Cuba

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Ripabuliki ya Cuba
Flag of Cuba.svg Coat of arms of Cuba.svg
CUB orthographic.svg
Vyose mwakudumula
Msumba wa boma: Havana
Msumba usani: Havana
Chiyowoyelo cha boma: Spanish
Viyowoyelo vinyake: Haitian Creole
English
Ulamulilo wa boma
Mlongozgi wa charu: Miguel Díaz-Canel
- Ŵachiŵili kwa mlongozi: Salvador Valdés Mesa
- Mphala ya malango: Esteban Lazo Hernández
- Nduna ya boma: Manuel Marrero Cruz
Vinyake
Ukulu wa malo: 109,884 km²
Ŵanthu: 11,113,215 (2021)
Maji: 0
Ndalama: Cuban peso (CUP)
Mtundu wa nyengo: CST
Nambala ya foni: [Nmabala za foni mu Cuba|+53]]
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Cuba (/ˈkjuːbə/ KEW-bə, Chiyowoyelo cha Spanish: [ˈkuβa], mwakuchemeka Ripabukili ya Cuba (Chiyowoyelo cha Spanish: República de Cuba [reˈpuβlika ðe ˈkuβa] ntchalo chakuzingilizgika na manji icho china Nkhaska ya Cuba,na Isla de la Juventud kweneso na tunkhunkha tuchoko tunandi uto tuli musi ,wake.Cuba wali ku mpoto kwa nyanja ikulu ya Caribbean ,Gulf ya Mexico,na nyanja ikulu ya Atlantic apo vikukumana.Cuba walikukhala za kumafumilo gha dazi gha Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico),kummwela kwa Nthavwa ya United States ya Florida na Bahamas,ku manjililo gha dazi gha Hispaniola (Haiti/Dominican Republic), na kumpoto kwa Jamaica na Cayman Islands.Havana ndiwo musumba ukulu kweneso msumba wa boma;kusazgapo misumba inyake nga ni Santiago de Cuba na Camagüey.Malo chaiwo gha charu cha Cuba ni 109,884 km2 (42,426 sq mi) (kwambula malo ghanyake gha maji).Nkhaska ikulu ya charu cha Cuba kweneso mu Caribbean ni Nthaska ya Cuba,iyo ina usani wa 104,556 km2 (40,369 sq mi).Cuba ntchalo chachiŵili chakumanyikwa mu Caribbean pafuma Haiti,na ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 11 miliyoni.Malo agha sono ghkuchemeka Cuba kale ghakaŵa malo gha ŵanthu wakuchemeka Ciboney Taíno kufuma mu chikwi chachinayi Pambele Yesu Wandababike mpaka apo charu cha Spain chikayamba kulamulila mu chikwi cha nambala 15.Kufuma chikwi cha nambala 15,Cuba wakaŵa mu maoko gha Spain kulekezga mu nkhondo ya Spanish–Americanmu 1898 apo Cuba wakakhalika na United States,ndipo wakayamba kujilamulila nga ni de facto United States mtchinjiliza mu 1902.Nga ni chalo chiteta ,mu 1940 Cuba wakayamba kunozga ulamulilo wake wa boma ,ndipo wakauskamo viphijo vyose mu boma lake mwakugaŵanika mu gula kweneso na kulongozgeka mu ulamumilo wa Fulgencio Batista mu 1952.

Chinyengo na kusuzgika mu ulamulilo wa Batista ukapangiska kuti wauskikepo pa mpando mu 1959 pa 26 Julayi uwo paumalilo ukayamba ulamulilo wa mdangilili zina lake Fidel Castro.Kufuma 1965,charu chikayamba kulamulilika na Chipani cha Communist ya Cuba.Charu ichi chikaŵaso pa vifukwa vya Nkhondo Yakuzizila pakati pa Soviet Union na United States ndipo bomba likulu lakofya la chivukula pafupi fupi likaphulika pa Cuban Missile Crisis ya 1962.Pa ulamulilo wa Castro,Cuba wakayamba kutola luwande lakukhwimiska chitetezo chake kupilila Afilika na Asia.Mwa mwambo,Cuba wakutoleka nga ngwachi Latin America.Ntchalo cha mwambo inandi.

Cuba ni yumoza mwa msangi wa United Nations , G77,Non-Aligned Movement, Organisation ya African, Caribbean na Pacific States, ALBA, na Organization ya American State.

Kwiza kwa zina

wonaniso : Ripabuliki ya Cuba (1902-1959)

Ŵalembi mbili ŵanandi ŵanachigomezgo kuti zina lakuti Cuba lilikufumila mu chiyowoyelo cha Taino nangauli vikumanyikwa chala kuti ghakatoleka ku mazgo ghakuti uli gha mu chiyowoyelo chenechicho.Ching'anamulo cha Cuba chikumanyikwa makola chala,nangauli mang'anamulilo ghanyake ghangaŵa ghakuti: "apo pali nthaka inandi" (cubao), panji "malo ghawemi"(coabana).Ŵalembi ŵanandi awo wakugomezga kuti Christopher Columbus wakaŵa mu Portuguese ŵakuyowoya zakuti Cuba wakathyeka na Columbus kuthya msumba wa Cuba mu boma la Beja ku Portugal.

