Jump to content

Chuma cha Afilika

This is a good article. Click here for more information.
Listen to this article
Kufuma Wikipedia

Economy of Afilika
Lagos ni msumba ukuru chomene mu Afilika.
Vyakuŵelenga
Unandi1.39 billion[1][2]
GDP
GDP rank
GDP growth
3.9% (2023 est.)[5]
GDP per capita
  • $2,260 (nominal; 2023 est)[6]
  • $6,370 (PPP; 2023 est)[7]
GDP per capita rank
12.4% (2023 est.)[8]
352,000 (2022)[9]
Public finances
62.4% of GDP (2023 est.)[10]
Most numbers are from the International Monetary Fund. IMF Africa Datasets

All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.

Chuma cha mu Africa ni malonda, vyamalonda, ulimi, na ŵanthu. Mu 2019, ŵanthu pafupifupi 1.3 biliyoni ŵakakhalanga mu vyaru 54 mu Africa. Africa ni caru ico cili na vinthu vinandi.[11][12] Kukula kwaposachedwapa kwachitika chifukwa cha kukwera kwa malonda, katundu, mautumiki, na kupanga.[13]Ku West Africa, East Africa, Central Africa, na Southern Africa, kuzakafika mu 2050 GDP yawo yizamuŵa $29 trillion.[14]

Mu Malichi 2013, Africa yikamanyikwa kuti ni caru cikavu comene pa caru cose; ndipouli, Banki ya Caru Cose yikukhazga kuti vyaru vinandi vya mu Africa vizamusanga ndalama zakukwana "pakati" (kusanga ndalama zakukwana $1,025 pa munthu yumoza pa cilimika) mu 2025 usange vinthu vikulutilira makora. Pali vifukwa vinandi ivyo vyapangiska kuti Afrika yiŵe na cuma ciheni: Nangauli mu nyengo yakale, caru ca Africa cikaŵa na maufumu ghanandi agho ghakalutanga ku vyaru vinyake, kweni ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakakhalanga ku mizi.[15]

Ndipouli, mu 2013 caru ca Africa cikaŵa na ŵanthu ŵanandi comene pa caru cose, ndipo ciŵelengero ici cikukwera na 5.6% pa caka. Mu 2017, African Development Bank yikati Africa ndiyo yikaŵa yaciŵiri pa vyaru ivyo vyakurya vikukura mwaluŵiro comene, ndipo yikati mu 2017, caru ici cizamukulirakulira pa 3,4%. Vyaru vinandi vya mu Africa vikukura, ndipo vyaru vyakujumpha pacitatu vya mu Africa vikukura na ciŵelengero ca 6% panji kujumpha apa. Ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakuwona vya malonda pa caru cose ŵakuti caru ca Africa ndico cizamuŵa cakukhumbikwa comene pa caru cose.[16]

Mbiri[lemba | kulemba source]

File:Market scene from the Old Kingdom of Egypt.jpg
Malo gha msika mu Ufumu Wakale: Ŵalendo ŵaŵiri ŵakunyamura mabokosi pa viŵegha vyawo, ndipo ŵakukayika usange muli visulo.

Kwa vyaka vinandi, vyaru vya mu Africa vikaŵa na vinthu vinandi ivyo vikendeskeka na malonda agho ghakachitikanga pakati pa misumba na maufumu. Misewu yinyake yikendanga pa mtunda, yinyake pa milonga, ndipo yinyake yikazingilizga misumba ya ku dowoko. Maufumu ghakurughakuru gha mu Africa ghakazgoka gha cuma cifukwa ca malonda ghawo, nga ni Eguputo wakale, Nubia, Mali, Ashanti, Ufumu wa Oyo na Carthage wakale.

Ndalama za ku Mogadishu

Vigaŵa vinyake vya mu Africa vikaŵa paubwezi wakukhora na maufumu gha Ŵaarabu, ndipo mu nyengo ya Ufumu wa Ottoman, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa mu Africa ŵakamba kuzgoka Ŵasilamu. Ivi vikapangiska kuti Ŵapwitikizi ŵalute ku vyaru vya kumwera kwa Sahara. Vinthu ivyo vikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵa mu vyaru vinyake ŵaŵe na vilato viphya vikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵa mu vyaru vinyake ŵaŵe na vilato viphya.[17]

Cinthu cinyake ico cikapangiska kuti vinthu vyendenge makora mu caru cikaŵa kuti ŵanthu ŵacekuru ŵakasanganga ndalama zinandi. Pakati pa virimika vya m'ma 1400 na 1900, ŵanthu ŵa mu vyaru ivyo vikaŵa na nkhaza zinandi na kufwa luŵiro, ŵakaŵavya ndalama zinandi zakusambizgira ŵanthu. Ntheura, unandi wa ŵanthu awo ŵakukhala mu vyaru ivi (pakuwona unandi wa ŵanthu awo ŵakukhala mu vyaru ivi) nguheni comene kuluska mu vyaru vinyake. Ivi vingapangiska kuti mu vyaru vya ku Africa muŵe mphambano ya umo vinthu vikuŵira.[18]

Nkhondo za m'ma 1900[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1900, mu vyaru vinandi vya mu Africa mukaŵa masuzgo gha vyachuma, ndyali, na vya ndyali. Ndipouli, mu vyaru vinyake vinthu vyamba kwenda makora mu vyaka vyasonosono apa.

Nyengo iyo vinthu vikendanga makora mu vyaru vya ku Africa (kwamba m'ma 2000) yikayaniskika na umo vinthu vikaŵira mu vyaru vya ku China mu vyaka vya m'ma 1970. Mu 2013, mu Africa mukaŵa vyaru vinkhondi na viŵiri ivyo vikaŵa na chuma chikuru chomene.

Kufika mu chaka cha 2018, Nigeria ndiyo yikaŵa na chuma chikuru chomene mu Africa pa GDP, ndipo yikulondezgana na South Africa. Charu cha Equatorial Guinea ndicho chili na GDP yikuru chomene pa charu chose cha Africa. Vyaru ivyo vili na mafuta ghanandi nga ni Algeria, Libya na Gabon, na Botswana ivyo vili na vinthu vinandi vyakuthupi vyafuma mu vyaru ivyo vili na cuma cikuru comene kwambira mu vyaka vya m'ma 2000, apo Zimbabwe na Democratic Republic of Congo ni vyaru ivyo vili na cuma cikuru comene pa caru cose, kweni vili kunjira mu gulu la vyaru vikavu comene cifukwa ca vimbundi, nkhondo, na kusama. Dziko la Botswana ndakumanyikwa cifukwa ca kukura kwa vinthu kwambura kumara kufuma apo likapokera wanangwa.[19][20]

Umo vinthu viliri sono[lemba | kulemba source]

Kampani ya National Cement Share ya ku Ethiopia yikupanga fakitale yiphya ku Dire Dawa

Wupu wa United Nations ukayowoyerathu kuti chuma cha Africa chizamukura na 3.5% mu 2018 na 3.7% mu 2019. Mu 2007, ciŵelengero ca ŵanthu mu vyaru vya ku Africa cikaluska ca ku East Asia. Malipoti ghakulongora kuti vigaŵa vinyake vya caru ici vikukura luŵiro comene cifukwa ca ivyo vikusanga na kukhazikika kwa ndyali. Wupu wa World Bank ukati chuma cha vyaru vya ku Africa kumwera kwa Sahara chikakura chomene kuluska charu chose. Kuyana na Dipatimenti ya vya Ndalama na Vya Umoyo wa Ŵanthu ya United Nations (UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs), vinthu vikwenda makora comene mu caru ici cifukwa cakuti ku Eguputo, Nigeria, na South Africa, uko ni vyaru vitatu vikuru comene mu Africa, vinthu vikwenda makora.

Charu cha Sub-Saharan Africa chikapwetekeka comene apo ndalama za boma zikakhira kufuma pa 22% ya GDP mu 2011 kufika pa 17% mu 2021. Vyaru 15 vya mu Africa vili na ngongoli zinandi, ndipo vyaru 7 vya mu Africa vili mu suzgo la ndalama. Chigaŵa ichi chikapokera wanangwa wapadera wa IMF wa $23 billion mu 2021 kuti wovwire ndalama za boma.

