ChiTumbuka

Kufuma Wikipedia
ChiTumbuka
Machemelo
Ŵayowoyi 2,546,000 (2009-2010)
Territory Malawi, Zambia
Uko chikafumila Niger–Congo
 • Atlantic–Congo
   • Benue–Congo
     • Bantoid
       • Bantu
        • Nyasa
         • Tumbuka
         •  
         •   
         •    
Kalembelo Latin Mwangwego
Uko ntchiyowoyelo cha boma
Ntchiyowoyelo cha charu mu vyaru ivi
Chikulongozgeka na
Makodi gha chiyowoyelo
ISO 639-2 tum
ISO 639-3 tum

Chitumbuka ni chiyowoyelo chachi bantu choyowoyeka ku mpoto kwa Malaŵi na mu Boma la Lundazi,Chasefu na Lumezi ku manjililo gha dazi gha Zambia.

Chitumbuka chili m'cigaŵa ca viyowoyelo vimoza na Chicheŵa na chiSena (lochemeka Guthrie Zone N)

Ŵakaswili ŵa viyowoyelo ŵa World Almanac mu 1998 ŵakati ŵo yowoya Chitumbuka Ŵalipo 2,000,000 kwe ŵanyake ŵakuti figala iyi njokhililapo.

Ŵanandi ŵoyowoya chiTumbuka ŵakukhala ku Malawi na Zambia. Chiyowoyelo ichi chikuyowoyeka na banthu bakuchemeka baTumbuka pela yayi chifukwa mitundu yinyake nga mbaNgoni ba ku Mzimba mu Malaŵi bakuyowoyaso chiTumbuka.

Ŵanandi Ŵoyowoya Chitumbuka mba Tumbuka iŵo ŵene ŵamu Malaŵi na ŵadoko ŵamu Zambia. Kweni mafuko nga ŵaTonga, ŵaNgonde na ŵaNgoni naŵo ŵakuyowoya Chitumbuka. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakumpoto kwa Malaŵi ŵakuyowoya chiyowoyelo ichi.

Pali kupambana kuchoko pakati pa Chitumbuka cha ku misumba na icho cha Kukaya. Icho chikutoleka nga Chitumbuka Chenecho ni icho cha ku Boma la Rumphi.

Chitumbuka chikasuzgika pa ulamuliro wa Kamuzu, uyo kwambila 1968 wakapanga kuti chichewa chiŵe chiyowoyelo chekha chozomelezgeka cha m'Malaŵi ntheula Chitumbuka chikaleka kusambizgika m'Masuku, mawailesi yakaleka Chitumbuka ndiposo ŵa makani ya pa pepala ŵakaleka makani ya mu Chitumbuka.

Kwati kwiza demoklase ya ŵanthu bweka na vipani vinandi, Chitumbuka chikawelelako pachoko pa wailesi kwe mabuku yolembeka mu m'Chitumbuka yachali yachoko.

Maunenesko[lemba | kulemba source]

Pala nthowa ziŵili zolembera Chitumbuka: mwachikaya (nthe mu makani gha pa pepala gha Fuko), umu mazgu nga 'banthu' na 'chaka' ŵakulembeka na 'b' na 'ch', na Malembelo ghozomelezgeka (nthe mu mung'anamuska mazgu wa Citumbuka na mu Mazgu gha Chiuta), umo vikulembeka na 'ŵ' na 'c', Ntheura: ŵanthu na caka. Nyengo zinyake polemba 'r' na polemba 'l', nthe cakulya panji cakurya pakumanyikwa makola chara.

Mayowoyelo gha chiTumbuka (basic Tumbuka Greetings)
Kutauzgana mu chiTumbuka

'sk' na 'sy' (nthe miskombe na misyombe) naŵo ŵangasinthiskana

Kalembero[lemba | kulemba source]

maVawelo Mavawelo gha Chitumbuka ni agha: a e i o u

Consonants Ma konsonanti gha chiTumbuka ghali nthe gha chicheŵa kupambana waka pachoko.

  • Vilapi mchiTumbuka
    • Kachande kadelele kakwendelana
    • Kuyenda nkhuvina


Kachemelo ka mazgo mu ChiTumbuka [1][2]
kwa mlomo kwa mino palatal velar glottal
plain lab. pal. plain lab. pal. plain lab. plain lab.
mwakukozgana

