Uko chili chalo cha Malaŵi

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Mapu ya Malaŵi
Malaŵi.
Mulanje.
Mwaya Beach,.
Shire, Liwonde.

Uko chili chalo cha Malaŵi (Geography)[edit | edit source]

Malaŵi na bazengezgana bake mu Africa[edit | edit source]

Malaŵi ni chalo icho chilli kumafumilo ya zuba chakumwelako kwa chalo chikulu chakuti chili na vyalo vinyakhe (continent) cha Africa. Chalo cha Malaŵi chilli kuzingirizgika na vyalo vya Tanzania icho chili na mphaka na Malaŵi yakukwana ma kilometre 475 ku kumafumilo ya zuba cha ku mpoto, chalo cha Zambia kumanjiliro ya zuba cha kumpoto chili na mphaka ya ma kilometre 837, ndipo chalo cha Moçambique kumafumilo na kumanjiliro ya zuba chakumwela chili na mphaka na Malaŵi yakukwana ma kilometre 1,569, kukwaniska mphaka yose ya Malaŵi kuti yikwane ma kilometre 2,881. Indange ilawana eryelo hensili.

Vigaba na maboma[edit | edit source]

Malaŵi wali na vigaba vitatu: cha ku mpoto, chapakati na chakumwela.

Ku mpoto kuli maboma yankhondi na limoza ayo, kufumila kumpoto kukhilanga, ni Chitipa, Karonga, Rumphi, Mzimba, Nkhata-Bay na Likoma. Likoma ni boma ilo likupangika pakusazga tuvilumba twa Likoma na Chizumulo uto tuli mu nyanja ya Malaŵi, kumafumilo ya zuba ya Nkhata-Bay. Tuvilumba utu tuli kufupi na Moçambique kuluska na Malaŵi. Banthu banyakhe bakughana-ghana kuti boma la Likoma likapangikila vifukwa vya ndyale chifukwa banthu awo bakukhala uku mbanandi vibi yayi. Boma la Mzimba ndilo ndikulu chomene kumpoto na mu Malaŵi mose. Msumba wa Mzuzu wuli mu Mzimba ndipo ndiko kuli malo yakusambilirako yapachanya ayo yakuchemeka Mzuzu University. Ku Mzuzu kukukhala banthu cha mu ma 125,000. Kumpoto kose kukughana-ghanika kuti kuli banthu bakukwana 1.4 million ndipo ndicho chigaba chambula kutukuka chomene ku Malaŵi. Kulije kwakudeka (chibanja) ndege zikulu ndiposo kulijeso sitima ya pa mtunda (njanji). Boma la Chitipa ni boma lekha mu Malaŵi lakuti kulije msewu waphula (tarmac). Mu Mzimba muliso thengere lakuchita kupandika na munthu la Viphya ilo likuba ngeti ni thengere likulu chomene pa mathengere yose yakupandika na banthu mu Africa mose. Ku Rumphi kuli malo yakupangila magesi kufuma kumaji (hydroelectric power station) pamalo yakuchemeka Wovwe.

Pakati pali maboma yankhondi na yanayi ayo, kwambira ya ku mpoto, ni Kasungu (uko kukaba kwawo kwa a chipondi Dr. H Kamuzu Banda, Nkhota-Kota, Ntchisi, Salima, Dowa, Mchinji, Lilongwe, Dedza (kwawo kwa John Tembo) na Ntcheu. Lilongwe ndiwo msumba wukulu wa boma mu Malaŵi (capital city). Kuli chibanja chikulu cha Kamuzu International Airport, mphala ya malango, chipatala chikulu na vinthu vinandi vyakwenelera kuba mu msumba wukulu. Lilongwe wali pamalo pa katondo ntheula vyuvyu ni suzgo chomene mumalo yanandi ya msumba uwu. University ya Malaŵi yili na vigaba vibiri mu Lilongwe, koleji (college) ya vya ulimi ya Bunda na koleji ya unesi (nursing) ya Kamuzu. Msumba uwu wukasankhika chifukwa chakuti wuli pakati pa chalo cha Malaŵi ntheula nkhupusu na kufupiko kuluta kulikose m’Malaŵi kufuma ku Lilongwe kuluskana na ku Zomba, uwo wukaba msumba wukulu mpaka mu chaka cha 1975. Boma la Lilongwe ndilo lili na banthu banandi chomene pa maboma yose mu Malaŵi – muli banthu pafupi-fupi 1.6 million – Lilongwe payekha wali na banthu bakujumpha chigaba cha kumpoto chose. Banthu bakukhala mu chigaba ichi bakughanaghanika kuti bali 4.8 million.