Vyaru vya mu Africa ivyo vikukura luŵiro comene vikakura comene kuluska caru cose. Vyaru ivyo vikaŵa pa malo ghapacanya comene mu 2007 ni Mauritania, uko kukakura pa 19.8%, Angola pa 17.6%, Sudan pa 9.6%, Mozambique pa 7.9% na Malawi pa 7.8%. Vyaru vinyake ivyo vikukura luŵiro ni Rwanda, Mozambique, Chad, Niger, Burkina Faso, na Ethiopia. Ndipouli, ku vigaŵa vinandi vya mu Africa, kusazgapo Zimbabwe, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo na Burundi, vinthu vikwenda makora yayi. Mabungwe ghanandi gha pa caru cose ghakukhumba comene kuti ghaŵikeko ndalama mu vyaru vya ku Africa ivyo vikukura, comenecomene apo caru ici cikulutilira kukura nangauli pasono pa caru cose vinthu vili makora yayi. Pasono ndalama izo ŵanthu ŵakuguliska mu vyaru vya kumwera.

Mabungwe ghanyake gha pa caru cose ghakovwira kuti caru ca Africa ciŵe na ndalama zinandi. Mu 1996, wupu wa United Nations ukawovwira pa mulimo wa kuchepeska ngongoli ku vyaru vikavu ivyo vili na ngongoli zinandi. Kuzakafika mu 2013, mu vyaru 30 vya mu Africa, ngongoli zinyake zaŵamalira.

Kukwambilira kwa chaka cha 2021, European Investment Bank, na wovwiri wa Make Finance Work for Africa Partnership (MFW4A), yikafumba mabanki 78 mu vyaru vya ku Sub-Saharan Africa kuti ghacite kafukufuku wa EIB Banking in Africa. Mabanki agho ghakaŵapo ghakalongozganga pafupifupi 30% ya katundu wa mu Africa. Pafupifupi vigaŵa viŵiri pa vigaŵa vitatu vya mabanki agho ghakafumbika ghakaŵa na malango ghakusuzga pakupeleka ngongoli, kweni ghakujumpha 80% ghakaŵikapo mtima kuti ghaleke kupeleka ngongoli. Mabanki ghachoko waka ndigho ghakakhumbikwiranga kusintha unandi wa ŵantchito ŵawo, ndipo ghakukwana pafupifupi chigaŵa chimoza pa vigaŵa vitatu pera. Pafupifupi hafu ya mabanki agho ghakazgora ghakaŵa na vimbundi vya ŵantchito, ndipo vinandi vikafuma ku banki, boma, panji ku wupu wa vya ndalama.

Vinthu ivyo vyakhwaska ndalama mu vyaru vya mu Africa mpaka pakati pa 2020 vikaŵa pafupifupi 1 ¢2% ya GDP, ndipo ndalama izo ŵakakhwaska zikaŵa pafupifupi 2% ya GDP. Ichi chili kufupi na chiŵelengero cha IMF pa charu chose cha vyaru vyakukhulirakulira ivyo vikusanga ndalama zichoko, icho chili pafupifupi 2% ya GDP ya 2020 mu chaka chimoza kufuma apo nthenda ya COVID-19 yikambira. Pa nyengo yeneyiyo, vyaru vyakusintha vikapokera ndalama zakukwana pafupifupi 4% ya GDP, apo vyaru vyakusintha vikapokera ndalama zakukwana 16% ya GDP.[21][22][23] Apo vyaru vya mu Africa vikasuzgikanga kuti vileke kusuzgika na nthenda iyi, ndalama izo ŵanthu ŵakagwiliskiranga ntchito mu Africa zikakwera kufuma pa 5% ya GDP mu 2019 kufika pa 8% mu 2020. Cifukwa ca kucepa kwa ndalama, suzgo la ndalama likapangiska kuti ŵambeso kutora ngongoli zinandi.

Vyaru vya kumpoto na kumwera kwa Africa ndivyo vyacitapo vinandi kuti viwovwire pa suzgo la ndalama ilo laŵapo cifukwa ca nthenda iyi. Vyaru 34 vya mu Africa vyacitapo kanthu kuti viŵe na ndalama zinandi na kucepeskako ndalama izo ŵakuguliska, comenecomene mwa kucepeska msonkho. Mwaciyelezgero, caru ca South Africa cikadumulizga msonkho na fundo 200 panji kujumpha apa. Ndondomeko iyo yikugwiliskirika nchito comene njakuti kusinthiska umo ngongoli izo zikugwilira nchito yayi zikugwilira nchito mwa kuchepeska ivyo vikukhumbikwa. Kuti mabanki ghaleke kusuzgika na nthenda ya COVID-19, ŵamazaza ŵakugwiliskira nchito ndalama zakupambanapambana panji ivyo ŵanthu ŵakugwiliskira nchito, ŵakuzomerezga kuti ndalama izo ŵakugwiliskira nchito pa nyengo yichoko zipelekeke, ŵakukhozga ndalama izo ŵakukhumba, panji kusintha vinthu vinyake. Nangauli kukaŵa nthenda ya COVID-19, ndalama izo ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ŵakagwiliskira nchito zikakhazikika mu 2020, ndipo zikafika pa $4.3 biliyoni kufuma pa $3.9 biliyoni mu 2019 apo ntchito za ku Africa zikamara. Pa vyaru ivyo vikukhumbikwira ndalama zinandi, GDP ya munthu yumoza yikwenera kukhala pasi kuluska umo yikaŵira pambere nthenda iyi yindambe m'paka mu 2024, ndipo mu 2022 na 2023, chiŵelengero cha vyaru ivi chikwenera kukura na 1 peresenti pera pa chaka. Pambere nthenda iyi yindambe, ŵanthu ŵakaghanaghananga kuti caru cizamuŵa cakukhora pa 2% panji kujumpha apa.[24][25]

Kukula kwa malonda[lemba | kulemba source]

Vinthu vya malonda ndivyo vyawovwira chomene kuti chuma cha mu Africa chikure mu vyaka vya m'ma 2000. Charu cha China na India ni vyaru vyakuzirwa comene pa malonda; 12,5% ya vyakurya ivyo vyatumizgika ku Africa vikuluta ku China, ndipo 4% vikuluta ku India, uko kuli 5% ya vyakurya ivyo vyatumizgika ku China na 8% ya vyakurya ivyo vyatumizgika ku India. Gulu la vyaru vinkhondi (Indonesia, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, na United Arab Emirates) ni msika unyake wakuzirwa comene wa vyakurya vya ku Africa.[26]

Nthazi[lemba | kulemba source]

Chipharazgo cha foni ya m'manja mumphepete mwa galimoto, ku Kampala, Uganda

Chuma cha mu Africa chikulutilira kukura, ndipo chiyowoyero cha Chingelezi ndicho ntchakuzomerezgeka mu vyaru vinandi vya ku Sub-Sahara. Mu 2011, malonda gha pakati pa Africa na China ghakafika pa madola mabiliyoni 166.

Mu 2035, caru ca Africa cizamuŵa na "vigaŵa vya ŵanthu" apo ŵacinyamata na awo ŵakugwira nchito ŵazamuŵa na ŵana ŵachoko na ŵanthu awo ŵafumapo pa nchito. Ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakugwira nchito mu caru ici ŵali kusambira comene, ndipo pafupifupi hafu ya ŵanthu aŵa ŵazamuŵa kuti ŵali kusambira sukulu za sekondare mu 2020. Ku Africa nako kuli ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakuguliska vinthu, ndipo ŵakukhazga kuti ŵalutilirenge kukura. Mu Africa muli ŵanthu pafupifupi 90 miliyoni awo ndalama izo ŵakupokera zikuluska madola 5,000 gha ku United States. Ichi chikung'anamura kuti ndalama zawo zinandi ŵakuzigwiliskira ntchito pa vinthu vinyake. Kuzakafika mu 2020, chiŵelengero ichi chingafika pa 128 miliyoni.

Mu Julayi 2013, apo pulezidenti wa United States, Barack Obama, wakaluta ku Africa, wakapharazga vya ndalama zakukwana madola mabiliyoni 7 za ku Africa kuti viwovwire ŵanthu ŵa mu vyaru ivi. Obama nayo wakavumbura pulogiramu yiphya yakucemeka Trade Africa, iyo yikovwira kuti malonda gha pa caru cose ndiposo pakati pa Africa na United States ghalutilire.

Pakuyambiska ndondomeko yiphya ya kukura na kukura kwa cuma iyo yikwiza na mamembara gha African Union, mamembara pafupifupi 27 agho ghali pakati pa vyaru ivyo vikukura comene pa caru ca Africa, ghazamovwira kuti caru ici ciŵe cakukolerana pa nkhani za cuma na ndyali. Malo gha Malonda Ghakupambanapambana gha mu Africa ghazamovwira kuti ŵanthu ŵa mu vyaru vinyake na mu vyaru vinyake ŵachitenge malonda. Ivi viwovwirenge kuti ŵanthu ŵaleke kuthemba chomene vyakurya vyakumalizgika na vinthu vinyake vyakukhumbikwa.

