Rwanda, pamanyuma wakatora chigaŵa pa African Continental Free Trade Area Business Forum (ACFTABF) pambere ungano wa 10 wa African Union Extraordinary Summit undachitike. Zuŵa lakulondezgapo, Ramaphosa wakasayina chikalata cha Kigali pa kukhazikiska ACFTABF pa ungano wa 10 wa African Union.

Ramaphosa wakachitiska ungano wa BRICS wa 11 pa 25-27 July 2018, ku Sandton Convention Centre ku Johannesburg.[30]

Ramaphosa pamoza na President wa America Joe Biden, September 2022.

Pa 10 Meyi 2021, Ramaphosa wakati ANC yikususka "mu mazgu ghankhongono chomene" ivyo vikupangiska kuti mbumba za ku Palestina zifumiskike mu nyumba zawo ku East Jerusalem uko kuli Israyeli na "kupoka ŵanthu awo ŵakasunkhunyika" ku Al-Aqsa Mosque.

Pamanyuma pa nkhondo ya Russia ya ku Ukraine, iyo yikamba pa 24 February 2022, Ramaphosa wakadandawura yayi ku Russia panji kuzomerezga sankho za ku Russia. Pakati pajumpha mwezi umoza, wakayowoya kuti nchakuzirwa comene kuti waleke kunjilirapo pa ndyali mwakuti waŵe pakati pa ŵalongozgi ŵa vyaru viŵiri ivi. Ramaphosa wakati nkhondo iyi yikacitika cifukwa cakuti NATO yikaŵa pafupi na mphaka za Russia. Iyo wakati: "Nkhondo iyi mphanyi yikatondeka usange NATO mphanyi yikapulikira macenjezgo gha ŵalongozgi na ŵamazaza ŵake agho ghakayowoyanga kuti usange yingathandazgikira kumafumiro gha dazi, mbwenu mu cigaŵa ici vinthu viŵenge makora yayi".

Mu 2022, pulezidenti uyu wakaŵa mulongozgi wakwamba wa caru cinyake uyo wakaluta ku United Kingdom mu nyengo ya muwuso wa Themba Charles III. Themba likamuzgora Knight Grand Cross wa Order of the Bath.

Kuzgora ku nthenda ya coronavirus[lemba | kulemba source]

Ramaphosa wakulumbika chomene pa charu chose chifukwa cha umo wakachitira na nthenda ya COVID-19 mu South Africa ndipo BBC yikati, "Ramaphosa wawoneka kuti ni mulongozgi muwemi chomene, wakuzika, walusungu, kweni wakuwona kuti vinthu vili makora". Mu Okutobala 2020, Ramaphosa wakamba kujipatura pamwekha pamanyuma pakuti mulendo uyo wakaluta ku chiphikiro cha chakurya cha mise wakawonekerapo kuti wali na coronavirus.

Pa 12 Disembala, 2021, nduna ya boma, Mondli Gungubele, yikati Ramaphosa wali na nthenda ya COVID-19, ndipo wachiŵiri wa purezidenti, David Mabuza watenge "maudindo ghose" sabata yakulondezgapo..[31]

Kucita vinthu vyakuthupi vya ndale[lemba | kulemba source]

Ramaphosa wakapharazga ku South Africa pa 24 May 2018 kuti wapelekenge hafu ya malipiro ghake (R3.6 miliyoni pa chaka) ku vyawanangwa pakukumbuka Nelson Mandela uyo wakaŵa president wa South Africa. Iyo wakati chilato chake nkhuciska ŵanthu ŵasambazi kuti ŵapelekenge ndalama zinyake kuti ŵawovwire kuzenga caru. Ndalama izi zikaŵa za Nelson Mandela Foundation (NMF).[32]

Ramaphosa ndiyo wakambiska bungwe la Cyril Ramaphosa Foundation.

