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Marshal Idriss Déby
إدريس ديبي
Déby mu 2014
6th President of Chad
Nyengo:
2 December 1990 – 20 April 2021
Prime Minister
Wachiŵili kwa mlongozgi Bada Abbas Maldoum (1990–1991)[1]
Kupokela Hissène Habré
Kuwiska na Mahamat Déby (transitional)
14th Chairperson of the African Union
Nyengo:
30 January 2016 – 30 January 2017
Kupokela Robert Mugabe
Kuwiska na Alpha Condé[2]
Umoyo wamunthu
Kubabika (1952-06-18)18 June 1952
Fada, French Equatorial Africa (now Chad)
Kufwa 20 April 2021(2021-04-20) (vyaka vikaŵa 68)
Tibesti Region, Chad
Malo ghakuŵikika Amdjarass[citation needed]
Chipani Patriotic Salvation Movement
Nthengwa
Zina Wazouna Ahmed Idriss
(divorced)
[3]
Hadja Halimé
(divorced)
[3]
(m. 2005)
[3]
Amani Musa Hilal
(m. 2012)
[3][4]
Ŵana
Chikhwekhwelele
Military service
Allegiance  Chad
Service/branch  Chadian Ground Forces
Vyaka mukugwila 1976–2021
Mndanda Marshal
Battles/wars

Idriss Déby Itno[lower-alpha 1] (18 Juni 1952 ️ 20 Epulelo 2021) wakaŵa wandale wa Chad na msilikari uyo wakaŵa purezidenti wa Chadi kwambira 1990 mpaka nyifwa yake mu 2021.[5]

Déby wakaŵa wa fuko la Bidayat la mtundu wa Zaghawa. Deby wakaŵa mulongozgi wa ŵasilikari ŵa President Hissène Habré mu vyaka vya m'ma 1980, ndipo wakawovwira chomene pa nkhondo ya Toyota iyo yikapangiska kuti Chadi yipambane nkhondo ya ku Libya na Chadi. Habré wakamukoma pamanyuma pakuti wakamukayikira kuti wakunozgekera kuwukira boma. Wakamba kuwusa mu Disembala 1990. Nangauli mu 1992 wakambiska ndondomeko ya vyaru vinandi pamanyuma pa vyaka vinandi vya muwuso wa chipani chimoza, kweni mu nyengo yose iyo wakaŵa pulezidenti, chipani cha Patriotic Salvation Movement ndicho chikaŵa na mazaza. Déby wakathereska mavoti gha purezidenti mu 1996 na 2001, ndipo pamanyuma pakuti mavoti gha mavoti ghafumiskikapo wakathereskaso mavoti mu 2006, 2011, 2016, na 2021.

Mu nyengo ya Nkhondo Yachiŵiri ya ku Congo, Déby wakalangura kuti ŵasilikari ŵanjirepo mu caru ca Congo, kweni pamasinda wakafumapo cifukwa cakuti ŵasilikari ŵake ŵakasuskika kuti ŵakuphanga vinthu na kuswa wanangwa wa ŵanthu. Kukwambilira kwa vyaka vya m'ma 2000, mafuta ghakasangika mu charu cha Chad, ndipo Déby wakawovwira kuti chuma cha charu ichi chambe kwenda makora. Wakapona ku viwukirano na viwukirano vyakupambanapambana vyakususkana na muwuso wake, kusazgapo chiwukirano icho chikaŵa na Youssouf Togoïmi uyo wakaŵa nduna yake yakuvikilira kufuma mu 1998 m'paka mu 2002 kweniso nkhondo ya cikaya kufuma mu 2005 m'paka mu 2010 iyo yikacitika cifukwa ca suzgo la ŵanthu ŵakuchimbira kwawo ku Darfur mu charu cha Sudan.

Ŵapharazgi ŵanandi ŵakuyowoya kuti [6]Déby ni munthu wamazaza. Mu vyaka 30 ivyo wakaŵira pa udindo wake, [7]Chadi wakasuzgika comene na vimbundi, kusuzgika na ŵanthu ŵa mu vyaru vinyake.[8][9][10] Mu 2016, gulu la Front for Change and Concord in Chad (FACT) likakhazikiskika na chilato cha kuwuskapo boma la Déby.[11][12] Mu Epulero 2021, FACT yikambiska nkhondo ya kumpoto kwa Chad; Déby wakapwetekeka pa 19 Epulero apo wakalongozganga ŵasilikari awo ŵakarwanga na ŵasilikari ndipo wakafwa pa 20 Epulero.