Vikuwoneka kuti mu vyaka vyakulondezgapo, mphambano pakati pa vyaru visambazi na vikavu yizamulutilira kukura.[27]

Kucita malonda[lemba | kulemba source]

Kucita bizinesi nkhwakuzirwa comene kuti munthu wakure. Maboma ghakwenera kuvikilira malango ghakovwira ŵamalonda kuti ŵalutilire kupanga vinthu viphya. Mu 2019, ndalama izo ŵanthu ŵakagwiliskiranga ntchito pakwamba zikakwera kufika pa madola 1.3 biliyoni. Vinthu ivyo vikupangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵasuzgikenge ni viŵi yayi.[28]

Vinthu ivyo vikapangiska kuti vinthu vileke kwenda makora mu vyaru vinyake[lemba | kulemba source]

Cifukwa cakuti ukavu mu Africa ukuwoneka kuti ungatonda yayi, ŵanthu ŵakususkana na ivyo vikupangiska ukavu. Nkhondo na vivulupi, vimbundi, na maboma ghaciwembu ndivyo vikupangiska masuzgo gha vyachuma. Mu Africa mukaŵa masuzgo ghanandi cifukwa ca nkhondo ya pa caru cose. Kwamba m'ma 1900, Nkhondo Yakuzizima, vimbundi vikuru, maboma ghaheni, matenda, na nkhaza vyapangiska kuti chuma cha mu Africa chileke kwenda makora.[29][30][31][32]

Magazini yinyake yikati vinthu ivi ni vimbundi mu maboma, ndyali zikusintha yayi, ndyali zikugwiliskira ntchito vyamalonda, kweniso ŵanthu ŵakukhumba yayi kuti maboma ghaŵasuzgenge.[28]

Vyakuzenga[lemba | kulemba source]

Msewu wa Trans-African Highway

Kuyana na ŵasayansi ŵa ku Overseas Development Institute, kuchepa kwa vinthu vyakukhumbikwa mu vyaru vinandi ivyo vikukura ni suzgo likuru comene pa nkhani ya vinthu ivyo vingatondeska kuti vinthu vyendenge makora mu vyaru ivi. Kugwiliskira nchito vinthu ivi na kuvisunga vingaŵa vyakudura comene, comenecomene mu vyaru vya ku Africa ivyo vili kutali na nyanja.

Ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakuti pakati pa 1990 na 2005, ndalama izo ŵanthu ŵakugwiliskira nchito pa kupanga vinthu vikovwira kuti vinthu viŵe makora mu Africa. Ndalama izo ŵakugwiliskira nchito pakugwiliskira nchito nthowa zakwendeskera vinthu ni zinandi comene.

Ku Africa, ŵanthu ŵakuti kuti vilato vya MDG vifiskike mu 2015, ndalama izo ŵanthu ŵakugwiliskira ntchito pa kupanga vinthu vikwenera kukwana pafupifupi 15 peresenti ya GDP. Pasono ndalama izo ŵakupeleka zikupambana chomene pakati pa vyaru. Vigaŵa vinyake vikusangika na ndalama za boma, vinyake na wovwiri wa vyaru vinyake, ndipo vinyake na ŵaganyu. Mu vyaru vya kumwera kwa Sahara, boma likupeleka ndalama zakukwana madola mabiliyoni 9.4 pa madola mabiliyoni 24.9.

Pa nkhani ya ulimi wa milonga, vyaru vya ku South Africa vikugwiliskira nchito ndalama zinandi; pa nkhani ya vyakwendeskera vinthu na magesi, ndalama zinandi zikufuma ku boma; pa nkhani ya matekinoloje gha vyamasalamusi na maji, na maofesi gha vyaumoyo, ndalama zinandi zikufuma ku vyaru vya ŵekha. Pafupifupi, wovwiri wa boma, wa ŵanthu ŵekha na wa ŵanthu ŵambura kukolerana na OECD, ukujumpha ndalama izo boma likupeleka. Ndalama izo maboma ghakupeleka ku makampani ghapachanya, zikuyana waka na izo boma likupeleka ku maboma ghanyake. Ndalama zakufuma ku vyaru vinyake zikakwera kufuma pa 7 biliyoni (2002) kufika pa 27 biliyoni (2009). Mwaciyerezgero, caru ca China caŵa na ndalama zinandi.[33]

Chikoloni[lemba | kulemba source]

Mapu gha sitima za mu Africa, kusazgapo misewu iyo yikunozgeka na iyo yikuzengeka, The Statesman's Yearbook, 1899

Cakulinga cikuru ca maboma gha ku Europe agho ghakaŵa na mazaza pa caru ca Africa cikaŵa cakuti ghasange usambazi mu Africa pa mtengo ucoko. Ŵalembi ŵanyake, nga ni Walter Rodney mu buku lake lakuti How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, ŵakuti ndyali izi ndizo zikupangiska masuzgo ghanandi agho ghalipo mu Africa mazuŵa ghano. Awo ŵakususka boma la ŵanthu ŵakususka kuti boma la ŵanthu likuŵapweteka ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa. Ŵasayansi ŵanyake awo ŵakasambira vya nyengo ya ŵakaronga, chomenechomene Frantz Fanon, ŵakayowoya kuti vinthu ivyo vikupangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵambe kulamulira ŵakaronga ni vya mu maghanoghano, kweniso kuti ŵanthu ŵakujiwona kuti mbambura kuzirwa. Ŵanthu aŵa ŵakughanaghana kuti ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa awo ŵalije maghanoghano gha ŵanthu ŵa mu vyaru vinyake ndiwo ŵakwamba kusintha vinthu.

Ŵakulemba mbiri L. H. Gann na Peter Duignan ŵakayowoya kuti mu Africa mukaŵa vyandulo vinandi chifukwa cha muwuso wa ŵanthu. Nangauli ukakoloni ukaŵa na maubudi ghake, kweni panji ukaŵa "umoza mwa vinthu ivyo vikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵambuke mu caru". Ndipouli, maghanoghano agha ngakususkana ndipo ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakughazomera yayi. Nkhwantha ya vya cuma, David Kenneth Fieldhouse, yikayowoya kuti vinthu ivyo vikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵambe kulamulira caru vikaŵa vyakukwana yayi, ndipo suzgo lawo likuru likaŵa lakuti ŵakalutilira yayi kukura, kweni kuti ŵakatondeka. Niall Ferguson wakukolerana na fundo yake yaumaliro, wakuti mauteciteci gha cikoloni ghakaŵa kwananga kwa kuleka kucita kanthu. Para tawona umo vyaru vya mu Africa vikaŵira, tikuwona kuti vyaru vyakujiyimira vyenevivi nga ni Liberia na Ethiopia vikaŵa makora yayi pa nkhani ya vyachuma kuluska vyaru vinyake. Makamaka vinthu vikenda makora mu vyaru ivyo vikaŵa pasi pa Britain kuluska vyaru ivyo vikaŵa pasi pa France.

Ukavu uwo ukaŵa mu Africa ukamba ni kale comene pambere ŵanthu ŵandambe kulamulira caru. Mu buku lake lakuti Guns, Germs, and Steel, Jared Diamond wakulongosora kuti charu cha Africa chikalutilira kuŵa na ukavu chifukwa cha vinthu vinandi ivyo vikachitiska kuti ŵanthu ŵasuzgikenge. Vinthu ivi ni unandi wa ŵanthu ŵachoko, viŵeto vyambura kulengeka makora na vyakumera, kweniso charu cha Africa chili kumpoto na kumwera. Kweni ŵanyake ŵakususka fundo za Diamond, kusazgapo James Morris Blaut. John K. Thornton wakati mu nyengo ya Ŵakhristu ŵakwambilira, mu Africa mukaŵa vinthu vinandi chomene. Ŵasayansi ŵanyake ŵakugomezga kuti mu nyengo yakale, mu Africa mukaŵa ŵanthu ŵakavu chomene kuluska mu vyaru vinyake. Mwaciyelezgero, Acemoglue na Robinson ŵakayowoya kuti vyaru vinandi vya mu Africa vikaŵa vikavu, kweni "Aksum, Ghana, Songhay, Mali, [na] Great Zimbabwe... vikaŵa vyakutukuka nga ni vyaru vinyake". Ŵanthu ŵanyake nga ni Rodney na Joseph E. Inikori wakayowoya kuti ukavu wa mu Africa pakwamba kwa nyengo ya ukoloni ukaŵa cifukwa ca kuchepa kwa ŵanthu awo ŵakaguliskikanga ŵazga kweniso cifukwa ca kusintha kwa vinthu. Ŵanyake nga ni J. D. Kuŵa wakukondwa. Fage na David Eltis ŵakususka fundo iyi.[34]

Kupambana kwa viyowoyero[lemba | kulemba source]

Ŵanthu ŵaŵiri ŵakusoleka mwamwaŵi mu Ghana ŵali na mwaŵi wa 8.1% waka wa kuyowoya chiyowoyero chawo.