Vyakususkana[lemba | kulemba source]

Nkhondo ya ku Marikana[lemba | kulemba source]

Chiwawa cha ku Marikana, chomwe chikufotokozedwa m'ma media, chinachitika pamene apolisi adaphwanya ntchito yawo pochita nkhanza kwa ogwira ntchito a Lonmin a "koppie" (phiri) pafupi ndi malo a Nkaneng ku Marikana pa 16 August 2012. Ŵapolisi ŵakakoma ŵanthu 34 ndipo ŵanyake 78 ŵakapwetekeka. Ŵanthu ŵakamba kususkana chomene ŵakati ŵamanya kuti ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakaŵathyapura ku msana. Nkhaza izo zikacitika pa 16 Ogasiti 2012 zikaŵa zakukoma comene kuluska zakwamba izo ŵasilikari ŵa ku South Africa ŵakacitiranga ŵanthu ŵambura mulandu kwambira pa nyengo ya apartheid.[33]

Pa nyengo ya komiti ya Marikana, vikamanyikwa kuti boma la Lonmin likapempha Ramaphosa, pakuŵa mweneko wa masheya wa Lonmin na wakulemera chomene wa ANC, kuti wakolerezge "ntchito yakuyana waka" yakwimikana na ŵakwimira "vigeŵenga".

Mu upharazgi wa komiti ya Farlam, Ramaphosa wakati Lonmin wakakhwimiska boma na SAPS pakwamba kuti ŵapolisi ŵasangike pa malo agha ndipo chachiŵiri kuti ivyo vikachitikanga viwoneke nga ni vigeŵenga.

Paumaliro, Komiti Yakupenjerezga ya ku Marikana yikati cifukwa ca nyifwa izo zikacitika kale, iyo wakacitapo kanthu yayi kuti ŵapolisi ŵasazgikire pa malo agha, kweniso wakamanyanga yayi kuti mulimo uwu uzamucitika pa Ogasiti 16.

Wakagwiranga nchito mu wupu wa Lonmin apo wakacitanga vinthu mwakukhazikika apo nkhondo ya Marikana yikacitikanga mu malo gha Lonmin. Pa 15 August 2012 wakachema kuti ŵachitirepo kanthu pa kujoŵelera kwa ŵaganyu ŵa ku Marikana, uko wakacema kuti nkharo ya "upharazgi uheni comene" iyo yikakhumbikwiranga "ciyezgo cakuyana waka". Pamanyuma pake wakazomera na kudandawura cifukwa ca ivyo wakacita, ndipo wakati mphanyi vikacitika yayi usange ŵakate ŵapangenge ndondomeko zakovwira ŵantchito pambere ŵandacitepo mulimo uwu.[34]

Kuyowoya vya kugonana na munthu munyake[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu Ogasiti 2017, nyuzipepara ya Sunday Independent yikalemba nkhani iyo yikati Ramaphosa wakaŵa na vibwezi vinandi, kusazgapo ŵanakazi ŵanyake awo wakaŵapa ndalama. Ramaphosa wakakananga ivyo ŵakamuphalira, wakati vikaŵa vya ndyali ndipo vikakhumbanga kutimbanizga kampeni yake ya u presidential.[35]

Ndalama za kampeni ya CR17[lemba | kulemba source]

Pa 19 Julayi 2019, Mulinda wa ŵanthu, Busisiwe Mkhwebane, wakafumiska lipoti ilo wakati Ramaphosa wakapuluska dala Nyumba ya Malango ya South Africa pa vyawanangwa vya Bosasa ku kampeni yake ya CR17 ya ANC. Mulongozgi wa COPE Mosiuoa Lekota wakapempha kuti Ramaphosa walekeskeke apo mulongozgi wa DA Mmusi Maimane wakasachizga kuti paŵe komiti ya ad hoc kuti yilute na kufumiska milandu iyi. Ramaphosa wakalongosolera chalo pa 21 July 2019 ndipo wakalongosora lipoti ili kuti "ndakwananga chomene" ndipo wakachemera kuti khoti liwoneso ivyo Mkhwebane wakasanga.[36][37][38][39][40]

Kucita malonda[lemba | kulemba source]

