Cuba

Coordinates: 22°00′N 80°00′W / 22.000°N 80.000°W / 22.000; -80.000
Kufuma Wikipedia

22°00′N 80°00′W / 22.000°N 80.000°W / 22.000; -80.000

Ripabuliki ya Cuba
República de Cuba (Spanish)
A shield in front of a Fasces crowned by the Phrygian Cap, all supported by an oak branch and a laurel wreath
Mbendela Coat of arms
Chiluso: ¡Patria o Muerte, Venceremos!
("Homeland or Death, We Shall Overcome!")[1]
Nyimbo: La Bayamesa
("The Bayamo Song")[2]
Cuba shown in dark green
Msumba Waboma
kweneso Msumba Usani
Havana
Chiyowoyelo chaboma Spanish
Other spoken languages Haitian Creole
English
Mitundu ya Ŵanthu (2012)
Vipembezo
Mwenecharu Cuban
Mtundu wa Boma Unitary Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic[3]
 -  President and First Secretary[lower-alpha 1] Miguel Díaz-Canel
 -  Vice President Salvador Valdés Mesa
 -  Prime Minister Manuel Marrero Cruz
 -  National Assembly President Esteban Lazo Hernández
Independence from Spain and the United States
 -  Slaves rebellion
Declaration of Independence
11 March 1812
10 October 1868 
 -  War of Independence 24 February 1895 
 -  Recognized (Handed over to the United States from Spain) 10 December 1898 
 -  Republic declared (Independence from United States) 20 May 1902 
 -  Cuban Revolution 26 July 1953 – 1 January 1959 
 -  Current constitution 10 April 2019 
Ukulu wa Malo
 -  Malo 109,884 km2 (104th)
42,427 sq mi
 -  Maji (%) 0
Chiŵelengelo cha ŵanthu
 -  2022 estimate Neutral decrease 11,008,112[4] (84th)
 -  2021 census 11,113,215[5] (83rd)
 -  Density 101.8/km2 (80th)
263.6/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $254.865 billion[6]
 -  Per capita $22,237[6][7]
GDP (nominal) 2020 estimate
 -  Total Increase $107.352 billion[8] (60th)
 -  Per capita Increase $9,478[8] (84th)
Gini (2000)38.0[9]
medium
HDI (2021)Decrease 0.764[10]
high ·83rd
Ndalama Cuban peso (CUP)
Mtundu Wanyengo CST (UTC−5)
 -  Summer (DST) CDT (UTC−4)
Woko la galimoto right
Intaneti yacharu .cu

Cuba (/ˈkjuːbə/ KEW-bə, Chiyowoyelo cha Spanish: [ˈkuβa], mwakuchemeka Ripabukili ya Cuba (Chiyowoyelo cha Spanish: República de Cuba [reˈpuβlika ðe ˈkuβa] ntchalo chakuzingilizgika na manji icho china Nkhaska ya Cuba,na Isla de la Juventud kweneso na tunkhunkha tuchoko tunandi uto tuli musi ,wake.Cuba wali ku mpoto kwa nyanja ikulu ya Caribbean ,Gulf ya Mexico,na nyanja ikulu ya Atlantic apo vikukumana.Cuba walikukhala za kumafumilo gha dazi gha Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico),kummwela kwa Nthavwa ya United States ya Florida na Bahamas,ku manjililo gha dazi gha Hispaniola (Haiti/Dominican Republic), na kumpoto kwa Jamaica na Cayman Islands.Havana ndiwo musumba ukulu kweneso msumba wa boma;kusazgapo misumba inyake nga ni Santiago de Cuba na Camagüey.Malo chaiwo gha charu cha Cuba ni 109,884 km2 (42,426 sq mi) (kwambula malo ghanyake gha maji).Nkhaska ikulu ya charu cha Cuba kweneso mu Caribbean ni Nthaska ya Cuba,iyo ina usani wa 104,556 km2 (40,369 sq mi).Cuba ntchalo chachiŵili chakumanyikwa mu Caribbean pafuma Haiti,na ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 11 miliyoni. [11]