Vyaru vya mu Africa vikuŵa na suzgo la kuyowoyeskana cifukwa ca viyowoyero vyakupambanapambana. Greenberg wakuwona kuti ŵanthu ŵaŵiri awo ŵakusoleka mwamwaŵi ŵali na viyowoyero vyakupambana. Pa vyaru 25 ivyo vili na ŵanthu ŵakupambanapambana, 18 (72%) ni vyaru vya ku Africa.[35] Ivi vikusazgapo vyaru 12 ivyo Greenberg wakuyowoya viyowoyero vyakupambanapambana ivyo vikuluska 0.9, ico cikung'anamura kuti ŵanthu ŵaŵiri awo ŵasoleka mwamwaŵi ŵali na mwaŵi wa viyowoyero vyakuyana yayi. Ndipouli, chiyowoyero chikuru icho ŵanthu ŵakuyowoyera mu boma, mu ndyali, mu masukulu, na mu vyaru vinyake, kanandi chikuŵa Chingelezi, Chifurenchi, panji Ciphwitikizi.

Maghanoghano ghakukhwaskana na malonda[lemba | kulemba source]

Fundo iyi yikulongora kuti usambazi wa ŵamazaza na ŵabwezi ŵawo ku Europe, North America, na East Asia vikuthemba pa ukavu wa vyaru vinyake, kusazgapo Africa. Ŵanthu awo ŵakugomezga fundo iyi ŵakugomezga kuti vyaru vikavu vikwenera kuleka kusolerana na vyaru visambazi kuti viŵe makora.

Ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakuti vinthu vikwenda makora yayi mu vyaru visambazi. Para vyaru vikusuzgika na vinthu vyakuthupi vyamba kunozga vyakurya pa mtengo uwemi, vikuguliska viŵere vinandi yayi. Ŵanthu ŵakughanaghana kuti nchifukwa cakuti mu vyaru vyakutukuka muli ndalama zinandi izo zikupeleka ku vyakurya vyakupambanapambana, ndipo ku vyaru ivi kuli msonkho ukuru comene wa vinthu ivyo vikunjira mu vyaru vinyake. Nangauli wovwiri uwu na msonkho uwu vyachepeskeka, kweni vichali kukwera.

Vinthu ivyo vikucitika mu vyaru vinyake vikukhwaskaso vyakurya ivyo vikupelekeka ku vyaru vinyake. Kafukufuku uyo wakachitika pa nkhani ya vyachuma wakuyowoya vya ŵanthu nga umo wakachitira Jane Shaw, wakulongora kuti ŵanthu awo ŵakukhumba kuti vinthu vyendenge makora ŵakuchita vinthu pamoza na boma. Ŵalimi awo ŵali na mphaka pa vyakurya ivyo ŵakuguliska ku vyaru vinyake ŵakuguliska ku malo ghanyake, ndipo ivi vikuŵapangiska kuti ŵaleke kugwiliskira ntchito makora vinthu. Para vinthu vyasintha pa msika, ŵalimi ŵakuchichizga boma kuti liŵawovwire kuti ŵaleke kuphalizgana. Pakuti ŵanthu ŵakuleka kuphalizgana, ŵalimi ŵakuleka kupanga vinthu viphya na kulima vyakurya vinandi.[36][37]

Kulamulira[lemba | kulemba source]

Template:Political corruption sidebar Nangauli mu ma 1960, vyaru vya ku Africa na Asia vikaŵa na ndalama zakuyana waka, kweni kufuma nyengo yira vyaru vya ku Asia vyajumpha pa vyaru vya ku Africa. Ŵasayansi ŵanyake ŵakuti chuma cha ku Asia chikukura chifukwa cha ndalama izo ŵanthu ŵakuŵika mu vyaru ivi. Vimbundi mu vyaru vya ku Africa vikwamba na kupoka ndalama mu vyaru vinyake m'malo mwa kugwiliskira nchito ndalama mu vyaru vyawo. Ŵasayansi ŵa pa Yunivesite ya Massachusetts Amherst, ŵakati kwamba mu 1970 m'paka mu 1996, ndalama izo zikathera mu vyaru 30 ivyo vili kumwera kwa Sahara zikaŵa madola 187 biliyoni. Awo ŵakalemba ni Leonce Ndikumana na James K. Boyce wakati kwamba mu 1970 m'paka mu 2008, ndalama izo zikaluta ku vyaru vinyake kufuma ku vyaru 33 vya ku Sub-Sahara, zikakwana madola 700 biliyoni.

Mobutu Sese Seko, uyo wakaŵa muwusi wa ku Congo, wakaŵa na mbiri yiheni cifukwa ca vimbundi, kutemwera ŵabali, na kunanga ndalama zakukwana madola 4 panji 15 biliyoni. Maboma gha Socialist agho ghakalongozgekanga na fundo za Marx na kusintha vinthu pa nkhani ya vyaru, nagho ghakatimbanizga vinthu mu Africa. Mwaciyelezgero, muwuso wa Robert Mugabe ku Zimbabwe, comenecomene uwo ukapangiska kuti ŵalimi ŵazungu ŵatore malo ghawo, ukapangiska kuti ciŵelengero ca vyakurya mu caru ici cileke kwenda makora. Charu cha Tanzania chikaŵa chinyake mwa vyaru vikavu chomene pa charu chapasi ndipo chikakhumbikwiranga wovwiri wa ŵanthu ŵanandi. Kufuma apo boma la chipani chimoza likamara mu 1992 ndipo charu cha Tanzania chikaŵa na demokilase, chuma chikukura chomene, ndipo mu 2017 chikakura na 6.5%..[38]

Wovwiri wa ku vyaru vinyake[lemba | kulemba source]

Kweni nga umo Amartya Sen wakalongolera, njara zinandi zikucitika cifukwa ca kusoŵa cakurya yayi kweni cifukwa ca kusoŵa ndalama. Para vyaŵa nthena, wovwiri wa vyakurya ‒ mwakupambana na wovwiri wa ndalama ‒ ukuparanya vyakurya mu vyaru ivi ndipo ukuwovwira chomene makampani gha vyakurya gha ku vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi, agho ghakupanga vyakurya vinandi comene cifukwa ca wovwiri wa vyakurya.

Kwamba kale, wovwiri wa vyakurya ukuyana comene na vyakurya ivyo vyasoŵa mu vyaru vya ku vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi kuluska ivyo vikukhumbikwa mu vyaru vyakusintha. Kufuma mu ma 1980, wovwiri wakufuma ku vyaru vinyake waŵa cigaŵa cakuzirwa comene ca vyachuma mu Africa.

Ndondomeko iyi yikususkika cifukwa cakuti yikunjira mu malo mwa ndondomeko za malonda. Ukaboni ukulongora kuti wovwiri wa vyaru vinyake wawovwira kuti caru ici ciŵe cikavu comene. Yumoza mwa ŵanthu awo ŵakususka chomene ndondomeko iyi ni Dambisa Moyo, uyo wakumanya vya ndalama wa ku Zambia.

Mazuŵa ghano, mu vyaru vya mu Africa vikusuzgika kusanga wovwiri ku vyaru vinyake. Likukhumbikwira ndyali zinandi za vya cuma na kunjilirapo comene mu vya cuma ca caru cose. Pakuti caru cose cacemera wovwiri wa vyaru vinyake, caru ca Africa cikukhumba comene wovwiri uwu. Kweniso charu cha Africa chili kupanga pulani ya "Africa Action Plan" kuti chiŵe paubwezi na ŵantchito awo ŵakovwira kuti vinthu vyende makora.[39]

Mabungwe gha malonda na mawupu ghanandi[lemba | kulemba source]

Wupu wa African Union ni wupu ukuru comene pa caru cose. Makhaliro gha wupu uwu ghakukolerana na kuzenga malo gha malonda gha wanangwa, wupu wa mitheto, msika umoza, banki yikuru, na ndalama yimoza (wonani African Monetary Union), na kukhazikiska wupu wa vyachuma na ndalama. Ndondomeko iyo yilipo sono njakuti mu 2023, paŵe wupu wa African Economic Community uwo uzamuŵa na ndalama yimoza. Banki ya vya Ndalama ya ku Africa yikovwira kuti vinthu vyende makora. Ndondomeko ya wupu wa AU yikusazgapo kuzenga wupu wa African Monetary Fund (AMF). Magulu ghanyake ghakukolerana na fundo yakuti kuŵe United States of Africa.