Chigaba chakumwela ndicho chigaba chakutukuka chomene m’Malaŵi chigaba ichi chilli na maboma khumi na yabiri ayo ni Mangochi, Balaka (boma liphya ilo banyakhe bakuti likapangikira vifukwa vya ndyale), Machinga (uko nkhwawo kwa uyo wakaba mlongozgi wachibiri wa Malaŵi, Elesoni Bakili Muluzi ), Zomba, Mwanza, Blantyre, Phalombe (boma liphya linyake), Chiradzulu, Mulanje, Thyolo, Chikwawa na Nsanje (kwawo kwa Gwanda Chakwamba). Apa, ndiko kuti maboma yose mu Malaŵi yalipo makhumi yabiri kusazgirapo yankhondi na yabiri Blantyre ndiwo msumba wukulu chomene m’Malaŵi kwakuyana na unandi wa banthu awo bakukhala mu msumba uwu. Zina la Blantyre likafumila uko mtebeti wa Chiuta wakufuma ku Scotland, Dr. David Livingstone wakawila. Ku Blantyre ndiko kuli malo yakulu (headquarters) ya ma kampani yanandi mu Malaŵi. Ndiko nkhu msumba ukulu wa vyamalonda (commercial capital). Mu Blantyre imo muli koleji ya ung’anga (medicine), ya bakumanya kwendeska ndalama za ma kampani na boma (accountancy) na ya maluso (engineering) na vinyake iyo yikuchemeka Polytechnic. Nyumba yakukhalamo mlongozgi ya Sanjika yili ku Blantyre ndipo nako kuli chibanja chikulu cha Chileka, chipatala chikulu cha Fumukazi Elizabeth ya baNgerezi. Ndiwo msumba wekha m’Malaŵi uwo wuli na kwakusunga vinyama (zoo) na kwakusunga vinthu vyakale (museum). Malo yakupanga magesi kufuma ku maji ya Nkula, Tedzani na Kapichira yali mu maboma ya Blantyre na Chikwawa. Malo aya ndiyo yakupanga magesi yanandi chomene mu Malaŵi, ku Wovwe kukupangika magesi yadoko waka. Ku Mulanje kuli phiri ilo nditali chomene ku Malaŵi ndipo nditali na ma metre 3002 pachanya pa level ya maji mu nyanja zikulu chomene (sea level). Boma la Balaka likaba mu Machinga bachali bandalipatule. Chigaba ichi ndicho chilli na banthu banandi chomene mu Malaŵi awo bakughanaghanika kuti bakukwana 5.5 million.

Banthu wose bakukhala mu Malaŵi bali pafupi-fupi 12 million.

Milonga na zinyanja[edit | edit source]

Ulimi na vyakukwaskana na chuma[edit | edit source]

Chalo cha Malaŵi chikugomezga ulimi pa nkhani za chuma (ndalama) (economy). Ni chalo ichi chilije migodi yeneko yakuti yikujima na yikuguliska vinthu vya mtengo wapachanya. Mbewu iyo yikulimika chomene mu chalo ichi pa chifukwa cha malonda (cash crop) ni hona. Hona ndilo likulimika chomene ndipo chifukwa cha nkhani ya umo umoyo wa banthu wukukhwaskikira mwa uheni chifukwa cha kukhweba hona sono Malaŵi wayamba kuyezga kulima mbewu zinyakhe ngeti sabola uyo wakuchemeka paprika. Mbewu zinyakhe izi zikulimika ku Malaŵi ni tiyi (tea), thonje, khofi (coffee) na zinyakhe ngeti ni skaba za m’makuni zakuchemeka skaba za macadamia na cashew. Ndipo mbewu izo zikulyeka kweniso zikuguliskika ni ngoma, ntchunga, skaba, mpunga na zinyakhe.