Umoyo wake wakwamba, masambiro, na ntchito ya usilikari[lemba | kulemba source]

Déby wakababika pa Juni 18, 1952, mu muzi wa Berdoba, makilomita pafupifupi 190 kufuma ku Fada kumpoto kwa Chad. Awiske ŵakaŵa muliska wa viŵeto wa fuko la Bidayat la ku Zaghawa. Wakati wasambira ku sukulu ya Quranic School ku Tiné, Déby wakasambira ku sukulu ya École Française ku Fada na ku sukulu ya French-Arab ku Abéché. Wakasambiraso ku sukulu ya Lycée Jacques Moudeina ku Bongor ndipo wakaŵa na digiri ya sayansi.

Wakati wamalizga sukulu, wakanjira Sukulu ya Ŵasilikari ku N'Djamena. Kufuma apo, wakatumika ku France kuti wakasambire, ndipo wakawelera ku Chad mu 1976 na chiphalizgano cha kuyezga ndege. Wakalutilira kugomezgeka ku ŵasilikari na kwa Pulezidenti Félix Malloum nangauli boma likamara mu 1979.[13] Wakawerako ku France mu Febuluwale 1979 ndipo wakasanga kuti Chad yazgoka malo ghakulwerako nkhondo gha magulu ghanandi ghakwimikana. Déby wakakolerana na Hissène Habré, yumoza wa ŵalongozgi ŵa nkhondo ŵa ku Chad. Pakati pajumpha chaka chimoza kufuma apo Habré wakaŵira pulezidenti mu 1982, Déby wakaŵa mulara wa ŵasilikari.

Mu 1984 wakawoneseska kuti wakoma ŵasilikari awo ŵakakolerananga na Libya ku chigaŵa cha kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Chad. Mu 1985, Habré wakamutuma ku Paris kuti wakasambire ku Ecole de Guerre ndipo wakati wawerako mu 1986, wakapika mulimo wa kuŵa mulaŵiliri mukuru wa ŵasilikari ŵa pulezidenti. Mu 1987, wakalimbana na ŵasilikari ŵa ku Libya, pamoza na wovwiri wa France mu "Toyota War", ndipo wakagwiliskira nchito nthowa izo zikapangiska kuti ŵasilikari ŵa ŵalwani ŵawo ŵaparanyike comene. Mu nyengo ya nkhondo, wakalongozgaso kuwukira ku Maaten al-Sarra Air Base ku Kufrah, ku Libya. Pa 1 Epulero 1989, pakaŵa mphindano pakati pa Habré na Déby cifukwa ca nkhongono za ŵapolisi ŵa boma.

Wupu wakuwona vya wanangwa wa ŵanthu (Human Rights Watch) ukati Habré wakaŵa na mulandu wa "kukoma ŵanthu ŵanandi chifukwa cha ndyali, kutambuzga ŵanthu mwakukhazikika, na kukora ŵanthu ŵanandi mwambura kwenelera". Kweniso wakacitanga vyakuti ŵanthu ŵaleke kumupulikira.[13] Habré wakaŵa na maghanoghano ghakupambanapambana, ndipo wakapa mulandu Déby, Mahamat Itno, nduna ya vyalo, na Hassan Djamous, mulongozgi wa ŵasilikari ŵa Chadi kuti ŵakunozgekera kuwukira boma. Déby wakacimbira dankha ku Darfur, pamanyuma ku Libya, uko Muammar Gaddafi wakamupokelera mu Tripoli. Itno na Djamous ŵakakakika na kukomeka. Pakuti wose ŵakaŵa ŵa fuko la Zaghawa, Habré wakamba kulimbana na gulu ili ndipo ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakakoleka, kutambuzgika, na kujalirika mu jele. Ŵanandi ŵakafwira mu jele panji ŵakakomeka. Mu 2016, khoti la ku Senegal likadumura kuti Habré ngwakwananga pa nkhondo. Déby wakapeleka ku ŵanthu ŵa ku Libya fundo zakudumura za ivyo CIA yikacitanga mu Chad. Mubali Gaddafi wakapeleka wovwiri wa nkhondo kwa Déby kuti wapoke mazaza mu Chad.