Nyengo yakwamba ya Columbia

Chithuzi cha Hatuey, fumu yakale ya Taíno ya Cuba

Mu malo gha Caribbean,agho ni malo ghaumalilo ghakupona gha nyengo ya chiyamwaka iyo kukaŵa vinyama vikulu vikulu,vikakhalanga mu Cuba chomene pambele 2660 BCE (Pambele Fumu Yesu Indababike).Pambele ma Spanish ghandize,Cuba wakaŵa na mitundu iŵili ya ŵanthu ŵakwamba ŵa mtundu wachi Amelika : ŵanthu ŵa Taíno (kusazgapo ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Ciboney), na mtundu ŵanthu wa Guanahatabey.

Ŵapapi ŵa mtundu wa ŵanthu wa Taino wakafuma ku malo ghakulu gha Amelika Wakumpoto,kale chomene mu nyengo ya 5,000 BP(Siku lambula kukhazikiskika makola).Ŵa Taino ŵakiza kufuma ku Hispaniola mu nyengo inyake mu chikwi chachitatu A.D.(Fumu Yesu Yati Yafwa).Columbus wati wakafika wakasanga chiŵelengelo cha ŵanthu aŵa chakukwana 150,000 mu Cuba.

Vikumanyikwa chala za mizilo ya mtundu wa ŵanthu wa Guanahatabey mu Cuba kweneso kuti ka pakwamba ŵakaŵa na chiyowoyelo na mwambo mbu kuuskako wa Taino.Pali ganizo lakuti ŵagogo ŵa ŵagogo ŵawo ŵakaŵa ŵanthu ŵachi Taino ŵwakwamba ŵa Antilles Mukulu.

ŴaTaíno ŵakaŵa ŵalimi,wokola somba kweneso ŵakusola vipaso na kusaka nyama.

Ulamulilo wa Spanish (1492–1898)

Wati wiza pa nkhaska yakuchemeka Guanahani, Bahamas,pa 12 Okutobala mu chaka cha 1492, Christopher Columbus wakalamulila sitima zake zitatu : La Pinta, La Niña na Santa María,kusanga Cuba pa 27 Okutobala 11492,nakufika ku mpoto kwa mafumilo gha dazi mumphepete mwa nyanja pa 28 Okutobala.(Apa pakaŵa pafupi na Bariay, Chigaŵa cha Holguín.) Columbus wakatola nkhaska(Island) ya Ufumu Uphya wa Spain na kuuthya Isla Juana kutola zina la John, Fumu ya Asturias.

Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, conquistador wa Cuba

Mu 1511, chikhaze chakwamba cha Spanish chikasangika na Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar pa Baracoa.Vyakuzengeka vinyake vikayambapo kupangika,kusazgapo San Cristobal de la Habana,kusangika mu 1515, paumalilo ukaŵs msumba wa charu.Ŵanthu ŵa Taino ŵakachichizgika mwambula kukhumba kugwila ntchito yakuzenga malo,iyo ni nthowa yakukozgana na iyo ikachitikanga ku Yulaya.

Pati pajumpha vyaka 100,mtundu wa ŵanthu vakuchita kuŵasanga ukamala wose na vifukwa vingapo chomene matenda ghakuchita kwiza na ŵazungu,na kugwiliskana ntchito mwa ukapolo.

Mu 1529, nthenda ya measles mu Cuba iyo ikakoma ŵanthu awo ŵwakaŵa kuti ŵapona kale ku vinandi nga ni nthenda ya smallpox.

Pa 18 Meyi 1539, conquistador Hernando de Soto wakauka ulendo kufuma ku Havana na ŵalondezgi 600 kuya ku Amelika wa Kummwela kwa Mafumilo gha Dazi,kwambila Florida,kupeja malibwe gha golide,nkhongono na kumanyika,kweneso na vakuzilwa vinyake.treasure. Pa 1 Sekutembala 1548, Dr. Gonzalo Perez de Angulo wakasankhika kuŵa mlala wa boma(governor) la Cuba.Wakafika mu Santiago, Cuba, pa 4 Novembala 1549, nakwamba kukhazikiska umoza wa ŵanthu wose. Wakaŵa waboma wakwamba (governor ) kukhala ku Havanamumalo mwakukhala ku Santiago,ndipo wakazenga Tchalitchi lakwamba la Havana lakupangika na masonry.

