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Hissène Habré

Kufuma Wikipedia

Hissène Habré
حسين حبري
Habré during a visit to the United States in 1987
5th President of Chad
Nyengo:
7 June 1982 – 1 December 1990
Prime Minister Djidingar Dono Ngardoum (1982)
Kupokela Goukouni Oueddei
Kuwiska na Idriss Déby
1st Prime Minister of Chad
Nyengo:
29 August 1978 – 23 March 1979
Kupokela François Tombalbaye (of French Chad)
Kuwiska na Djidingar Dono Ngardoum
Umoyo wamunthu
Kubabika (1942-08-13)13 August 1942
Faya-Largeau, French Chad, French Equatorial Africa
Kufwa 24 August 2021(2021-08-24) (vyaka vikaŵa 79)
Dakar, Senegal[1]
Malo ghakuŵikika Yoff Muslim cemetery
Chipani
Nthengwa Fatime Raymonde[2]
Sukulu
Religion Muslim
Military service
Allegiance  Chad
Service/branch Chadian Armed Forces
Vyaka mukugwila 1972–1990
Battles/wars

Hissène Habré (Arabic: حسين حبري Ḥusaīn ḤabrīChadian Arabic: pronounced [hiˈsɛn ˈhabre]; French pronunciation: ​[isɛn abʁe]; 13 August 1942 – 24 August 2021),[1]wakaŵa wandale wa ku Chad ndipo wakaŵa wa mulandu wa nkhondo. Wakaŵa purezidenti wa 5 wa charu cha Chad kwambira mu 1982 mpaka apo wakawuskikira mu 1990.

Munthu uyu wakaŵa Musulumani ndipo wakaŵa wa ku Northern Chad. Chifukwa cha mphindano na Goukouni Oueddei, Habré na gulu lake la ŵasilikari ŵakugaluka ŵakajipeleka kwa Felix Malloum. Kufuma apo, Habré wakapika udindo wa Minisita wa vya Vyankhondo mu boma liphya la Tchad, ndipo Oueddei wakaŵa purezidenti. Mwaluŵiro ubwezi wawo ukamara, ndipo ŵasilikari ŵa Habré ŵakawuskapo Oueddei mu 1982.

Wakati waŵa pulezidenti muphya wa caru ici, Habré wakambiska muwuso wa wupu umoza uwo ukawusikanga na wupu wake wa National Union for Independence and Revolution. Wakafika pa mazaza na wovwiri wa France na United States, awo ŵakapeleka masambiro, vilwero, na ndalama mu nyengo yose ya muwuso wake cifukwa cakuti wakasuskanga Muammar Gaddafi mulongozgi wa ku Libya.[3] Wakalongozga chalo mu nyengo ya nkhondo ya ku Libya na Chad, ndipo wakatonda nkhondo ya Toyota kufuma mu 1986 mpaka 1987 na wovwiri wa France. Pakati pajumpha vyaka vitatu, Idriss Déby wakathereska Tchad mu 1990 ndipo wakachimbilira ku Senegal.

Mu Meyi 2016, khoti la pa charu chose ku Senegal likasanga Habré na mulandu wa kuswa wanangwa wa ŵanthu, kusazgapo kuzgeriska, kugwiliska ntchito za uzga, na kukoma ŵanthu 40,000, ndipo ŵakamuphalira kuti wakakhale mu jele umoyo wake wose. Wakaŵa mutu wa boma wakwamba uyo wakeruzgika na khoti la caru cinyake cifukwa ca kuswa wanangwa wa ŵanthu. Wakafwa pa 24 August 2021, pamanyuma pa kuyezga kuti wali na COVID-19.[4][5]

Umoyo[lemba | kulemba source]