Déby wakasamukira ku Sudan mu 1989 ndipo wakambiska gulu la Patriotic Salvation Movement, gulu la ŵakugaluka, ilo likakhozgeka na Libya na Sudan, ilo likamba kugwira ntchito yakwimikana na Habré, ndipo pa 2 December 1990 ŵasilikari ŵa Déby ŵakanjira mu N'Djamena kwambura ŵakususka.[14]

Pulezidenti wa Chad[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu 1991, Idriss Déby wakamba kuwusa charu cha Chad. Wakasankhikaso vyaka vinkhondi na vinkhondi m'paka apo wakafwira mu 2021, ndipo nyengo yose iyo wakaŵira pa mazaza yikaŵa vyaka 30.[15]

Muma 1990[lemba | kulemba source]

Pakati pajumpha myezi yitatu kufuma apo boma la nyengo yichoko likambira kuwusa, pa Febuluwale 28, 1991, Tchad yikazomerezgeka kuŵa na dango ilo mukaŵa Déby. Mu vyaka viŵiri vyakulondezgapo, Déby wakasangana na ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakayezga kumugalukira boma. Pakukhumba kukanizga ŵanthu kuti ŵaleke kwendera fundo za boma, mu 1993 charu cha Chad chikazomerezga vyaru vinyake kuti viŵe na vipani vya ndyali.

Ndipouli, vivulupi vikalutilira. Komiti ya National Sursaut pour la Paix et la Démocratie (CSNPD), iyo yikulongozgeka na Lt. Moise Kette, na magulu ghanyake gha kumwera ŵakayezga kukanizga boma la Déby kugwiliskira nchito mafuta mu Doba Basin ndipo ŵakambiska chigaluka ico cikakoma ŵanthu ŵanandi. Mu 1994, ŵakacita phangano la mtende, kweni likamara yayi. Magulu ghaŵiri ghaphya, gha Armed Forces for a Federal Republic (FARF) agho ghakalongozgekanga na Laokein Barde, uyo wakaŵa mubwezi wa Kette, na Democratic Front for Renewal (FDR), ndiposo gulu la MDD, ghakalimbana na ŵasilikari ŵa boma kufuma mu 1994 mpaka 1995.

Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1990, Déby wakawezgerapo milimo ya boma ndipo wakachita phangano na Banki ya Caru Cose na IMF.

Mu Malichi 1996, ŵakazomerezga fundo yiphya ya boma, ndipo mu Juni ŵakasora pulezidenti. Déby wakatondeka kusanga mazaza ghanandi; ndipo wakasankhika kuŵa pulezidenti mu cigaŵa caciŵiri ca mavoti mu Julayi, na 69% ya mavoti.[16]

Muma 2000[lemba | kulemba source]

Déby wakasankhikaso pa mavoti gha pulezidenti mu mwezi wa Meyi 2001, ndipo wakathereska mu chigaŵa chakwamba na mavoti 63.17%, mwakuyana na ivyo vikachitika.[16][17] Mu 2005, pakawuka nkhondo pakati pa Ŵakhristu na Ŵasilamu. Mu Malichi 2006, boma likayezga kuwiska ndege ya Déby.[18]

Idriss Déby wakufumba fumbo mu ofesi yake, 2004

Pakati pa Epulero 2006, pakaŵa nkhondo na ŵakugaluka ku N'Djaména, kweni nkhondo yikamara mwaluŵiro. Pamasinda, Déby wakadumura ubwezi wake na Sudan, ndipo wakati boma ili likovwira ŵakugaluka.

Deby wakapika mazaza ghanyake pa 8 August 2006. Pulezidenti wa Sudan, Omar al-Bashir, wakaluta ku ciphikiro ca Déby.