Ramaphosa wakususkika cifukwa ca kucita bizinesi yake, nangauli wandapelekeke mulandu wa kucita vinthu vyambura kuzomerezgeka na dango. Vinthu vyakukhuŵazga vya bizinesi yake vikusazgapo bizinesi yake yakukolerana na Glencore na milandu ya kupindula mwaurunji na malonda gha malasha na Eskom agho wakukana, apo Glencore wakaŵa mu malo gha ŵanthu chifukwa cha bizinesi yake yakupambanapambana iyo yikakhwaska Tony Blair ku Middle East; mwana wake, Andile Ramaphosa, nayo wakasangika kuti wapokera ndalama zakukwana R2 miliyoni kufuma ku Bosasa, kampani yakuvikilira vinthu iyo yikukolerana na vimbundi na boma na Zondo Commission.[41][42]

Kwiba kwa Phala Phala[lemba | kulemba source]

Pa 9 February 2020 vikulongosoreka kuti ndalama zakukwana US$4 million zikaba kufuma ku famu ya Ramaphosa ya Phala Phala ku Limpopo, nangauli ndalama izo zikaba zikaŵa zakususkana. Pamanyuma, Ramaphosa wakayowoya kuti ndalama izi zikaŵa $580,000. Mu 2022, ŵakamupa mulandu wa vimbundi, kunanga urunji, kukora ŵanthu na kupeleka vimbundi ku ŵankhungu. Pambuyo pa kupereka lipoti pa nkhaniyi lolamulidwa ndi Speaker Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula, nyumba yamalamulo idavotera pa Disembala 13, 2022, 148 motsutsana ndi 214 motsutsana ndi kukanidwa kwa purezidenti.

Vyakuchindikika na vyawanangwa[lemba | kulemba source]

Ramaphosa wakapokera chawanangwa cha Olof Palme mu Stockholm mu Okutobala 1987.[43] Mu 2009, wakapokera chawanangwa cha Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement mu 2009, icho chikapelekeka na mutu wa wupu wa Awards Council, Archbishop Desmond Tutu pa chiphikiro ku St. George's Cathedral, ku Cape Town. Wakumanyikwa kuti ni munthu wakuzirwa chomene. Mu 2004, wakavoteka kuŵa wa nambara 34 pa ŵanthu 100 ŵakumanyikwa chomene ŵa ku South Africa.

Iyo wali kupokera ma honorary doctorates kufuma ku University of Natal, University of Port Elizabeth, University of Cape Town, University of the North, National University of Lesotho, National University of Ireland Galway, University of Massachusetts Boston, na University of Pennsylvania..[44]

Ntchindi zamucharu[lemba | kulemba source]

Umoyo wamunthu[lemba | kulemba source]

Ramaphosa wakatengwa kufuma mu 1978 mpaka 1989 kwa Hope Ramaphosa, uyo wali na mwana mwanalume, ndipo kufuma mu 1991 mpaka 1993 kwa mwanakazi wamalonda uyo sono wafwa Nomazizi Mtshotshisa. Mu 1996, wakatora mwanakazi zina lake Tshepo Motsepe, uyo wakaŵa dokotala kweniso mudumbu wa Patrice Motsepe, uyo wakaŵa na ndalama zinandi.[48] He is thought to have five children.[49][50]

Iyo wali na nyumba yapachanya ku mphepete mwa mutu wa nkharamu ku Cape Town, kweniso nyumba zinyake 30. Mu chaka cha 2018, Investing.com yikati chuma chake chikaŵa R6.4 billion ($450 million).

Iyo wakuyowoya viyowoyero vinandi ndipo wakumanyikwa kuti wakuyowoya viyowoyero vyakupambanapambana vya ku South Africa para wakuyowoya nkhani.[51]

Ukaboni[lemba | kulemba source]

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External links[lemba | kulemba source]

Mphala za ndale
Kujumphika na Deputy President of South Africa
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New office General Secretary of the National Union of Mineworkers
1982–1991
Kupokela