Habré wakababika mu 1942 ku Faya-Largeau, kumpoto kwa charu cha Chad. Wakaŵa wa fuko la Anakaza la fuko la Daza Gourane, ilo nalo ni fuko la fuko la Toubou. Wakati wamalizga masambiro ghake gha ku pulayimale, wakasanga nchito mu boma la France, ndipo wakakondweska ŵalara ŵake. Wakamalizga masambiro gha ku yunivesite mu Paris, ndipo wakawelera ku Chad mu 1971. Kweniso wakasanga madigiri ghanyake ghanandi na kupokera digiri ya udokotala. Pamanyuma pa nyengo yichoko waka yakuteŵetera boma nga ni Deputy Prefect, wakaluta ku Tripoli na kunjira gulu la National Liberation Front of Chad (FROLINAT) uko wakazgoka mulongozgi wa Second Liberation Army ya FROLINAT pamoza na Goukouni Oueddei. Abba Siddick wati watora mazaza gha FROLINAT, Second Liberation Army, pakwamba pasi pa Oueddei ndipo pamanyuma pa Habré, yikapatukana na FROLINAT ndipo yikazgoka Council of Command of the Armed Forces of the North (CCFAN). Mu 1976 Oueddei na Habré ŵakakwesana ndipo Habré wakapatura gulu lake liphya la Armed Forces of the North (Forces Armées du Nord panji FAN) ku ŵalondezgi ŵa Goukouni awo ŵakamba kucemeka People's Armed Forces (Forces Armées Populaires panji FAP).

Habré wakamba kumanyikwa pa caru cose apo gulu ilo wakaŵa mulongozgi wake likawukira tawuni ya Bardaï ku Tibesti, pa Epulero 21, 1974, na kutora ŵanthu ŵatatu ŵa ku Europe kuŵa ŵakayidi. Munthu uyo ŵakamukora wakaŵa dokotala wa ku Germany, Dr. Christoph Staewen (uyo muwoli wake Elfriede wakakomeka), na ŵanthu ŵaŵiri ŵa ku France, Françoise Claustre, uyo wakumanya vya mipukutu yakale, na Marc Combe, uyo wakugwira ntchito yakovwira ŵanthu. Pa Juni 11, 1974, Staewen ŵakamufumiska pamanyuma pakuti ŵasilikari ŵa ku West Germany ŵamupa ndalama zinandi.[6][7][8]Combe wakacimbira mu 1975, kweni nangauli boma la France likacitapo kanthu, Claustre (uyo mfumu wake wakaŵa mulara wa boma la France) wakafwatulika pa 1 Febuluwale 1977. Habré wakapatukana na Oueddei, cifukwa ca nkhani iyi (iyo yikamanyikwa kuti "nkhani ya Claustre" mu France).[9]

Kuŵa na mazaza[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu Ogasiti 1978 Habré wakapika maudindo gha Prime Minister wa Chad na Vice President wa Chad nga ndi chigaŵa cha mgwirizano na Gen. Ndipouli, phangano la kugaŵikana mazaza likamara yayi. Mu Febuluwale 1979, ŵasilikari ŵa Habré na ŵasilikari ŵa Malloum ŵakarwa nkhondo mu N'Djamena. Nkhondo iyi yikapangiska kuti charu cha Chad chileke kuŵa na boma. Vyaru vinyake vikayezga nthowa zinandi kuti vimazge suzgo ili, ndipo mu Novembala 1979 boma liphya likapangika, ndipo Habré wakasankhika kuŵa nduna ya vyavikiliro. Mu Disembala 1980, Habré wakatolekera ku Sudan.:354 Mu 1982, wakambaso kulimbana na boma la Chad. FAN yikapoka mazaza pa N'Djamena mu Juni ndipo yikimika Habré kuŵa mulongozgi wa boma.[9]:30, 151

Kulamula[lemba | kulemba source]

Ronald Reagan na Habré ku White House

Habré wakawusa mu charu cha Chad kwambira mu 1982 m'paka mu 1990 apo Idriss Déby wakamulekeska. Ufumu wa chipani chimoza wa Habré, nga umo ukaŵira na maparita ghanyake ghakale, ukaŵanga na kuswa wanangwa wa ŵanthu. Wakakana kukoma na kutambuzga ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakamususkanga, nangauli mu 2012, khoti la United Nations' International Court of Justice (ICJ) likalangura kuti Senegal yimweruzge panji kumupeleka ku caru cinyake.

Wakati wafika pa mazaza, Habré wakambiska gulu la ŵapolisi lakucemeka Documentation and Security Directorate (DDS). Ŵanyake mwa nthowa izo DDS yikugwiliskira nchito pakusuzga ŵakayidi ni kuwotcha mathupi ghawo na vinthu vyakugolera, kuŵapopera gasi mu maso, makutu na mphuno, kuŵachichizga kumira maji, na kuŵachichizga kuti ŵajumphe milomo yawo mu viŵiya vya galimoto. Boma la Habré likacitangaso vyakukanizga ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake nga ni Sara, Hadjerai na Zaghawa, kukoma na kukora ŵanthu ŵanandi para ŵawona kuti ŵalongozgi ŵawo mbakofya ku boma.