Pamanyuma pakuti Déby wasankhika, magulu ghanandi gha ŵakugaluka ghakapatukana. Déby wakaŵa ku Abéché kwamba pa Seputembala 11 m'paka pa Seputembala 21, 2006, wakendanga mu helikopita kuti walaŵilirenge kuukira ŵakugaluka ŵa Rally of Democratic Forces.[19]

Ku chigaŵa cha kumafumiro gha dazi kwa msumba uwu, ŵanthu ŵakalutilira kugaluka, ndipo ŵakugaluka ŵakafika ku N'Djamena pa Febuluwale 2, 2008. Pakati pajumpha mazuŵa ghanandi, boma likalutilira kulamulira msumba wa N'Djamena. Apo wakayowoyanga pa ungano wa ŵapharazgi pa Febuluwale 6, Déby wakayowoya kuti ŵasilikari ŵake ŵathereska ŵakugaluka, awo wakaŵati ni "ŵalwani awo ŵakulongozgeka na Sudan".

Pa nyengo iyi, mu Juni 2005, ŵanthu ŵakakondwa na fundo yakuti boma lileke kuŵa na mavoti ghaŵiri. Ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 77% ŵakakolerana nayo. Déby wakaŵa wakwimilira pa mavoti gha 2006 gha purezidenti, agho ghakachitika pa 3 May, ndipo ŵakamususka. Kuyana na mavoti gha boma, Déby wakathereska pa mavoti 64.67%.

Mu 2000, apo mphindano ya kumpoto na kumwera yikamara, boma la Déby likamba kuzenga nthowa yakwendeskera mafuta, ya mtunda wa makilomita 1,070 pakati pa Chad na Cameroon. Mu 2003, ŵakamalizga kuzenga maji agha, ndipo Banki ya Caru Cose yikati ni "nthowa yambura kumanyikwa yakugwiliskira nchito mafuta kuti ghawovwire ŵanthu ŵakavu, ŵakusuzgika, na caru".

Mu Juni 2000, Komiti ya Banki ya Caru Cose yikapeleka ndalama zakwendeskera mulimo wa Chad-Cameroon Petroleum Development Project. Ntchito iyi yikapangiska kuti Banki ya Caru Cose, maboma, maboma gha ŵanthu, na maboma gha ŵanthu ŵekha ŵagwirenge lumoza nchito kuti ŵanthu ŵasange chandulo na ndalama izo zikufuma mu mafuta.

Ndipouli, cifukwa cakuti Chad wakapokeranga waka 12.5% ya phindu la mafuta, ndipo ŵakakolerana kuti ndalama izi ziŵikike pa akaunti ya Citibank ku London iyo yikulaŵilizgika na wupu wakujiyimira pawekha kuti wovwirepo pa milimo ya boma na vyakutukuka. Mu 2006, Déby wakaluta ku caru cose apo wakacema kuti caru cake ciŵe na cigaŵa ca 60 peresenti mu mafuta gha mu Chad na Cameroon pamanyuma pakuti wapokera "vinthu" kufuma ku makampani gha ku vyaru vinyake agho ghakulongozga nchito iyi. Iyo wakati Chevron na Petronas ŵakakana kulipira misonkho yakujumpha $486.2 miliyoni. Tchad yikapeleka dango lakuzomerezgeka na Banki ya Caru Cose lakuti ndalama zinandi izo yikasanganga kufuma ku mafuta zipelekeke ku milimo ya vyaumoyo, masambiro, na vinthu vinyake. Banki ya Caru Cose yikaŵa kuti yajara kale akaunti ya ndalama za mafuta cifukwa ca mphindano ya umo Chad yikagwiliskiranga nchito ndalama izo yikasanganga kufuma ku mafuta. Déby wakakana ivyo ŵanthu aŵa ŵakayowoya, wakati caru ici cikupokera yayi ndalama zakukwana kuti cikwaniske kumazga ukavu.[20][21]

Muma 2010[lemba | kulemba source]

Déby mu 2012

Pa 25 Epulero 2011, Déby wakasankhika kachiŵiri pa nyengo yacinayi na mavoti 88.7% ndipo wakasankha Emmanuel Nadingar kuŵa nduna yikuru.