na kulila kwa mphuno

ma
/m/
mwa
//
mya
//
na
/n/
nwa
//
nya
//
ng'a
/ŋ/
ng'wa
/ŋʷ/
plosive/
affricate
kwambula mazgo pa
/p/
pwa
//
pya
//
ta
/t/
twa
//
tya
//
ca
/t͡ʃ/
cwa
/t͡ʃʷ/
ka
/k/
kwa
//
kwa mazgo ba
/ɓ/
bwa
/ɓʷ/
bya
//
da
/ɗ/
dwa
/ɗʷ/
dya
/ɗʲ/
ja
/d͡ʒ/
jwa
/d͡ʒʷ/
ga
/g/
gwa
//
Kwakusazga na mhuche pha
//
phwa
/pʷʰ/
phya
/pʲʰ/
tha
//
thwa
/tʷʰ/
thya
/tʲʰ/
cha
/t͡ʃʰ/
kha
//
khwa
/kʷʰ/
nasalised mba
/ᵐb/
mbwa
/ᵐbʷ/
mbya
/ᵐbʲ/
nda
/ⁿd/
ndwa
/ⁿdʷ/
(ndya)[lower-alpha 1]
/ⁿdʲ/
nja
/ⁿd͡ʒ/
nga
/ᵑg/
ngwa
/ᵑgʷ/
nasalised
aspirated
mpha
/ᵐpʰ/
mphwa
/ᵐpʷʰ/
mphya
/ᵐpʲʰ/
ntha
/ⁿtʰ/
nthwa
/ⁿtʷʰ/
(nthya)
/ⁿtʲʰ/
ncha
/ⁿt͡ʃʰ/
nkha
/ᵑkʰ/
nkhwa
/ᵑkʷʰ/
fricative kwambula mazgo fa
/f/
fwa
//
fya
//
sa
/s/
swa
//
ska (sya)
//
(sha)
/ʃ/
ha
/h/
kwa mazgo va
/v/
vwa
//
vya
//
za
/z/
zwa
//
zga
//
semivowel/ liquid ŵa
/β/
wa
/w/
la/ra
/ɽ/
lwa/rwa
/ɽʷ/
lya/rya
/ɽʲ/
ya
/j/
gha
/ɣ/

Ving'anamulo vya mazgu mu ChiTumbuka[lemba | kulemba source]

Mazgo ghakuvwila[lemba | kulemba source]

  • Enya = Yes
  • Yayi = No
  • Yebo (yeŵo) = Thank you
  • Taonga = We are thankful
  • Nkhukhumba chakurya! = I want some food !
  • Munganipako chakurya? = could you give me some food?
  • Ine nkhuyowoya chiTumbuka yayi! = I do not speak chiTumbuka!
  • Yendani makola = Travel well.
  • Nkukhumba maji yakumwa = I would like water to drink.

Kutauzgana[lemba | kulemba source]

  • Mwawuka uli? = Good morning. (How did you wake up?)
  • Tawuka makola. Kwali imwe? = Fine. And you? (I woke up well. I don't know about you?)
  • Muli uli? = How are you?
  • Nili makola, kwali imwe? = I am fine, how are you?
  • Mwatandala uli? = Good afternoon. (How did you spend the day?)
  • Natandala makola. Kwali imwe? = Good afternoon. How are you? (I spent the day well. I don't know about you?)
  • Monile = somewhat more formal than "Hi". Perhaps best translated as "Greetings".
  • Tionanenge = We shall meet again.

Ŵanthu[lemba | kulemba source]

Unandi wavithu wakuti ba- (ŵa-) ukugwiliskika kulongola ulemu ku ŵalala.

  • Munyamata = boy
  • Banyamata (ŵanyamata) = boys
  • Musungwana = girl
  • Basungwana (ŵasungwana) = girls
  • Bamwali (ŵamwali) = young ladies
  • Banchembere (ŵancembele) = a woman with babies
  • Bamama (ŵamama) = mother
  • Badada(ŵadhadha) = dad
  • Bagogo (ŵagogo) = grandmother
  • Babuya (ŵabhuya) = grandmother, also used when addressing old female persons
  • Basekulu (ŵasekulu) = grandfather
  • Bankhazi (ŵankhazi) = paternal aunt
  • ŵa/Bamama ŵa/bachoko / ŵa/bakulu = maternal aunt usually your mother's younger/older sister
  • Basibweni (ŵasibweni) = maternal uncle
  • Badada(ŵadhadha) bachoko / bakulu = paternal uncle usually your father's younger/older brother
  • Mudumbu(mudhumbu) wane = my brother/ sister (for addressing a sibling of the opposite sex)
  • Muchoko wane / muzuna wane/ munung'una wane = my young brother / sister (for addressing a sibling of the same sex)
  • Mukuru wane / mulala wane = my elder brother / sister (for addressing a sibling of the same sex)

Zintchito[lemba | kulemba source]

  • Kusebela (Kuseŵera) = to play
  • Kuseka = to laugh
  • Kurya = to eat
  • Kugona = to sleep
  • Kwenda = to walk
  • Kuchimbila = to run
  • Kulemba = to write
  • Kuchapa = to do laundry
  • Kugeza = to bath
  • Kuphika = to cook
  • Kulima = to dig / cultivate
  • Kupanda = to plant
  • Kuvina = to dance
  • Kwimba = to sing

Vinyama[lemba | kulemba source]

  • Fulu = tortoise
  • Kalulu = hare
  • Gwere = hippo
  • Chimbwi = hyena
  • Njoka = snake
  • Nkhumba = pig
  • Ng'ombe = cow
  • Nchebe (Ncheŵe) = dog
  • Chona/pusi/kiti = cat
  • Mbelele = sheep
  • Nkalamu = lion
  • Mbuzi = goat
  • Nkhuku = chicken
  1. Only in the word ndyali.

External links[lemba | kulemba source]

  1. Chavula (2016), pp. 11–13.
  2. Vail (1972), pp. 4–19.