Mabungwe gha vya ndalama na mabanki gha pa caru cose ghakusazgapo:

Vinthu vikuruvikuru ivyo vikuchitika mu vyaru vinyake vikuzunulika pa chithuzithuzi.

Template:African Economic Community

Wupu wa vyachuma wa vigaŵa[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu m'ma 1960, Kwame Nkrumah, wa ku Ghana, wakawovwira kuti vyaru vya mu Africa viŵe na umoza pa nkhani za ndyali na vya cuma. Kufuma nyengo yira, vilato na mawupu ghakupambanapambana vyaŵa vinandi. Mu vyaka vyasonosono apa, ŵanthu ŵayezgayezga comene kuti ŵafike pa umoza mu vyaru ivi. Mu 2012, malonda gha vyaru vya mu Africa ghakaŵa waka 11 peresenti ya malonda ghose gha mu Africa. Vinthu vinandi ivyo ŵanthu ŵakuguliskana mu vyaru vya mu Africa vikufuma ku South Africa, ndipo vinandi ivyo vikufuma mu vyaru ivi vikuluta ku vyaru vya kumwera kwa Africa.

Pasono pali mawupu 8 agho ghakovwira pa vyachuma mu Africa:[40]

Zina la wupu Zuŵa la kupangika Vyaru GDP yose

(mu mamiliyoni gha madola gha ku US)

Economic Community of West African States 28 May 1975 Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo 657
East African Community 30 November 1999 Burundi, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania 232
Economic Community of Central African States 18 October 1983 Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Guinea, São Tomé and Príncipe, Chad 289
Southern African Development Community 17 August 1992 Angola, Botswana, Eswatini (Swaziland), Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Seychelles, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe 909
Intergovernmental Authority on Development 25 November 1996 Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan 326
Community of Sahel-Saharan States 4 February 1998 Benin, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Morocco, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Chad, Togo, Tunisia 1, 692
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa 5 November 1993 Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Eswatini (Swaziland), Ethiopia, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Seychelles, Sudan, Zambia, Zimbabwe 1,011
Arab Maghreb Union 17 February 1989 Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Mauritania, Tunisia 579

Vinthu vyakupambanapambana vya vyachuma[lemba | kulemba source]

Map of Africa by nominal GDP in billions USD (2020)
██ >200 ██ 100–200 ██ 50–100 ██ 20–50 ██ 10–20 ██ 5–10 ██ 1–5 ██ <1

Mu 2009, ku Africa kukaŵa suzgo la vyachuma, kweni mu 2011, ŵanthu ŵa ku Arab ŵakamba kuwukira boma. Kukura kwa caru ici kukakhira kufuma pa 5% mu 2010 kufika pa 3.4% mu 2011. Chifukwa chakuti chuma cha kumpoto kwa Africa chikusintha ndipo vinthu vikulutilira kwenda makora mu vigaŵa vinyake, chiŵelengero cha ŵanthu ku Africa chikwenera kusazgikira kufika pa 4.5% mu 2012 na 4.8% mu 2013. [Pakukhumbika ukaboni apa] Masuzgo gha nyengo yicoko waka ghakukhalilira mu caru cose apo caru ca Europe cikukumana na suzgo la ngongoli. Mtengo wa vyakurya vikuruvikuru vya mu Africa ukakhira comene cifukwa ca kupempha kwacepa na kusazgikira kwa vyakurya, ndipo vinyake vingaweleraso. Kweni mitengo yikwenera kuti yilutilirenge kuŵa yiwemi ku ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakuguliska katundu.[41]

Vigaŵa[lemba | kulemba source]

Vinthu vyamba kwenda makora mu Africa mose. Ndipouli, vinthu vikenda makora yayi mu vyaru na vigaŵa. Vyaru ivyo vikuguliska mafuta vikakura comene kuluska vyaru ivyo vikuguliska mafuta. Mu 2010, vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Africa na vya kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Africa ndivyo vikachita makora chomene.

Malonda gha mu vyaru vya mu Africa ghakulopwa cifukwa ca ndyali izo zikovwira kuti vyaru na vigaŵa vileke kusuzgika, ndipo ghakukhala waka pasi pa 17 peresenti pakuyaniska na mu vyaru vya ku Europe, uko malonda gha mu vyaru ivi ghali pa 69 peresenti. Nangauli vikaŵa nthena, kweni malonda pakati pa vyaru ivyo vili mu wupu wa Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), uwo ni cigaŵa cakukhora comene pa nkhani ya vyachuma, ghakakura comene mu vyaka 10 ivyo vyajumpha. Mwaciyelezgero, caru ca Ghana na Kenya vili na misika ya vinthu vya kuzenga, makina, na vyakurya vyamahara.

Mu 2010, ŵalongozgi ŵa vyamalonda ŵa mu vyaru vya Africa ŵakazomerezga kuti paŵe chigaŵa cha malonda ghapachanya. Ivi vingawovwira kuti vyaru vichepeskeko msonkho pa vinthu ivyo vikunjira mu vyaru vinyake na kusazgirako malonda mu vyaru vya mu Africa.[42]

Worlds regions by total wealth (in trillions USD), 2018
Countries by total wealth (trillions USD), Credit Suisse
Countries by 2020 GDP (PPP) per capita[43]
Mean Wind Speed in Sub-Saharan Africa[44]
Umo Vinthu Viliri pa Charu Chose ku Africa[44]

Vyaru vya ku Africa[lemba | kulemba source]

Charu Total GDP (nominal) in
2019 (billion US$)[45]
GDP per capita in
2019 (US$, PPP)[45]
Average annual
real GDP growth
2010-2019 (%)[45]
HDI 2019[46]
 Algeria 169.3 11,729 2.6 0.748
 Angola 89.4 7,384 1.9 0.581
 Benin 14.4 3,423 5.1 0.545
 Botswana 18.5 17,949 4.3 0.735
 Burkina Faso 15.7 2,282 5.7 0.452
 Burundi 3.1 821 2.0 0.433
 Cameroon 38.9 3,856 4.6 0.563
 Cape Verde 2.0 7,471 2.9 0.665
 Central African Republic 2.3 985 −1.8 0.397
 Chad 10.9 1,654 2.2 0.398
 Comoros 1.2 3,108 3.1 0.554
 DR Congo 49.8 1,015 6.1 0.480
 Congo 12.5 4,600 −1.0 0.574
 Djibouti 3.3 5,195 6.6 0.524
 Egypt 302.3 12,391 3.8 0.707
 Equatorial Guinea 11.8 19,291 −2.9 0.592
 Eritrea 2.0 1,836 3.4 0.459
 Eswatini (Swaziland) 4.6 9,245 2.4 0.611
 Ethiopia 92.8 2,724 9.5 0.485
 Gabon 16.9 16,273 3.7 0.703
 Gambia 1.8 2,316 2.4 0.496
 Ghana 67.0 5,688 6.5 0.611
 Guinea 13.8 2,506 6.2 0.477
 Guinea-Bissau 1.4 2,429 3.8 0.480
 Ivory Coast 58.6 5,327 6.7 0.538
 Kenya 95.4 4,985 5.6 0.601
 Lesotho 2.4 3,010 2.8 0.527
 Liberia 3.2 1,601 2.7 0.480
 Libya 39.8 14,174 −10.2 0.724
 Madagascar 14.1 1,720 3.4 0.528
 Malawi 7.7 1,004 3.8 0.483
 Mali 17.3 2,508 4.3 0.434
 Mauritania 7.6 6,036 3.9 0.546
 Mauritius 14.0 23,819 3.6 0.804
 Mayotte (France) 3.1 (2018)[47] 11,815 (nominal, 2018)[47] (N/A) (N/A)
 Morocco 118.6 8,148 3.4 0.686
 Mozambique 15.2 1,302 5.4 0.456
 Namibia 12.5 10,279 2.8 0.646
 Niger 12.9 1,276 5.9 0.394
 Nigeria 448.1 5,353 3.0 0.539
 Réunion (France) 22.0[48] 25,639 (nominal)[48] 2.1[49] 0.850 (2003)[50]
 Rwanda 10.1 2,363 7.6 0.543
Template:Country data Sao Tome and Principe 0.4 4,141 3.9 0.625
 Senegal 23.6 3,536 5.3 0.512
 Seychelles 1.7 30,430 4.6 0.796
 Sierra Leone 4.2 1,778 4.4 0.452
 Somalia 5.2 888.00 (N/A) 0.364 (2008)[51]
 South Africa 351.4 12,962 1.5 0.709
 South Sudan 4.9 862 (N/A) 0.433
 Sudan 33.4 4,140 −1.6 0.510
 Tanzania 60.8 2,841 6.7 0.529
 Togo 5.5 1,657 5.6 0.515
 Tunisia 38.8 11,125 1.8 0.740
 Uganda 36.5 2,646 5.2 0.544
 Zambia 24.2 3,526 4.3 0.584
 Zimbabwe 18.7 2,896 4.2 0.571