Chifukwa cha malo gha Chadi mu vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Africa, Déby wakatumizga ŵasilikari panji wakachitapo kanthu pakumazga masuzgo ghakupambanapambana gha mu vyaru ivi, nga ni Darfur, Central African Republic (CAR), Mali, kweniso kulimbana na Boko Haram.[22][23]

Chifukwa chakuti vinthu vikamba kunangika mu Central African Republic, mu 2012, Déby wakasankha kutumizga ŵasilikari 400 kuti ŵarwe na ŵakugaluka ŵa CAR. Mu Janyuwale 2013, Chadi nayo wakatuma ŵasilikari 2000 kuti ŵarwe na magulu gha Islamist mu Mali, nga ni cigaŵa ca France's Operation Serval.[24][25]

Bungwe la Transparency International likati, mu nyengo ya Déby, charu cha Chad chikaŵa na vimbundi vinandi chomene. Ivyo boma likucita sono pa nkhani ya mafuta vyawovwira kuti vimbundi viŵeko. Boma likugwiliskira nchito uheni ndalama izi kuti likhozge ŵasilikari ŵake na kupeleka njombe ku ŵabwezi ŵake. Mu 2006, magazini ya Forbes yikalemba charu cha Chad kuŵa chakwamba pa vyaru ivyo vili na vimbundi vinandi,[9][26][27]mu 2012, Déby wakambiska kampeni yakulimbana na vimbundi mu charu chose, yakuchemeka Operation Cobra.[28][29] Kweni wupu unyake ukuti Déby wakugwiliskira nchito nthowa izi kuti walange awo ŵakususkana nayo na kutumbika awo ŵakumovwira. Mu 2016, Transparency International yikaŵika charu cha Chad pa nambara 147 pa vyaru 168.[30]

Idriss Deby na Obama mu Ogasiti 2014

Pakulimbana na suzgo la Boko Haram, Déby wakasazgirako chiŵelengero cha Chad mu gulu la Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF), gulu la vyaru vinandi ilo lili na vyaru vya Niger, Nigeria, Benin, na Cameroon. Mu Ogasiti 2015, Déby wakayowoya mu nkhani kuti MNJTF yakwaniska "kukoma" Boko Haram.[31]

Idriss Déby Itno na First Lady wa Chadi ŵakulindilira kuvota, Epulero 2016

Mu Janyuwale 2016, Déby wakasankha Robert Mugabe wa ku Zimbabwe kuŵa mulongozgi wa African Union kwa chaka chimoza. Pa nyengo iyo wakimikikira, Déby wakaphalira ŵalongozgi ŵa vyaru kuti nkhondo izo zikucitika mu caru ici zikwenera kumalizgika "na ndyali panji mwankhongono... Tikwenera kumazga masoka agha. Tingacita makora yayi panji kuyowoya za kukura usange cigaŵa cinyake ca thupi lithu cikulwara. Tikwenera kuŵa ŵalongozgi mu kupenja nthowa zakumazgira masuzgo gha mu Africa". Chimoza mwa vinthu vyakuzirwa comene ivyo Déby wakacitanga nchakuti wawovwire comene pa kulimbana na Boko Haram. Pa Malichi 4, wupu wa African Union ukazomerezga kusazgirako gulu la ŵasilikari 10,000.

Pa ungano wa vyaru viŵiri na cimoza (COP21) uwo ukacitikira ku Paris, Idriss Déby wakazunura nkhani ya Nyanja ya Chad, iyo yikaŵa pacoko comene pakuyaniska na umo yikaŵira mu 1973, ndipo wakapempha caru cose kuti cipeleke ndalama zakovwilira kuvikilira vyamoyo ivi.

Mu February 2016, Déby wakasankhika na Patriotic Salvation Movement kuti wazakaŵepo pa nyengo yinyakhe pa chisankho cha Pulezidenti mu April 2016. Iyo wakalayizga kuti waŵikengeso mphaka mu Dango la Chadi apo wakati: "Tikwenera kukanizga mphaka, tileke kuŵika mtima pa ndondomeko iyo kusintha kwa mazaza kukuŵa kwakusuzga. "Mu 2005, boma likasintha malango gha caru ici apo umoyo wa ŵanthu ukaŵa pangozi".

Mu 2017, Dipatimenti ya vya Malango ya United States yikati Déby wakapokera vimbundi vya madola gha 2 miliyoni chifukwa cha kupeleka mwaŵi ku kampani ya People's Republic of China kuti yiŵe na wanangwa wa mafuta mu Chad kwambura mpikisano wa pa caru cose.