Habré wakacimbira na ndalama za boma zakukwana $11 miliyoni, kuya ku Senegal pamanyuma pa kuwuskika mu 1990. Wakaŵikika mu jele mu 2005 mpaka apo wakakakikira mu 2013. Wakasoleka na milandu ya nkhondo na kutambuzga ŵanthu mu vilimika vinkhondi na viŵiri ivyo wakaŵira pa mazaza mu Chad, uko magulu ghakuvikilira wanangwa wa ŵanthu ghakuti ŵanthu pafupifupi 40,000 ŵakakomeka. Wupu wakuwona vya wanangwa wa ŵanthu (Human Rights Watch) ukuti ŵanthu 1,200 ŵakakomeka ndipo 12,000 ŵakayuzgika, ndipo wupu unyake wa ku Chad ukati ŵanthu 40,000 ŵakakomeka ndipo ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 200,000 ŵakayuzgika. Human Rights Watch pamanyuma pake yikati Habré ni "Pinochet wa ku Africa".[10][11][12]

Nkhondo na Libya[lemba | kulemba source]

Idriss Deby, uyo wakanjira mu malo gha Habré, uyo wakaŵa mulongozgi wa ŵasilikari pa nyengo ya nkhondo ya Chadi na Libya, wakakomeka myezi yinayi pambere Habre wandafwe.

Mu Julayi 1980, charu cha Libya chikapoka charu cha Chad na kupoka chigaŵa cha Aozou. Boma la United States na la France likapokelera wovwiri wa Chadi kuti likanizge ŵanthu ŵa mu charu cha Libya awo ŵakaŵa na mtima wa kuwukira boma la Muammar al-Gaddafi.:354

Mu 1980, boma la umoza likasazga phangano la ubwezi na kukolerana na Libya. Phangano ili likazomerezga boma la Chadi kupempha wovwiri ku Libya usange wanangwa wa Chadi uli pangozi.:191 Gulu la ŵasilikari la ku Libya likamba kovwira ŵasilikari ŵa boma, awo ŵakalongozgekanga na Goukouni. Mu 1983, ŵasilikari ŵa ku Libya ŵakawelera ku Chad ndipo ŵakakhalira mu charu ichi, kovwira ŵasilikari ŵa Goukouni, mpaka mu 1988.:193?? 198:354?? 356

Nangauli boma la Habré likathereska ŵalwani ŵake, kweni likaŵa na nkhongono yayi. Mu Novembala 1990, ŵakugaluka awo ŵakalongozgekanga na Idriss Déby, uyo wakaŵa mulara wa ŵasilikari ŵa ku Zaghawa, ŵakathereska ŵasilikari ŵa Habré. Ŵafarisi ŵakasankha kuleka kovwira Habré pa nyengo iyi, ndipo ŵakamulekeska ntchito. Ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakughanaghana kuti chifukwa icho charu cha France chikagwenthera ku Tchad chikaŵa chakuti chindanjirepo pa nkhondo izo zikaŵa mukati mwa charu cha Chad. Ŵanyake ŵakukhorwa yayi na ivyo Habré wakachita chifukwa chakuti wakakhumba yayi kuchita vinthu mwakukolerana na vyaru vinandi. Habré wakacimbilira ku Cameroon, ndipo ŵakugaluka ŵakanjira mu N'Djamena pa 2 Disembala 1990; Habré wakaluta ku Senegal.[13]

Wovwiri wa United States na France[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1980, United States yikaŵa na udindo ukuru pakuwuska Hissène Habré ku mazaza, ndipo yikamuwona kuti ni munthu wakujivikilira mwachikanga kuti Muammar Gaddafi wa ku Libya waleke kusazgikira, ntheura yikapeleka wovwiri wa usilikari ku gulu lake na ku boma lake, nangauli boma ili likacitanga viheni vikuru na vyakukhozga wanangwa wa ŵanthu.