Vigaŵa vya vyamalonda na vyakupangira vinthu[lemba | kulemba source]

Chifukwa chakuti vyakurya ivyo vyakhwaskika na vyakurya vinyake ndivyo vikulondezgana na vyakurya ivyo vyakhwaskika na vyakurya vinyake, ndalama izo vyakhwaskika na vyakurya ivi zikuthemba pa kusinthasintha kwa mitengo ya vinthu. Ici cikupangiska kuti caru ici ciŵe cakusuzgika comene na vinthu vyakuthupi ndipo cikukhumbikwira kuti vyakurya vyakwambukira ku vyaru vinyake. Mu 2012, malonda gha vinthu vyapaulendo, comenecomene vyendeshoni, ghakalutilira kukura.[41][52][53]

Ulimi[lemba | kulemba source]

Mulimi wa ku Mount Kenya

Ŵanthu ŵakuti ivyo vyaru vya ku Africa vikuguliska vyakurya ku vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi uku ŵanthu mamiliyoni ghanandi ŵakufwa na njara, vikucitika cifukwa ca ndyali za vyaru vyakutukuka. Vyaru ivi vikuvikilira vyakurya vyawo na msonkho ukuru wa vyakurya ivyo vikufuma ku vyaru vinyake ndipo vikupeleka wovwiri ku ŵalimi ŵawo. Vinthu vikulongora kuti wovwiri wa vyakurya ku vyaru vyakupambanapambana ukukhwaska chomene ŵalimi ŵa vyaru vyakutukuka. Vyakovwira pa vyakurya vingawovwira kuti mitengo yichepeko kuti ŵanthu ŵasangepo chandulo, kweni vikovwiraso kuti ŵalimi ŵa mu vyaru vyakukhuŵara awo ŵakutondeka kusanga vyakurya vyakwenelera, ŵasuzgikenge chomene pa charu chose. IFPRI yikati mu 2003, vyaru ivyo vikusuzgika chifukwa cha wovwiri uwu vikumalira ndalama zakukwana madola mabiliyoni 24 pa vyakurya ivyo vikufuma ku vyaru vinyake. Ici cikupangiska kuti mtengo wa vyakurya ivi ukhizgikenge comene pa caru cose mpaka ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ŵaleke kuphalizgana na vyakurya vinyake.

Mu vyaka vyasonosono apa, vyaru nga ni Brazil, ivyo vyaŵa na luso lwa kupanga vyakurya, vyazomerezga kugaŵana na vyakupangapanga na Africa kuti viwovwire kuti vyakurya viŵeko makora. Kuŵika ndalama zinandi mu vyakupangapanga vya ku Africa kungatonda ukavu. Msika wa cacao wa ku Africa ukakura comene mu 2008. Maboma gha Nigeria, South Africa na Uganda ghali na ndondomeko zakovwira ŵanthu kuti ŵamanye umo ŵangagwiliskira ntchito vinthu vinyake vyaulimi. Wupu wa African Union uli na vilato vyakuti uŵikenge ndalama zinandi mu vyakurya vya mu Africa, ndipo wupu wa United Nations ukuwona umo vinthu viliri.

Viyuni ivi vikusuzga viŵeto vya mu Africa. Nangauli kuno ŵalimi ŵakutemwa kugwiliskira nchito munkhwala wakukoma viŵanda, kweni sono vikovwira viŵi yayi. Vyakulera vyakwimikana na nthenda ya nthenda iyi vikupangika ndipo vingaŵa vyakukwana.[54]

Vya nkhongono[lemba | kulemba source]

Chomera cha Mphamvu cha Athlone ku Cape Town, South Africa

Africa yili na nkhongono zinandi zakugwilira nchito za magesi (magesi gha maji, mafuta na gasi, magesi gha malasha, uranium, magesi ghakusinthika nga ni zuŵa, mphepo na geothermal). Cifukwa ca kupeleŵera kwa vinthu ivi, mazuŵa ghano ŵanthu ŵakugwiliskira nchito vinandi yayi. Vyaru vikuru comene ivyo vikugwiliskira nchito magesi mu Africa ni South Africa, Libya, Namibia, Egypt, Tunisia, na Zimbabwe, ndipo waliyose wakugwiliskira nchito magesi pakati pa 1000 na 5000 KWh/m2 pa munthu yumoza.

Mafuta na vyakurya ivyo vikufuma mu mafuta ni vyakurya ivyo vyaru 14 vya mu Africa vikuguliska. Mu 2010, mafuta na vyakurya vya mafuta vikaŵa na ciŵelengero ca 46.6% ca vyakurya ivyo vyatumizgika ku vyaru vya ku Africa. Ku South Africa pera ndiko ŵanthu ŵakugwiliskira nchito nkhongono za nyukiliya.[55]

Vinthu vyakwendakwenda[lemba | kulemba source]

Lagos, Nigeria, msumba ukuru comene mu Africa

Kuŵavya vinthu vyakukhumbikwa vikupangiska kuti mabungwe gha mu Africa ghaleke kuchita makora. Nangauli chili na maboti ghanandi, kweni para palije nthowa zakwendeskera vinthu, ndalama zikusazgikira pa 30 panji 40 peresenti.

Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1800, ntchito ya kujima njanji yikaŵa yakuzirwa chomene mu mizi ya migodi. Paumaliro wa vyaka vya m'ma 1800, ŵakazenga misewu yikuru na njanji. Mu nyengo ya ŵakoloni, ŵakaŵika mtima comene pa njanji, ndipo mu nyengo ya 'pambuyo pa ŵakoloni' ŵakaŵika mtima comene pa misewu. Jedwab & Storeygard ŵakasanga kuti mu 1960 m'paka mu 2015, pakaŵa kukolerana pakati pa ndalama zakwendeskera magalimoto na vyachuma. Mu vyaru ivi mukaŵa ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yakupambanapambana, ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yakupambanapambana, ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakakhalanga mu vyaru vinyake, ŵanthu ŵakathembanga chomene vinthu vyakuthupi, kweniso ŵanthu ŵakutemwa demokilase.

Mu vyaru vinandi vya mu Africa, muli mapulojekiti ghakurughakuru ghakukhwaskana na vinthu vyapasi. Vigaŵa vinandi vya mapulojekiti agha ni vya kupanga na kutumizga magesi. Vinyake ivyo ŵakuzenga ni misewu yikuruyikuru, njanji, ma eyapoti, na vinyake.

Vipinda vya mawoko na mawoko navyo vikukura comene mu Africa. Nangauli ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakugwiliskira ntchito Intaneti kuluska mu vyaru vinyake, kweni ŵalipo 9%. Mu 2011, ku Africa kukaŵa ŵanthu 500,000,000 awo ŵakaŵa na mafoni gha mtundu uliwose, kusazgapo 15,000,000 gha "mafoni".[56]

Kugwira ntchito za migodi na kubowola[lemba | kulemba source]

Kupanga mafuta kuyana na vyaru[57]
Rank Area bb/day Year Like
W: World 85540000 2007 est.
01 E: Russia 9980000 2007 est.
02 Ar: Saudi Arb 9200000 2008 est.
04 As: Libya 4725000 2008 est. Iran
10 Af: Nigeria 2352000 2011 est. Norway
15 Af: Algeria 2173000 2007 est.
16 Af: Angola 1910000 2008 est.
17 Af: Egypt 1845000 2007 est.
27 Af: Tunisia 664000 2007 est. Australia
31 Af: Sudan 466100 2007 est. Ecuador
33 Af: Eq. Guinea 368500 2007 est. Vietnam
38 Af: DR Congo 261000 2008 est.
39 Af: Gabon 243900 2007 est.
40 Af: Sth Africa 199100 2007 est.
45 Af: Chad 156000 2008 est. Germany
53 Af: Cameroon 87400 2008 est. France
56 E: France 71400 2007
60 Af: Ivory Coast 54400 2008 est.
Af: Africa 10780400 2011 Russia

Makampani gha migodi mu Africa ndigho ngakuru comene pa caru cose. Africa ni caru caciŵiri pa vyaru vikuruvikuru pa caru cose capasi, ndipo cili na malo ghakukwana 30 miliyoni km2, ico cikung'anamura kuti kuli vinthu vinandi. Mu vyaru vinandi vya mu Africa, kupenja na kupanga vinthu vyakukhumbikwa ni vyakuzirwa comene pa cuma cawo ndipo ni vyakuzirwa comene kuti vinthu viŵe makora munthazi. Mu Africa muli vinthu vinandi vyakututuŵa, ndipo mu vyaru vinyake muli bauxite, cobalt, diamondi, phosphate, platinamu, vermiculite, na zirconium.