Mlimo wakukhumba kujilamulila

Carlos Manuel de Céspedes kumanyikwaso kuti Dada wa Chikaya cha Cuba uyo wakatchaila nkhondo charu cha Cuba kuti chiyambe kujilamulila pachekha mu chaka cha 1868 kufuma mu ulamulilo wa charu cha Spain.
Calixto García, mlala wa Cuban separatist rebels kumalyelo) na U.S. Brigadier General William Ludlow (Cuba, 1898)

Kujilamulila kukulu kufuma mu nkhongono ya charu cha Spain chikaŵa chakulinga icho ŵanandi ŵakachitola ngati nkhudelela mu 1868 uko kukadangililika na mpandi Carlos Manuel de Céspedes. De Céspedes,mpandi zinde,wakafwatula ŵakapolo ŵake wose kuti ŵakamuvwile ku nkhondo kuthaska Cuba mu ulamulilo wa Spain.Pa 27 Disembala 1868,wakalemba chikalakala (kalata) chakuyowoya kuti waliyose uyo wana mukaplo wakuti wamuvwila ku nkhani ya nkhondo waŵe wakumasuka mu mayendelo,nangauli wachali kapolo.Vyakulondezga vya mu 1868 kukapangiska kuti kuŵe chongo chikulu kweneso chakumala nyengo itali chakuchemeka pa chingelezi 'Ten Years’ War'.

Chiŵelengelo chinandi cha ŵanthu ŵakukhumba kusintha wakufumila mu charu cha Dominican Republic na vyaru vinyakhe kweneso na ma Chinese ghakatolapo luwande pakujoina pa vyakuchitika.Charu cha United States chikakana kuzomelezga za kupangika kwa boma liphya la Cuba kusazgapo vyaru vinyake vya chilwa cha Yulaya na Latini Amelika (navoso vikakana).Mu 1878,Pact of Zanjón ukamazga vyongo ivi ,ndipo charu cha Spain chikalonjeza ntchindi na ubwezi na Cuba.

Mu 1879–1880 ,mutchaila ufulu chalo Calixto García wakayezgaso kuyambiska nkhond inyake iyo pa chingelezi ikachemeka kuti Little War kwene wakatondeka kupokela wovwili unandi wakufuma ku ŵanthu na magulu ghanyake.Ukapolo mu charu cha Cuba ukamala mu chaka cha 1875 nangauli kumala kwenecho kukaŵa mu 1886.Munthu wakudikizgika mu charu chake uyo wakizaso, zina lake José Martí wakayambiska chipani chakuchemeka Cuban Revolutionary Party mu New York mu 1892.Chilato cha chipani ichi kukaŵa kujitchaila nkhondo kuti charu cha Cuba chiukemo mu ulamulilo wa charu cha Spain.Mu Janyuwale,Martí wakaluta ku Monte Cristi na Santo Domingo mu charu cha Dominican Republic kukajoina vyakuchitika vya Máximo Gómez.

Martí wakalemba maganizo ghake gha vya ndale mu Manifesto of Montecristi.Kutchaya nkhondo na ŵasilikali ŵa Spain kukayamba pa 24 Febuluwale 1895,nangauli Marti wakatondeka kufika ku Cuba ndipo wakafika mu 11 Epulelo 1895.Marti wakakomeka mu nkhondo iyo pachizungu ikuchemeka Battle of Dos Rios pa 19 Meyi 1895.Nyifwa yake ikakhala mbili ya chikanga ya charu cha Cuba.

Mitundu ya Ŵanthu (Ethnoracial groups)

Wonaniso : ChiSpanish

Chiŵelengelo cha mitundu ya

ŵanthu mu 2012 (2012 Cuban census data)

MTUNDU CHIŴELENGELO
Ŵazungu (White) 64.1%
Ŵosazgikana (Mulatto) 26.6%
Ŵafipa (Black) 9.3%



Malo na vyachilengiwa vya Cuba

Chithuzi cha Cuba kulongola makhalilo

Wonaniso : Council Lakumanyikwa (Cuba)

Chilengiwa zina kakhalilo vyakulongosola
Kumpoto (on-shore) Punta Hicacos 23.20639°N 81.14556°W On Hicacos Peninsula
Kumpoto(off-shore) Cayo Cruz del Padre 23.27611°N 80.91056°W Part of Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago
Kumafumilo gha dazi Cape Maisí 20.20889°N 74.13361°W Pafupi na Maisí
Kumanjililo gha dzai Cape San Antonio 21.86083°N 84.95694°W On Guanahacabibes Peninsula
Kummwela Cape Cruz 19.82694°N 77.67500°W Pafupi na Niquero
Malo gha kasozo chomene Pico Turquino 19.98944°N 76.83583°W Malo gha Sierra Maestra, 1,974 m (6,476 ft)
Malo ghakukhila chomene sea level Caribbean na Nyanja ya Atlantic
Msumba ukulu Havana 23.13333°N 82.38333°W National capital, population 2,130,431
Msumba wakale chomene Baracoa 20.34861°N 74.51056°W Kusangika mu 1511

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Wonaniso