Human Rights Watch[14]

United States na France vikawovwira Habré, ndipo vikamuwona kuti ni munthu wakuvikilirika ku boma la Gaddafi ku Libya. Mu nyengo ya Pulezidenti Ronald Reagan, boma la United States likapeleka wovwiri ku CIA kuti wawovwire Habré kutora mazaza. Boma la United States likagwiliskiraso nchito msasa unyake mu caru ca Chad kusambizga ŵasilikari ŵa ku Libya awo ŵakakoleka.

Donald Norland, uyo wakaŵa thenga la United States ku Chad kwambira mu 1979 m'paka 1981, wakati: "Nkhukayika usange CIA yikamanya ivyo vikacitikanga. Kweni pakaŵavya kudumbiskana za ndondomeko iyi, kweniso tikaŵavya kuyowoyapo usange ivyo tikachita vikaŵa vyavinjeru".

Malipoti agho Human Rights Watch yikasanga ghakulongora kuti boma la United States likapeleka masambiro, mauthenga gha mu charu, vilwero, na wovwiri unyake ku gulu la DDS la Habré nangauli likamanyanga uheni uwo likachitanga. Mabuku agho ghakasangika mu mabuku gha DDS ghakulongosora umo ŵasambizgi ŵa boma la United States ŵakasambizgiranga ŵantchito ŵa DDS. Kuyana na Chadian Truth Commission, United States yikapelekaso DDS wovwiri wa ndalama mwezi uliwose ndipo yikagwiliskira nchito ndalama zakwendeskera maofesi gha vyenjezgo agho ghakacemekanga kuti "Mosaic" agho Chad yikagwiliskiranga nchito pakulondezga ŵanthu awo ŵakaghanaghananga kuti ŵakususka boma la Habré nangauli ŵakachimbira mu caru.

Mu cihanya ca 1983, apo Libya wakawukira kumpoto kwa Chad ndipo wakakhumbanga kuwuskapo Habré, France yikatuma ŵasilikari ŵa parachute na wovwiri wa mu mphepo, apo boma la Reagan likapeleka ndege ziŵiri za AWACS kuti ziwovwire ŵanthu. Kuzakafika mu 1987, ŵasilikari ŵa Gaddafi ŵakawerako.

Mulara munyake wa boma la United States wakati: "Habré wakaŵa munthu wavinjeru comene ndipo wakamanyanga makora umo wangacitira vinthu na ŵanthu ŵa mu caru. Kweniso wakaŵa munthu wankhaza na wakusuzga. Tingayowoya kuti tikamanyanga uyo wakaŵa na ivyo wakachitanga, kweni tikamuleka waka".[3]

Milandu[lemba | kulemba source]

Kuyowoya vya kuswa malango[lemba | kulemba source]

Magulu ghakuvikilira wanangwa wa ŵanthu ghakuwona kuti Habré ndiyo wakakoma ŵanthu ŵanandi, kweni unandi wawo ukumanyikwa yayi. Pa ŵanthu awo ŵakakomeka pakaŵa ŵanthu ŵa mafuko ghanyake kumwera (1984), ŵa Hadjerai (1987), na ŵa Zaghawa (1989). Wupu wa Human Rights Watch ukamupa mulandu wakuti wakazomerezga kuti ŵanthu masauzandi ghanandi ŵakomeke na kutambuzgika. Habré ŵakamucemanga kuti "Pinochet wa ku Africa", pakuyowoya za Augusto Pinochet, muwusi wa ku Chile. Habre wakasayinanga yekha vyeruzgo vya nyifwa na kulaŵilira vyakuyuzga ŵanthu, ndipo ŵakamusanga na mulandu wa kunjilirapo pa kutambuzga ŵanthu na kuŵakolelera. Kuyana na nkhwantha zinyake, khoti ilo likweruzga mulandu uwu likaŵa "khoti la caru cose", nangauli ndilo likaŵa 'likuru comene' pa makhoti ghose".