Vyakulya[edit | edit source]

Chakulya ichi chikulyeka chomene mu Malaŵi ni sima (mu vigaba vinyake yikuchemeka nsima). Sima iyi yikuphikika na ufu wa ngoma, kweni mu ma boma yanyakhe ya m’mphepete mwa nyanja ufu wa vikhawu ndiwo bakuphikira sima. Madende yanandi yakulyeka ku Malawi ngeti ni nyama, ntchunga, delele, somba, mphangwe na yanyakhe. BaMalaŵi mbanthu bakutemwaso twakumwa-kumwa ndipo myoba ya masese na kachasu yikumweka chomene mu mizi apo myoba ya Chibuku, Napolo (iyo yikuyana na moba wa masese) na Carlsberg.

Viyowoyelo na mitundu ya banthu mu Malaŵi[edit | edit source]

Mu Malaŵi muli viyowoyelo vinandi. Mwaivi, vyakuyowoyeka chomene ni chiTumbuka, Chicheŵa, Chiyawo, Chisena, Chilomwe, Chitonga, Chingonde na Chilambya. Chingoni chikuyowoyekako pachoko ku Mpherembe mu boma la Mzimba. Ku mpoto banthu banandi bakuyowoya chiTumbuka, chomene-chomene mu maboma ya Rumphi, Mzimba na kumpoto kwa Kasungu. chiTumbuka chikupambana kwakuyana na uko banthu bakukhala. Ku Rumphi kuli tumitundu (dialects) twa chiTumbuka tunandi ngeti chiPhoka, chiNkhamanga, chiHenga na vinyakhe. Viyowoyelo ivi nvimoza kuti waka nyengo yinyakhe mayowoyelo yakupambana pachoko. Chicheŵa chikuyowoyeka chomene m’chigaba chapakati umo m’maboma yose chikuyowoyeka., nangauli ku Nkhota-Kota Chitonga nacho chikuyowoyekako. Chiyawo chikuyowoyeka ku Mangochi, Machinga, Zomba, Chiradzulu na m’mizi ya ku Blantyre. Chilomwe ntcha ku Mulanje na ku Thyolo apo Chisena ntcha ku Chikwawa na ku Nsanje. Chilambya bakuyowoya ku Chitipa, Chingonde ku Karonga ndipo Chitonga ku Nkhata-bay na ku Nkhota-Kota. Mitundu ya ku Malaŵi ni iyi: ba Lambya, Ngonde, Tumbuka, Tonga, Ngoni, Cheŵa, Yawo, Lomwe na ba Sena. Mitundu yinyakhe yili kulyekeka mu mitundu yikulu-yikulu ngeti ba Kalanga awo sono bakuyikika mumoza na ba Ngoni.

Vinyama vya m’thengere na uko vikukhala[edit | edit source]

Mu Malaŵi muli malo yakuvikilirika ya vinyama (game reserves and national parks) yanandi. Ku mpoto kuli Nyika National Park uko kukusangika babulu (zebra) na nyama zinyakhe na Vwaza Game Reserve uko kuli tuyuni na nyama zinyakhe.

Pakati pali Kasungu National Park uko kuli zovu na nkhalamu na vinyama vinyakhe na Nkhota-Kota Game Reserve uko nako kuli zovu na vinyakhe.

Kumwela kuli Lake Malaŵi National Park ya zovu, chipembere, somba na vinyama vinyakhe vya m’maji; Liwonde National Park na Lengwe Game Reserve uko kuli chipembere chapamtunda (rhinoceros).

Vinyama vinyakhe ivo vikusangika mu Malaŵi ni ivi: njati; nyalubwe; munkhwele; ngulube; njoka ngeti ni nkhomi, chipili, chikho, mulinga na zinyakhe; kalulu; fulu, chimbwe; nyiska; tuyuni twa mitundu-mitundu ngeti ni chaholi, kabelubelu, phululu, chibabi, bwabwalala, kataba, kakowa na tunyakhe.