Chigaŵa icho sono chikuchemeka Cuba chikaŵa na ŵanthu ŵa Chiboney kwambira mu vyaka vya m'ma 4 B.C.E. na ŵanthu ŵa Guanahatabey na Taino. [12] Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1500, charu ichi chikaŵa mu ufumu wa Spain, ndipo mu 1886, ukapolo ukafumiskika. Charu ichi chikakhala mu ufumu wa Spain m'paka apo nkhondo ya Spain na America yikambira mu 1898. Mu 1940, charu cha Cuba chikapanga dango liphya la boma la charu ichi, kweni masuzgo gha ndyali ghakafika pachanya mu 1952 apo boma la Cuba likawukira boma la Fulgencio Batista, [13] Chipani ichi chikathereskeka mu Janyuwale 1959 na gulu la 26th July Movement pa nyengo ya Cuban Revolution, ilo pamanyuma likakhazikiska boma la chikomyunizimu pasi pa Fidel Castro. [14] [15][16] Charu ichi chikaŵa chakususkana chomene pa nyengo ya Nkhondo ya Charu cha Soviet Union na United States, ndipo nkhondo ya nyukiliya yikakhala pachoko kuti yambike pa nyengo ya Cuban Missile Crisis mu 1962. [17] Panyuma pa kupasuka kwa Soviet Union, Cuba wakasangana na suzgo likuru la vya cuma mu ma 1990, ilo likamanyikwa kuti nyengo yapadera. Mu chaka cha 2008, Fidel Castro wakafumapo pa udindo wake pamanyuma pa vyaka 49 vya kuwusa charu cha Cuba ndipo wakasintha na munung'una wake Raúl Castro.

Panyuma pa kupasuka kwa Soviet Union, Cuba wakasangana na suzgo likuru la vya cuma mu ma 1990, ilo likamanyikwa kuti nyengo yapadera. Mu chaka cha 2008, Fidel Castro wakafumapo pa udindo wake pamanyuma pa vyaka 49 vya kuwusa charu cha Cuba ndipo wakasintha na munung'una wake Raúl Castro. [18][19][20] Censorship ya nkhani (kuphatikizapo malire pa intaneti) njakusazgikira, [21][22][23] Ndipo nyuzipepara yakujiyimira payekha yikuyuzgika mu Cuba; [24] Wupu wa Reporters Without Borders ukuti charu cha Cuba nchimoza mwa vyaru viheni comene pa caru cose pa nkhani ya wanangwa wa mdauko. [25][26]

Kwiza kwa zina

wonaniso : Ripabuliki ya Cuba (1902-1959)

Ŵalembi mbili ŵanandi ŵanachigomezgo kuti zina lakuti Cuba lilikufumila mu chiyowoyelo cha Taino nangauli vikumanyikwa chala kuti ghakatoleka ku mazgo ghakuti uli gha mu chiyowoyelo chenechicho.Ching'anamulo cha Cuba chikumanyikwa makola chala,nangauli mang'anamulilo ghanyake ghangaŵa ghakuti: "apo pali nthaka inandi" (cubao), panji "malo ghawemi"(coabana).Ŵalembi ŵanandi awo wakugomezga kuti Christopher Columbus wakaŵa mu Portuguese ŵakuyowoya zakuti Cuba wakathyeka na Columbus kuthya msumba wa Cuba mu boma la Beja ku Portugal.

Nyengo yakwamba ya Columbia

Chithuzi cha Hatuey, fumu yakale ya Taíno ya Cuba

Mu malo gha Caribbean,agho ni malo ghaumalilo ghakupona gha nyengo ya chiyamwaka iyo kukaŵa vinyama vikulu vikulu,vikakhalanga mu Cuba chomene pambele 2660 BCE (Pambele Fumu Yesu Indababike).Pambele ma Spanish ghandize,Cuba wakaŵa na mitundu iŵili ya ŵanthu ŵakwamba ŵa mtundu wachi Amelika : ŵanthu ŵa Taíno (kusazgapo ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Ciboney), na mtundu ŵanthu wa Guanahatabey.

Ŵapapi ŵa mtundu wa ŵanthu wa Taino wakafuma ku malo ghakulu gha Amelika Wakumpoto,kale chomene mu nyengo ya 5,000 BP(Siku lambula kukhazikiskika makola).Ŵa Taino ŵakiza kufuma ku Hispaniola mu nyengo inyake mu chikwi chachitatu A.D.(Fumu Yesu Yati Yafwa).Columbus wati wakafika wakasanga chiŵelengelo cha ŵanthu aŵa chakukwana 150,000 mu Cuba.

Vikumanyikwa chala za mizilo ya mtundu wa ŵanthu wa Guanahatabey mu Cuba kweneso kuti ka pakwamba ŵakaŵa na chiyowoyelo na mwambo mbu kuuskako wa Taino.Pali ganizo lakuti ŵagogo ŵa ŵagogo ŵawo ŵakaŵa ŵanthu ŵachi Taino ŵwakwamba ŵa Antilles Mukulu.

ŴaTaíno ŵakaŵa ŵalimi,wokola somba kweneso ŵakusola vipaso na kusaka nyama.