Boma la Idriss Déby likakhazikiska Commission of Inquiry into the Crimes and Misappropriations Committed by Ex-President Habré, His Complices and/or Accessories in 1990, ilo likati ŵanthu 40,000 ŵakakomeka, kweni likalondezga yayi ivyo likayowoya.[15][16][17][18][19]

Kuyezgayezga kwambiro (Initial trial attempts)[lemba | kulemba source]

Pakati pa 1993 na 2003, boma la Belgium likaŵa na dango lakuti ŵanthu wose ŵeruzgike (Loi belge des crimes de guerre) ilo likazomerezganga kuti ŵanthu awo ŵakuswa chomene wanangwa wa ŵanthu ŵeruzgike mu makhoti gha mu charu chawo kweniso gha pa charu chose. Nangauli dango ili likawuskikapo, kweni ŵapolisi ŵakalutilira na kusanda mulandu wa Habré, ndipo mu Seputembala 2005 ŵakamupa mulandu wa kuswa wanangwa wa ŵanthu, kutambuzga ŵanthu, na kuswa wanangwa wa ŵanthu. Ku Senegal, uko Habré wakaŵa ku wuzga kwa vilimika 17, ŵakamujalira mu nyumba yake ku Dakar.

Pa Malichi 17, 2006, Nyumba ya Malamulo ya ku Europe yikapempha Senegal kuti yipeleke Habré ku Belgium kuti wakeruzgike. Senegal wakapulikira yayi, ndipo pakwamba wakakana ivyo wupu wa African Union ukayowoya kuti waŵapeleke kwa iyo. Wupu wa Chadian Association for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights, ukazomerezga fundo iyi. Usange mphanyi ŵakamupeleka, mphanyi wakaŵa munthu wakwamba uyo charu chinyake chikamupeleka ku khoti chifukwa cha kuswa wanangwa wa ŵanthu. Mu 2007, boma la Senegal likakhazikiska khoti lakunozga la milandu ya nkhondo kuti limweruzge Habré. Pa Epulero 8, 2008, wupu wakuwona vya wanangwa wa ŵanthu wa ku Senegal ukazomerezga kusintha malango gha charu ichi kuti Habré wasangike na mulandu. Pa ungano wa wupu wa National Assembly na Senate mu Julayi 2008, ŵakazomerezga dango ilo likapeleka mazaza ku makhoti gha ku Senegal kuti gheruzgenge ŵanthu chifukwa cha milandu iyo ŵakacita mu vyaru vinyake kweniso milandu iyo ŵakacita vyaka vyakujumpha 10 kumasinda. Nduna ya vya Malango ya ku Senegal, Madicke Niang, yikimika ŵeruzgi ŵanayi.

Filimu ya mu 2007 ya Klaartje Quirijns, The Dictator Hunter, yikulongosora vya Souleymane Guengueng na Reed Brody, awo ŵakalongozga ntchito ya kuzenga mulandu Habré.[20][21][22]

Kuyezgeka ku Chad[lemba | kulemba source]

Pa 15 Ogasiti 2008, khoti la ku Chad likadumura kuti Habré wakomeke kwambura mulandu chifukwa cha milandu ya nkhondo na yakwimikana na wanangwa wa ŵanthu chifukwa cha ivyo ŵakamuyowoyera kuti wakagwiranga lumoza ntchito na ŵakugaluka mukati mwa Chad kuti wafumiske Déby. François Serres, loya wa Habré, wakasuska mulandu uwu pa Ogasiti 22 cifukwa cakuti ukaŵa wambura urunji ndiposo wachisisi. Kuyana na Serres, mulandu uwo upharazgi uwu ukajintha ukaŵa wambura kumanyikwa ndipo Habré wakapokera yayi uthenga uliwose wakukhwaskana na mulandu uwu.[23]

Kuyezgeka ku Senegal[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu 2008, boma la Senegal likasazgirako fundo yinyake iyo yikapeleka mwaŵi wakuti Habré weruzgike. Kweni pamasinda, boma la Senegal likasintha maghanoghano ghake, ndipo likapempha wovwiri wa ndalama zakujumpha 27 miliyoni za ku caru cose pambere ŵandambe kuyezga. Ici cikapangiska Belgium kuti wacimbizge khoti la International Court of Justice (ICJ) kuti liŵachichizge Senegal kuti wapeleke Habré ku Belgium panji kuti walutilire na mulandu wake. Khoti la ICJ likakana kupeleka mulandu uwu, ndipo likati para munthu waswa dango ili ndikuti wabuda. Boma la Senegal likasuskika cifukwa ca kuleka kufiska ivyo likakhumbanga pa nkhani ya ucigeŵenga, kweniso cifukwa ca kuleka kupeleka mulandu uwu ku ŵalara ŵa boma kuti ŵeruzgike. Khoti la ICJ likakana ivyo boma la Senegal likayowoya vyakuti ndarama ni zichoko kweniso kuti likususka malango gha mu charu.