Mu vyaru vya ku Africa, vinthu vyakuzirwa chomene ni bauxite, cobalt, dayamondi, phosphate, platinamu, vermiculite, na zirconium. Vinthu vinyake vinandi ivyo vikuzunulika mu Baibolo vilipo. Chiŵelengero cha vyakumera vya mu charu cha Africa mu 2005 nchakuti: bauxite 9%; aluminium 5%; chromite 44%; cobalt 57%; mkuwa 5%; golide 21%; iron ore 4%; steel 2%; lead (Pb) 3%; manganese 39%; zinc 2%; cement 4%; natural diamond 46%; graphite 2%; phosphate rock 31%; coal 5%; mineral fuels (including coal) & petroleum 13%; uranium 16%.

Kupanga vinthu[lemba | kulemba source]

The Soucreye sugar factory in Sidi Bennour (Doukkala), Morocco

Chigomezgo ichi, pamoza na kuŵapo kwa ŵalongozgi ŵaphya mu Africa kunthazi, vikapangiska kuti paŵe lizgu lakuti "Chaka cha ku Africa". Cigomezgo ici ca ŵanthu awo ŵakucita malonda na vyakupangapanga cikovwira cifukwa cakuti mu vyaru vinandi vya ku Africa, vinthu vikwenda makora comene pa nkhani ya mawoko. Mu vyaka vyasonosono apa, Namibia wali kukopa ndalama mu mafakitale, ndipo South Africa nayo wali kwamba kupeleka ndalama zakovwira ŵanthu kuti ŵasange ndalama zakwendeskera malonda.

Vyaru vinyake nga ni Mauritius vili na mapulani gha kupanga vinthu viphya ivyo vikovwira kuti vinthu vileke kunangika. Vinthu vyanthena ivi vingapangiska kuti mu vyaru vya mu Africa muŵe misika yiphya, chifukwa ŵanthu ŵakukhazga kuti kunthazi vinthu viheni vichitikenge chifukwa cha mafuta ghapasi pa charu chose.

Boma la Nigeria mu vyaka vyasonosono apa likamba kupanga magalimoto. Pasono lili na kampani yakuzenga magalimoto ya Innoson Vehicle Manufacturing (IVM) iyo yikupanga mabasi gha Rapid Transit, magalimoto ghakurughakuru na SUV. Mazuŵa ghano, magalimoto gha mitundu yakupambanapambana ghalipo ku Nigeria, Ghana na vyaru vinyake vya kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Africa. Nigeria nayo wali na makompyuta ghachoko waka nga ni Zinox, makompyuta ghakwambilira gha ku Nigeria na vinthu vya makompyuta (nga ni ma tablet PC). Mu 2013, boma la Nigeria likakhazikiska ndondomeko ya kunozga magalimoto kuti likhozge makampani gha kunozga magalimoto mu charu ichi. Pa nkhani iyi, makampani ghanyake agho ghakuzenga magalimoto nga ni Nissan, ghakukhumba kupanga magalimoto mu Nigeria. Padera pa vinthu vya magesi na magalimoto, vinthu vinandi vya ŵanthu, vyakurya vya munkhwala na vyakutoweskera, vyakuzengera, vyakuvwara, vinthu vya pa nyumba, pulasitiki na vinyake vinandi vikupangika mu charu ichi na kutumizgika ku vyaru vinyake vya kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Africa. Boma la Nigeria ndilo likupangiska simenti yikuru chomene mu vigaŵa vya kumwera kwa Sahara mu Africa. Dangote Cement Factory, Obajana ndiyo yikupangiska simenti yikuru chomene mu vigaŵa vya kumwera kwa Sahara mu Africa. Ogun wakuwoneka kuti ni msumba ukuru wa mafakitale wa Nigeria (pakuti mafakitale ghanandi ghali mu Ogun ndipo mabungwe ghanandi ghakusamukira kwenekuko).

Vigaŵa vya vyakupangira vinthu ni vichoko kweni vikukura mu vyaru vya kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Africa. Vigaŵa vikuruvikuru ni vyakuvwara na vyakuvwara, kupanga vikumba, vyakurya, vyakumera, vinthu vya makemikari, vinthu vya magesi na magalimoto. Vyaru vya kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Africa nga ni Uganda navyo vikupanga njinga zamoto za mu vyaru vyawo.[58]

Investment and banking[lemba | kulemba source]

Many financial firms have offices in downtown Johannesburg, South Africa.

Makampani gha vya ndalama gha ku Africa agho ghali na ndalama zakukwana US$107 biliyoni ghazamukura chomene mu vyaka 10 ivyo vyajumpha. Ntchito za banki zakura comene, comenecomene cifukwa ca vinthu vyakupambanapambana ivyo vikucitika pa nkhani ya sayansi.

Charu cha China na India vikulongora kuti vikukhumba comene kuti vyaru vya ku Africa viŵe na cuma mu vyaka vya m'ma 2000. Mu vyaka vyasonosono apa, ndalama izo ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa na China ŵakugwiliskira nchito zakwera comene cifukwa ca suzgo la vya ndalama.

Boma la China likukhozga comene ndalama izo likuŵika mu Africa ndipo likovwira kuti ŵa mu vyaru vya ku Europe ŵambe kudumbiskana za ndalama izo zingaŵawovwira. Ŵanthu ŵa mu vyaru vinyake ŵa ku Africa, comenecomene ŵa mu EU na United States, ŵayezgayezga comene kuti ŵagwiliskirenge nchito bizinesi yawo kuti ŵagulire ndalama mu vyaru vya ku Africa na kukhozga ndalama izo ŵanthu ŵa mu vyaru vya ku Africa ŵakuguliska mu vyaru vya ku Europe.

Ndalama izo ŵanthu ŵa mu vyaru vya ku Africa ŵakutumizga ku vyaru vinyake na ivyo ŵanthu ŵa ku vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi ŵakukhumba kuzakaŵika mu vyaru vyawo vizamovwira chomene vyaru vya ku Africa ivyo vikusuzgika chomene nga ni Burundi, Togo na Comoros. Ndipouli, ŵanthu awo ŵakumanya vya ndalama ŵakudandawura kuti ndalama zinandi zikupelekeka para munthu wakutumizga ndalama ku Africa cifukwa cakuti Western Union na MoneyGram ndiwo ŵakulongozga malonda gha ndalama mu Africa. Ŵadokotala ŵanyake ŵakuti ndalama zinandi izo ŵanthu ŵakulipira pakutumizga ndalama ku vyaru vya mu Africa zikovwira kuti vyaru ivi vileke kukura.

Angola wapharazga kuti wakukhumba kucitako vyandulo mu EU, comenecomene mu Portugal. Boma la United States likuwona kuti caru ca South Africa nchakukhumbikwa comene pakucita malonda mu vyaru vya vyamalonda, vya ndalama, na vyamalonda.

Pali maboma ghaŵiri gha mu Africa: West African Banque Centrale des Etats de l'Afrique de l'Ouest (BCEAO) na Central African Banque des États de l'Afrique Centrale (BEAC). Vyaru vyose viŵiri ivi vikugwiliskira nchito CFA franc. Fundo yakuti mu Africa mose muŵe ndalama yimoza yikayowoyeka kale, ndipo pali vilato vyakuti yiŵeko m'paka mu 2020, nangauli pali vinandi ivyo vikutondeska kuti yiŵeko.[59]

Stock exchanges[lemba | kulemba source]

The Bourse de Tunis headquarters in Tunis, Tunisia

Kuzakafika mu 2012, mu Africa mukaŵa maburosha 23 agho ghakusinthiska ndalama. Ndipouli, pa caru cose capasi, ndalama izo zikwendeskeka pa masitoro gha ku Africa ni pacoko comene kuluska 1%. Makampani 10 agho ghakusinthiska masheya gha mu Africa (mabiliyoni gha madola gha ku United States) ni agha:[60]

  • South Africa (82.88)(2014)[61]
  • Egypt ($73.04 billion (30 November 2014 est.))[62]
  • Morocco (5.18)
  • Nigeria (5.11) (Actually has a market capitalisation value of $39.27 Bln)[63]
  • Kenya (1.33)
  • Tunisia (0.88)
  • BRVM (regional stock exchange whose members include Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo: 6.6)
  • Mauritius (0.55)
  • Botswana (0.43)
  • Ghana (.38)

Mu vyaka vyapakati pa 2009 na 2012, makampani 72 ghakalembeka pa maburosha gha mu vyaru 13 vya mu Africa.[64]

Wonaniso[lemba | kulemba source]

Lua error: bad argument #2 to 'title.new' (unrecognized namespace name 'Portal').