Ulamulilo wa Spanish (1492–1898)

Wati wiza pa nkhaska yakuchemeka Guanahani, Bahamas,pa 12 Okutobala mu chaka cha 1492, Christopher Columbus wakalamulila sitima zake zitatu : La Pinta, La Niña na Santa María,kusanga Cuba pa 27 Okutobala 11492,nakufika ku mpoto kwa mafumilo gha dazi mumphepete mwa nyanja pa 28 Okutobala.(Apa pakaŵa pafupi na Bariay, Chigaŵa cha Holguín.) Columbus wakatola nkhaska(Island) ya Ufumu Uphya wa Spain na kuuthya Isla Juana kutola zina la John, Fumu ya Asturias.

Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, conquistador wa Cuba

Mu 1511, chikhaze chakwamba cha Spanish chikasangika na Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar pa Baracoa.Vyakuzengeka vinyake vikayambapo kupangika,kusazgapo San Cristobal de la Habana,kusangika mu 1515, paumalilo ukaŵs msumba wa charu.Ŵanthu ŵa Taino ŵakachichizgika mwambula kukhumba kugwila ntchito yakuzenga malo,iyo ni nthowa yakukozgana na iyo ikachitikanga ku Yulaya.

Pati pajumpha vyaka 100,mtundu wa ŵanthu vakuchita kuŵasanga ukamala wose na vifukwa vingapo chomene matenda ghakuchita kwiza na ŵazungu,na kugwiliskana ntchito mwa ukapolo.

Mu 1529, nthenda ya measles mu Cuba iyo ikakoma ŵanthu awo ŵwakaŵa kuti ŵapona kale ku vinandi nga ni nthenda ya smallpox.

Pa 18 Meyi 1539, conquistador Hernando de Soto wakauka ulendo kufuma ku Havana na ŵalondezgi 600 kuya ku Amelika wa Kummwela kwa Mafumilo gha Dazi,kwambila Florida,kupeja malibwe gha golide,nkhongono na kumanyika,kweneso na vakuzilwa vinyake.treasure. Pa 1 Sekutembala 1548, Dr. Gonzalo Perez de Angulo wakasankhika kuŵa mlala wa boma(governor) la Cuba.Wakafika mu Santiago, Cuba, pa 4 Novembala 1549, nakwamba kukhazikiska umoza wa ŵanthu wose. Wakaŵa waboma wakwamba (governor ) kukhala ku Havanamumalo mwakukhala ku Santiago,ndipo wakazenga Tchalitchi lakwamba la Havana lakupangika na masonry.

Mlimo wakukhumba kujilamulila

Carlos Manuel de Céspedes kumanyikwaso kuti Dada wa Chikaya cha Cuba uyo wakatchaila nkhondo charu cha Cuba kuti chiyambe kujilamulila pachekha mu chaka cha 1868 kufuma mu ulamulilo wa charu cha Spain.
Calixto García, mlala wa Cuban separatist rebels kumalyelo) na U.S. Brigadier General William Ludlow (Cuba, 1898)

Kujilamulila kukulu kufuma mu nkhongono ya charu cha Spain chikaŵa chakulinga icho ŵanandi ŵakachitola ngati nkhudelela mu 1868 uko kukadangililika na mpandi Carlos Manuel de Céspedes. De Céspedes,mpandi zinde,wakafwatula ŵakapolo ŵake wose kuti ŵakamuvwile ku nkhondo kuthaska Cuba mu ulamulilo wa Spain.Pa 27 Disembala 1868,wakalemba chikalakala (kalata) chakuyowoya kuti waliyose uyo wana mukaplo wakuti wamuvwila ku nkhani ya nkhondo waŵe wakumasuka mu mayendelo,nangauli wachali kapolo.Vyakulondezga vya mu 1868 kukapangiska kuti kuŵe chongo chikulu kweneso chakumala nyengo itali chakuchemeka pa chingelezi 'Ten Years’ War'.

Chiŵelengelo chinandi cha ŵanthu ŵakukhumba kusintha wakufumila mu charu cha Dominican Republic na vyaru vinyakhe kweneso na ma Chinese ghakatolapo luwande pakujoina pa vyakuchitika.Charu cha United States chikakana kuzomelezga za kupangika kwa boma liphya la Cuba kusazgapo vyaru vinyake vya chilwa cha Yulaya na Latini Amelika (navoso vikakana).Mu 1878,Pact of Zanjón ukamazga vyongo ivi ,ndipo charu cha Spain chikalonjeza ntchindi na ubwezi na Cuba.