Mu Novembala 2010, khoti la Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) likadumura kuti Senegal yingachita yayi mulandu uwu kwizira mu khoti la ku malo pera, ndipo likapempha kuti paŵe khoti lapadera lakweruzgira mulandu wa Habré. Mu Epulero 2011, Senegal yikakolerana kuti paŵe wupu wa ad hoc mu Africa, Chad, na vyaru vinyake.

Ndipouli, boma la Senegal likasintha maghanoghano ghake, ndipo likafumamo mu khoti ili pa Meyi 30, 2011 kwambura kulongosora. Komiti ya African Union pa nkhani ya Habré, pakunozgekera ungano wawo wakulondezgapo wa pa Juni 30, yikalemba lipoti ilo likapempha Senegal kuti yipeleke Habré ku Belgium.

Pa Julayi 8, 2011, ŵamazaza ŵa ku Senegal ŵakapharazga kuti Habré wazamumupeleka ku Chad pa Julayi 11, kweni ivi vikamara.[24] Mu Julayi 2012, khoti la ICJ likadumura kuti Senegal yambe kweruzga Habré "kwambura kuchedwa". Bungwe la Amnesty International likapempha boma la Senegal kuti lipulikire ivyo khoti la ICJ ladumura. Khoti la pa caru cose (ICC) likakana kweruzga mulandu uwu, cifukwa milandu iyi yikacitika pambere khoti ili lindambe kuwumbika mu 2002, ndipo likulongozga waka vinthu ivyo vikacitika pamanyuma pa nyengo iyi.

Mu Disembala 2012, Nyumba ya Malamulo ya ku Senegal yikapeleka dango lakuti mu Senegal mupangike khoti la ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yose kuti limweruzge Habre. Ŵeruzgi ŵa khoti ili ŵakwimikika na wupu wa African Union, ndipo ŵakufuma ku vyaru vinyake vya mu Africa.

Pa Juni 30, 2013, ŵapolisi ŵa ku Senegal ŵakamukora Habré ku Senegal. Pulezidenti wa Chadi, Idriss Déby, wakati kukakika kwake kukaŵa "nthowa yakulongozgera ku Africa uko kulije uheni uliwose, uko kulije maboma ghakupusa". Khoti la ku Senegal, ilo likakhazikiskika pamoza na wupu wa African Union, likamuphalira mulandu wa kusuzga ŵanthu. Mu caka ici, khoti la ku Chad likamuphalira kuti wakomeke cifukwa ca kuswa malango. Khoti ilo likeruzga mulandu wa Hissène Habré ku Senegal likuyowoyeka kuti lili na vinthu vinandi.

Pa Julayi 20, 2015, mulandu uwu ukamba. Apo wakalindiliranga kuti mulandu uwu wambike, Habré wakacemerezga kuti: "Ŵalwani ŵa boma ŵaparanyike. [Ceruzgo ici] nchinthu caucindere ico ŵandyali ŵa ku Senegal ŵakucita. Ŵapusikizgi ŵa ku Africa. Muteŵeti wa ku America". Kufuma apo, Habré ŵakamufumiska mu khoti ndipo mulandu ukayamba kwambura iyo. Pa Julayi 21, 2015, mulandu wa Habré ukasinthika kufika pa Seputembala 7, 2015, pamanyuma pakuti maloya ghake ghakana kwiza ku khoti.[25][26][27][28]

Khoti Lapadera ku Senegal Likatumizga Mulandu[lemba | kulemba source]