Mu Janyuwale 2019, Déby na nduna yikuru ya Israeli Benjamin Netanyahu ŵakapharazga kuti Chad na Israel ŵambeso kwenderana. Netanyahu wakalongosora za ulendo wake wa ku Chad nga ni "cigaŵa ca kusintha uko tikuwona mu caru ca ma Arab na Muslim".[32]

Muma 2020[lemba | kulemba source]

Marshal Idriss Déby Itno mu 2020

Mu 2020, Déby wakalemba dango lakulekeska chilango cha nyifwa. Gulu lakuphalirako ŵanthu likaŵa kuti lagwiliskirika nchito kaumaliro pa vigeŵenga mu 2015.[33]

Mu Febuluwale 2021, Déby wakapharazga kuti Chadi watumenge ŵasilikari 1,200 pamoza na ŵasilikari ŵa France ku mphaka ya Sahel pakati pa Niger, Mali, na Burkina Faso, kuti ŵarwe na magulu gha al-Qaeda.[34]

Mu 2021 presidential election, Déby wakathereska nyengo yake ya 6 nga president, apo ma results ghakapharazgika pa 19 April, na 79.32% ya mavoti. Mu Febuluwale chaka chenechichi, ŵasilikari ŵa Chadi ŵakayezga kukora mulongozgi wa chipani chakususka, Yaya Dillo Djérou, ndipo Djérou wakati ŵanthu 5 ŵa mu mbumba yake ŵakakomeka, ndipo boma likati ŵanthu ŵatatu ŵakakomeka. Ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakasuskanga boma ŵakafumako ku mavoti, ndipo ŵakachiska kuti mavoti ghaleke kuwungana. M'malo mwa kuyowoya nkhani ya kuwina, Déby wakaluta kukacezga na ŵasilikari ŵa Chadi awo ŵakaŵa ku mphepete mwa nkhondo iyo yikacitikanga na gulu lakucemeka Front for Change and Concord mu Chad. Ŵakaphalirika kuti wakapwetekeka comene mu muzi wa Mele, kufupi na tawuni ya Nokou, pa Sabata, Epulero 18, ndipo wakatolekera ku msumba ukuru, uko wakafwira pa Epulero 20.[35][36]

Umoyo wamunthu[lemba | kulemba source]

Déby wakasazgirako zina lakuti "Itno" ku zina lake mu Janyuwale 2006. Wakafuma ku wupu wa Muammar Gaddafi wakuwona vya kusintha kwa vinthu pa caru cose..[37]

Déby wakaŵa na ŵanakazi ŵanandi ndipo wakaŵa na ŵanakazi ŵanayi kufika mu 2018 Zina Wazouna Ahmed Idriss, Hadja Halimé, Hinda Déby Itno (m. 2005), na Amani Musa Hila (m. 2012). BBC News nayo yikayowoyapo za muwoli wacinayi zina lake Ali Bouye. Déby wakaŵa na ŵana pafupifupi 12.

Mu Seputembala 2005, Déby wakatora Hinda (wakababika mu 1977), uyo wakamanyikwanga na kutowa kwake. Nthengwa iyi yikakondweska ŵanthu ŵanandi mu Chad, ndipo chifukwa cha kukolerana na mafuko, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakawonanga kuti ni nthowa yiwemi yakuti Déby wakhozgerenge ŵanthu ŵake apo ŵakugaluka ŵakamuchichizganga. Nangauli wakaŵa muwoli mulara yayi panji muphya wa Déby, kweni Hinda Déby wakawonekanga kuti ni "Mwanakazi Wakwamba wa Chad" cifukwa ca mazaza ghake mu boma na ndyali. Hinda wakaŵa yumoza wa ŵanthu ŵa mu ofesi ya pulezidenti, ndipo wakaŵa Secretary Special. Mwana wa mwanalume wakuzirwa wa Chadian, Hinda Déby Itno wali na wanangwa wa Chadian na French. Iyo na Déby ŵakaŵa na ŵana ŵankhondi, wose ŵakababikira ku Neuilly-sur-Seine.[38]

Pa 21 Janyuwale 2012, Déby wakatora muwoli wake wa sonosono, Amani Musa Hila, wa ku Sudan, wa fuko la Zaghawa la Idriss Déby, na mwana wa mulongozgi wa Janjaweed, Musa Hilal ku Darfur.[3][39] Ukwati uwu ukawonekanga kuti ni nthowa yakukhozgeramo ubwezi pakati pa Chad na Sudan pamanyuma pa phangano la 2010 la kunozga ubwezi wawo.