Vyakulemba[lemba | kulemba source]

  1. "World Population Prospects 2022". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 Julayi 2022.
  2. "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX). population.un.org ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 Julayi 2022.
  3. "GDP (Nominal), current prices". International Monetary Fund. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 5 Novembala 2022.
  4. "GDP (PPP), current prices". International Monetary Fund. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 5 Novembala 2022.
  5. International Monetary Fund (2022). "Real GDP growth". IMF Data Mapper. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 5 Novembala 2022.
  6. International Monetary Fund (2022). "Nominal GDP per capita". IMF Data Mapper. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 5 Novembala 2022.
  7. International Monetary Fund (2022). "GDP PPP per capita". IMF Data Mapper. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 5 Novembala 2022.
  8. International Monetary Fund (2022). "Inflation rate, average consumer prices". IMF Data Mapper. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 5 Novembala 2022.
  9. Shorrocks, Anthony; Davies, James; Lluberas, Rodrigo (2022). Global Wealth Databook 2022 (PDF). Credit Suisse Research Institute.
  10. International Monetary Fund (2022). "General government gross debt". IMF Data Mapper. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 5 Novembala 2022.
  11. "Overview".
  12. Veselinovic, Milena. "Why is Africa so unequal?". CNN. Retrieved 12 Sekutembala 2017.
  13. "Africa rising". The Economist. 3 Disembala 2011.
  14. "Get ready for an Africa boom" (in English). Retrieved 12 Sekutembala 2017.
  15. Anyangwe, Eliza (28 Juni 2017). "Why is Africa so poor? You asked Google – here's the answer". The Guardian (in British English). ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 9 Malichi 2021.
  16. "Rise of the African opportunity". Boston Analytics. 22 Juni 2016.
  17. "European Trade, Colonialism, and Human Capital Accumulation in Senegal, Gambia and Western Mali, 1770–1900 – African Economic History Network". www.aehnetwork.org (in American English). Retrieved 17 Ogasiti 2017.
  18. Baten, Jörg; Alexopoulou, Kleoniki. "Elite violence and elite numeracy in Africa from 1400 CE to 1950 CE". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  19. "Overview". World Bank (in English). Retrieved 7 Julayi 2021.
  20. "Botswana – an African economic miracle?". LSE International Development. 28 Janyuwale 2020. Retrieved 7 Julayi 2021.
  21. Bank, European Investment (18 Novembala 2021). Finance in Africa: for green, smart and inclusive private sector development (in English). European Investment Bank. ISBN 978-92-861-5063-0.
  22. "Policy Responses to COVID19". IMF (in English). Retrieved 6 Disembala 2021.
  23. "World Economic Situation Prospects" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 Janyuwale 2021.
  24. "Global Growth to Slow through 2023, Adding to Risk of 'Hard Landing' in Developing Economies". World Bank (in English). Retrieved 18 Novembala 2022.
  25. "Country notes" (PDF). African Development Bank.
  26. "Economic Report on Africa 2012" (PDF). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). p. 44. Retrieved 2 Malichi 2013.
  27. The Economist, The African Century, 28 March 2020.
  28. 28.0 28.1 The Economist, "The African century", 28 March 2020.
  29. Hyden, Goran (23 Okutobala 2007). "Governance and poverty reduction in Africa". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (43): 16751–16756. doi:10.1073/pnas.0700696104. PMC 2040419. PMID 17942700.
  30. Lange, Matthew Keith (2004). The British colonial lineages of despotism and development (Thesis). OCLC 61140381. ProQuest 305225106.
  31. Bhattacharyya, S. (1 Novembala 2009). "Root Causes of African Underdevelopment". Journal of African Economies. 18 (5): 745–780. doi:10.1093/jae/ejp009.
  32. Awojobi, Oladayo Nathaniel (Okutobala 2014). "CORRUPTION AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA: A DISCOURSE APPROACH" (PDF). International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management. 2 (10).
  33. Christian K.M. Kingombe 2011. Mapping the new infrastructure financing landscape Archived 18 Sekutembala 2012 at the Wayback Machine. London: Overseas Development Institute
  34. David Eltis, Economic Growth and the Ending of the Transatlantic Slave Trade
  35. "Summary by country". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 Sekutembala 2017.
  36. Shaw, Jane (Epulelo 2004). "Overlooking the Obvious in Africa" (PDF). Econ Journal Watch. Retrieved 1 Okutobala 2008.
  37. Pasour, E.C. (Epulelo 2004). "Intellectual Tyranny of the Status Quo" (PDF). Econ Journal Watch. Retrieved 1 Okutobala 2008.
  38. "Download entire World Economic Outlook database, October 2017". www.imf.org. Retrieved 27 Meyi 2021.
  39. "African Action Plan". UN Economic Commission for Africa. Meyi 2003.
  40. Sarl, ed. (2013). "2013 Guide economique du continentBourses Africaines". Africa 24 (8): 64–65.
  41. 41.0 41.1 "Economic Outlook". African Economic Outlook. 28 Meyi 2012. Retrieved 13 Juni 2012.
  42. "Economic Report on Africa 2012" (PDF). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). p. 47. Retrieved 2 Malichi 2013.
  43. Based on the IMF data. If no data was available for a country from IMF, data from the World Bank is used.
  44. 44.0 44.1 "Global Wind Atlas". Retrieved 6 Disembala 2018.
  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2 "World Economic Outlook Database, Octobre 2020". IMF. Retrieved 2 Novembala 2020.
  46. Source Archived 29 Epulelo 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 2005
  47. 47.0 47.1 Eurostat. "Gross domestic product (GDP) at current market prices by NUTS 2 regions". Retrieved 2 Novembala 2020.
  48. 48.0 48.1 CEROM. "Comptes économiques rapides de La Réunion en 2019" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 2 Novembala 2020.
  49. INSEE. "Figure 1 – Le PIB progresse de 2,2 % en volume en 2019" (in French). Retrieved 2 Novembala 2020.
  50. "... dévoile ses propositions locales. "Enfin !"". 1 Disembala 2006.
  51. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/wp-09-02.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  52. John J. Saul and Colin Leys, Sub-Saharan Africa in Global Capitalism, Monthly Review, 1999, Volume 51, Issue 03 (July–August)
  53. Fred Magdoff, Twenty-First-Century Land Grabs: Accumulation by Agricultural Dispossession, Monthly Review, 2013, Volume 65, Issue 06 (November)
  54. Agaba, John (2 Meyi 2022). "African researchers: Tick vaccines can stop use of dangerous pesticides". Alliance for Science. Retrieved 3 Meyi 2022.
  55. "As Africa looks for clean power, interest in nuclear grows". The Japan Times (in American English). 10 Epulelo 2020. Retrieved 7 Julayi 2021.
  56. Sarl, ed. (2013). "2013 Guide economique du continent Bourses Africaines". Africa 24 (8): 24.
  57. "Country Comparison :: Oil - Production". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Archived from the original on 12 Meyi 2012.
  58. Calabrese, Linda (Malichi 2017). "How manufacturing motorcycles can boost Uganda's economy". ODI.
  59. Liedong, Tahiru Azaaviele (8 Ogasiti 2017). "Could West Africa launch a single currency?". CNN. Retrieved 17 Ogasiti 2017.
  60. Sarl, ed. (2013). "2013 Guide economique du continentBourses Africaines". Africa 24 (8): 128.
  61. "The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov (in English). Retrieved 12 Sekutembala 2017.
  62. "The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov (in English). Archived from the original on 11 Disembala 2007. Retrieved 12 Sekutembala 2017.
  63. "The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov (in English). Retrieved 12 Sekutembala 2017.
  64. Sarl, ed. (2013). "2013 Guide economique du continent Bourses Africaines". Africa 24 (8): 130.

Vinyake[lemba | kulemba source]

Vigaŵa vya kuwalo[lemba | kulemba source]

Listen to this article (3 minutes)
Spoken Wikipedia icon
This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated 27 November 2009 (2009-11-27), and does not reflect subsequent edits.