Pa 30 May 2016, makhoti gha ku Africa ghakasanga kuti Habré ngwakwananga cifukwa ca kucitiska uleŵi, uzga wa kugonana, na kuphalira ŵanthu 40,000 kuti ŵakomeke apo wakaŵa pulezidenti wa Chad ndipo ŵakamupa chilango cakuti wakhale mu jele la Cap Manuel ku Senegal umoyo wake wose. Uwu ukaŵa ulendo wakwamba kuti khoti lakuwovwirika na wupu wa African Union limare mulandu wa kuswa wanangwa wa ŵanthu wa munthu uyo kale wakaŵa mulongozgi wa charu chinyake.[19][29][30][18] Mu Meyi 2017, Mweruzgi Ougadeye Wafi wakakhozgera chilango cha umoyo wake wose kwa Habre pamoza na milandu yose iyo ŵakamupa, kupaturako wacigeŵenga. Khoti likati nkhani iyi yikakhwaska ndondomeko ya mulandu uwu, cifukwa cakuti ivyo mwanakazi uyu wakayowoya vikapelekeka mwakucedwa comene mwakuti vingaŵa nga ni mulandu wa nkhaza za kugonana izo ŵantchito ŵake ŵakacita. Pa 7 April 2020, mweruzgi ku Senegal wakapeleka kwa Habre myezi yiŵiri kuti waleke kukhala mu jele, pakuti jele ili likugwiliskirika nchito kuti ŵakayidi ŵaphya ŵa COVID-19 ŵaŵikikenge mu malo ghakupatulika. Wakati wafuma mu jele, wakawelera mu jele pa Juni 7.[31][32][33][34][35]

Nyifwa[lemba | kulemba source]

cHabré wakafwira ku Senegal pa 24 August 2021, sabata yimoza pamanyuma pa zuŵa lake lakubabikira la 79, wati wafika ku chipatala chikuru ku Dakar na nthenda ya COVID-19.[36][37] Wakalwara apo wakaŵa mu jele sabata yimoza kumasinda.[38] Mu mazgu, muwoli wa Habré, Fatimé Raymonne Habré, wakasimikizga kuti wali na COVID-19. Wakasungika mu dindi la Ŵasilamu la Yoff.[39][40]

Wonaniso[lemba | kulemba source]