Pa Julayi 2, 2007, mwana wa Déby, Brahim, ŵakamusanga wakufwa wa vyaka 27 mu malo ghakupakira magalimoto gha mu nyumba yake kufupi na Paris. Kuyana na lipoti la kupima thupi la munthu uyu, wakwenera kuti wakafwa na maji ghatuŵa agho ghakafuma mu chakubisira moto. Ŵapolisi ŵa ku France ŵakamba kufumiska mulandu wa kukoma munthu. Brahim wakaŵa kuti wafumiskikapo pa udindo wake wa kuŵa wakupeleka fundo kwa pulezidenti chaka chimoza kumasinda, wati wapika mulandu wa kuŵa na minkhwala na vilwero. Blogger Makaila Nguebla wakulongosora kuti ŵalongozgi ŵanandi ŵa boma la Chadi ŵafumako ku boma chifukwa cha ukali uwo ŵakaŵa nawo chifukwa cha nkharo ya Brahim. Wakaŵatimbanga nduna za boma, ndipo ŵalaraŵalara ŵa Chadi ŵakakhozgeka soni na mwana wa Déby". Mu Julayi 2011, ŵanalume ŵanayi ŵakaŵasanga na mulandu wa "kwiba kwambura kukhumba kukoma munthu".

Déby wakaŵa Muislamu.

Kufwa pa nkhondo.[40]

Kufwa mu nkhondo[lemba | kulemba source]

Déby wakakomeka mu Epulero 2021 apo wakalongozganga ŵasilikari awo ŵakarwanga na ŵakugaluka ŵa Front for Change and Concord in Chad (FACT). Kuyana na wakuyowoya mazgu wa wupu wa ŵasilikari, Déby wakafwa na kupwetekeka na futi pa 20 Epulero 2021 apo wakalongozganga ŵasilikari ŵake kwimikana na ŵakugaluka ŵa FACT kumpoto kwa Chad pa nyengo ya nkhondo ya ku Northern Chad, apo wakaŵa na vyaka 68.[41][42][43][44] Kuyana na uyo wakadumbanga vya ŵakugaluka, wakapwetekeka comene mu muzi wa Mele, kufupi na tawuni ya Nokou, pambere ŵandamuyeghere ku msumba ukuru, uko wakafwira.[45]

Pa nyifwa yake, Nyumba ya Malamulo na Boma la Chadi vikamara, ndipo mu malo ghake pakaŵa wupu wa Transitional Military Council uwo mwana wake Mahamat Déby Itno ndiyo wakaŵa mulongozgi.[46][47][42] Kweniso, Dango la Chadi likamara kugwira ntchito ndipo likasinthika na dango liphya. Boma likalangura kuti ŵanthu ŵaŵe na citengero kwa mazuŵa 14 na ndembera zakukhizgika pasi.[48][49] Ku Mali na South Sudan, ŵanthu ŵakamba kulira kwa mazuŵa ghatatu.

Dindi la Déby likacitika pa 23 Epulero 2021. Pa zuŵa ili, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakawungana mu misewu ya ku N'Djamena kuti ŵachindike Déby. Pulezidenti wa France Emmanuel Macron, Pulezidenti wa Guinea Alpha Condé, na ŵalongozgi ŵanyake ŵa ku Africa ŵakiza pa nyifwa iyi.[50][51][52]

Wonaniso[lemba | kulemba source]

Notes[lemba | kulemba source]

  1. Arabic: إدريس ديبي Idrīs Daybī Itnū

Ukaboni[lemba | kulemba source]

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Vigaŵa vya kuwalo[lemba | kulemba source]

Mphala za ndale
Kujumphika na President of Chad
1990–2021
Kupokela 
Mahamat Déby
(Transitional)
Diplomatic posts
Kujumphika na Chairperson of the African Union
2016–2017
Kupokela 

Template:ChadPres