Mu 1879–1880 ,mutchaila ufulu chalo Calixto García wakayezgaso kuyambiska nkhond inyake iyo pa chingelezi ikachemeka kuti Little War kwene wakatondeka kupokela wovwili unandi wakufuma ku ŵanthu na magulu ghanyake.Ukapolo mu charu cha Cuba ukamala mu chaka cha 1875 nangauli kumala kwenecho kukaŵa mu 1886.Munthu wakudikizgika mu charu chake uyo wakizaso, zina lake José Martí wakayambiska chipani chakuchemeka Cuban Revolutionary Party mu New York mu 1892.Chilato cha chipani ichi kukaŵa kujitchaila nkhondo kuti charu cha Cuba chiukemo mu ulamulilo wa charu cha Spain.Mu Janyuwale,Martí wakaluta ku Monte Cristi na Santo Domingo mu charu cha Dominican Republic kukajoina vyakuchitika vya Máximo Gómez.

Martí wakalemba maganizo ghake gha vya ndale mu Manifesto of Montecristi.Kutchaya nkhondo na ŵasilikali ŵa Spain kukayamba pa 24 Febuluwale 1895,nangauli Marti wakatondeka kufika ku Cuba ndipo wakafika mu 11 Epulelo 1895.Marti wakakomeka mu nkhondo iyo pachizungu ikuchemeka Battle of Dos Rios pa 19 Meyi 1895.Nyifwa yake ikakhala mbili ya chikanga ya charu cha Cuba.

Mitundu ya Ŵanthu (Ethnoracial groups)

Wonaniso : ChiSpanish

Chiŵelengelo cha mitundu ya

ŵanthu mu 2012 (2012 Cuban census data)

MTUNDU CHIŴELENGELO
Ŵazungu (White) 64.1%
Ŵosazgikana (Mulatto) 26.6%
Ŵafipa (Black) 9.3%


Wonaniso

Ukaboni

  1. "Cuban Peso Bills". Central Bank of Cuba. 2015. Archived from the original on 26 September 2018. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  2. "National symbols". Government of Cuba. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
  3. "The Constitution of the Republic of Cuba, 1976 (as Amended to 2002)" (PDF). National Assembly of People's Power. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
    For discussion of the 1992 amendments, see Domínguez 2003.
  4. "Cuba". The World Factbook (2023 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  5. "Indicadores Demográficos por provincias y municipios 2021" (in Spanish). Oficina Nacional de Estadística e Information República de Cuba. Retrieved 29 June 2022.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "World Bank GDP PPP 2015, 28 April 2017 PDF". Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  7. "World Bank total population of Cuba in 2015 (GDP PPP divided by Population data)". Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Basic Data Selection". United Nations. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  9. "Cuba grapples with growing inequality". Reuters. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
  10. "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  11. "Cuba profile: Facts". BBC News. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 22 Malichi 2023.
  12. Allaire, p. 678
  13. "Remarks of Senator John F. Kennedy at Democratic Dinner, Cincinnati, Ohio". John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. 6 October 1960. Archived from the original on May 4, 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  14. "Fidel Castro". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 June 2017. Castro created a one-party government to exercise dictatorial control over all aspects of Cuba's political, economic, and cultural life. All political dissent and opposition were ruthlessly suppressed
  15. Fernández, Gonzalo (2009). Cuba's Primer – Castro's Earring Economy. ISBN 9780557065738. The number of individuals who have been jailed or deprived of their freedom in labor camps over the 50 years of Castro's dictatorship is estimated at around 200,000
  16. Sand, Sonila (26 November 2016). "Cuba's hero and dictator, dead at 90". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on Aug 16, 2022.
  17. Parameters: Journal of the US Army War College. U.S. Army War College. 1977. p. 13.
  18. Levitsky, Steven; Way, Lucan A. (2010-08-16). Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes after the Cold War. Cambridge University Press. pp. 361–363. ISBN 978-1-139-49148-8.
  19. Lachapelle, Jean; Levitsky, Steven; Way, Lucan A.; Casey, Adam E. (2020). "Social Revolution and Authoritarian Durability". World Politics. 72 (4): 557–600. doi:10.1017/S0043887120000106. ISSN 0043-8871. S2CID 225096277.
  20. Hawkins, Darren (2001). "Democratization Theory and Nontransitions: Insights from Cuba". Comparative Politics. 33 (4): 441–461. doi:10.2307/422443. ISSN 0010-4159. JSTOR 422443.
  21. Stein, Elizabeth Ann (2016). "Information and Civil Unrest in Dictatorships". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.35. ISBN 978-0-19-022863-7.
  22. Impediments to Human rights in Cuban Law (Part III). Human Rights Watch. June 1999. ISBN 1-56432-234-3. Retrieved 7 August 2012. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  23. Moynihan, Michael C. (22 February 2008). "Still Stuck on Castro - How the press handled a tyrant's farewell". Reason.com. Archived from the original on 20 September 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2009.
  24. "62nd General Assembly Reports: Cuba". Inter American Press Association. 3 October 2006. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  25. "Press Freedom Index 2015", Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 12 November 2015
  26. "Press Freedom Index 2008" (PDF). Reporters Without Borders. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-03.


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