Ukaboni[lemba | kulemba source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Chad's former President Habre, convicted of war crimes, dies in Senegal". Reuters. 24 Ogasiti 2021. Retrieved 24 Ogasiti 2021.
  2. "Hissène Habré is dead" (in American English). The Africa Report. 24 Ogasiti 2021. Retrieved 25 Ogasiti 2021.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Douglas Farah (27 Novembala 2000). "Chad's Torture Victims Pursue Habre in Court". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 Julayi 2012.
  4. "Sénégal : Hissène Habré est mort – Jeune Afrique". JeuneAfrique.com (in French). 24 Ogasiti 2021. Retrieved 24 Ogasiti 2021.
  5. "Décès en prison au Sénégal de l'ex-président tchadien Hissène Habré". Le Figaro (in French). 24 Ogasiti 2021. Retrieved 24 Ogasiti 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  6. "Entführung: Bedenkliches Zugeständnis aus Bonn: Diplomatische Beziehungen abgebrochen – Dr. Staewen berichtet über Gefangenschait im Tschad (Abduction: dubious sanction from Bonn: Diplomatic relations broken off – Dr. Staewen reported hostage in Chad)" (PDF). Das Ostpreußenblatt (in German). 6 Julayi 1974. p. 5.
  7. "Deutscher Rebellen-Funk". Der Spiegel (in German). 17 Juni 1974. Retrieved 3 Julayi 2012.
  8. "Zum Weinen". Der Spiegel (in German). 15 Sekutembala 1975. Retrieved 3 Julayi 2012.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Collelo, Thomas, ed. (1990) [December 1988]. A Country Study: Chad (PDF) (Second ed.). Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
  10. "Profile: Chad's Hissene Habre". BBC News. 3 Julayi 2006. Retrieved 3 Julayi 2012.
  11. "France to help try Chad ex-leader". BBC News. 27 Julayi 2007. Retrieved 3 Julayi 2012.
  12. "Africa's Pinochet" or the beginning of "Africa's solutions"? Al Jazeera
  13. Bernard Lanne, "Chad: Regime Change, Increased Insecurity, and Blockage of Further Reforms", Political Reform in Francophone Africa (1997), ed. Clark and Gardinier, page 274 (see also note 26).
  14. "Enabling a Dictator: The United States and Chad's Hissène Habré 1982-1990". Human Rights Watch. 28 Juni 2016. Retrieved 10 Disembala 2019.
  15. "Decree No. 014 /P.CE/CJ/90" (PDF). usip.org. 29 Disembala 1990. Retrieved 25 Ogasiti 2021.
  16. "Convicted ex-Chadian leader Hissène Habré dies at 79" (in British English). BBC News. 24 Ogasiti 2021. Retrieved 25 Ogasiti 2021.
  17. "Chad's Hissene Habre: Battle to bring 'Africa's Pinochet' to court". BBC News. 20 Julayi 2015. Retrieved 30 Meyi 2016.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Searcey, Dionne (30 Meyi 2016). "Hissène Habré, Ex-President of Chad, Convicted of War Crimes". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 Meyi 2016.
  19. 19.0 19.1 "Hissene Habre: Chad's ex-ruler convicted of crimes against humanity". BBC News. 30 Meyi 2016. Retrieved 30 Meyi 2016.
  20. Amy Goodman and Juan González (12 Juni 2008). ""The Dictator Hunter": Victims of US-Allied Chadian Dictator Hissene Habre Lead Quest to Bring Him to Justice". Democracy Now!. Retrieved 3 Julayi 2012.]
  21. "Sénégal: les députés modifient la Constitution pour juger Hissène Habré" (in French). Agence France-Presse. 8 Epulelo 2008. Archived from the original on 24 Janyuwale 2013. Retrieved 3 Julayi 2012.
  22. "Senegal amends constitution". News 24. Associated Press. 9 Epulelo 2008. Retrieved 3 Julayi 2012.
  23. "African Union: Press Senegal on Habré Trial", Human Rights Watch, 28 January 2009
  24. "Senegal suspends Hissene Habre's repatriation to Chad". BBC News. 10 Julayi 2011. Retrieved 3 Julayi 2012.
  25. "Trial of Chad's ex-dictator Habré adjourned to September 7". France 24. 21 Julayi 2015. Retrieved 24 Julayi 2015.
  26. "Chad's Hissene Habre forced to appear in court". BBC News. 21 Julayi 2015. Retrieved 24 Julayi 2015. The trial has been suspended until 7 September after Mr Habre and his lawyers refused to speak to the judge.
  27. Diadie Ba (21 Julayi 2015). "Trial of Chad's Habre suspended after boycott by his lawyers". Reuters. Retrieved 24 Julayi 2015.
  28. Thierry Cruvellier (27 Julayi 2015). "For Hissène Habré, a Trial by Refusal". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 Julayi 2015.
  29. Burke, Jason (30 Meyi 2016). "Hissène Habré trial provides model for international justice". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 Meyi 2016.
  30. Dewan, Angela; Swails, Brent (30 Meyi 2016). "Ex-Chad dictator sentenced to life for war crimes". CNN. Retrieved 30 Meyi 2016.
  31. "Sénégal : le Tchadien Hissène Habré regagne sa prison – Jeune Afrique". 7 Juni 2020.
  32. Press, Europa (8 Juni 2020). "Chad.- El expresidente de Chad Hissne Habré vuelve a prisión en Senegal tras el permiso por la COVID-19". www.notimerica.com.
  33. "Former Chadian strongman Hissene Habre returns to prison". 7 Juni 2020.
  34. Seelinger, Kim Thuy (10 Meyi 2017). "Hissène Habré's rape acquittal must not be quietly airbrushed from history". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 Disembala 2019.
  35. "Chad: Ex-president temporarily released from jail due to COVID-19". Al Jazeera. AFP news agency. 7 Epulelo 2020. Retrieved 7 Epulelo 2020.
  36. Maclean, Ruth; Camara, Mady (24 Ogasiti 2021). "Hissène Habré, Ex-President of Chad Jailed for War Crimes, Dies at 79". The New York Times (in American English). ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 25 Ogasiti 2021.
  37. "Chad's former president Hissène Habré dies at 79". France24. 24 Ogasiti 2021. Retrieved 24 Ogasiti 2021.
  38. "Chad's former President Hissene Habre dies of COVID aged 79". www.aljazeera.com (in English). Retrieved 24 Ogasiti 2021.
  39. "Sénégal : Hissène Habré enterré en l'absence de représentants officiels – Jeune Afrique". JeuneAfrique.com (in French). 27 Ogasiti 2021. Retrieved 30 Ogasiti 2021.
  40. "L'ancien président tchadien Hissène Habré est mort". Radio France International. 24 Ogasiti 2021. Retrieved 3 Sekutembala 2021.

External links[lemba | kulemba source]

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