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Chakufwa Chihana

Kufuma Wikipedia
Chakufwa Chihana
Chakufwa Chihana
Second Vice President of Malawi
Nyengo:
1994–1996
Mlongozgi charu Bakili Muluzi
Nyengo:
2003–2004
Mlongozgi charu Bakili Muluzi
Umoyo wamunthu
Kubabika April 23, 1939
Kufwa June 12, 2006(2006-06-12) (vyaka vikaŵa 67)
Johannesburg, South Africa
Chipani Alliance for Democracy
Ŵana Enock, Nina and Tawonga

Chakufwa Chihana (23 April 1939[1] – 12 June 2006) wakaŵa wakuvikilira wanangwa wa ŵanthu wa ku Malawi, wakuvikilira wanangwa wa demokilase, wakuchitako ntchito za wupu wa wupu wa wupu ndipo pamanyuma, ndyali. Wakaŵa wachiŵiri kwa purezidenti wa Malawi, pasi pa purezidenti Bakili Muluzi. Kanandi wakucemeka 'wiske wa demokilase ya ku Malawi''.[2] Wakateŵeteranga nga ni mulongozgi wa gulu lakwamba la ndyali la ku Malawi, ilo likakhwimiska pulezidenti Hastings Kamuzu Banda, uyo wakawusa kwa virimika 30, kuti wachite referendum pa ndyali.[3] Wakalumbika na Robert F. Mphoto ya Kennedy ya wanangwa wa ŵanthu mu 1992.

Umoyo Wakwambilira[lemba | kulemba source]

Chihana wakababikira mu muzi wa Mhuju, Kawiluwilu, kumpoto kwa chigaŵa cha Nyasaland (Colonial Malawi). Awiske ŵakafwa apo wakaŵa mucoko, ndipo wakalereka na anyina, awo ŵakavikiliranga ŵanakazi. Wakati wamalizga masambiro gha ku sekondare, wakagwiranga nchito mu boma la vigaŵa ivi ndipo wakacitanga milimo yinandi mu wupu uwo ukaŵa na ŵanthu 4,000. Mu 1958, wakazgoka mulembi na mulembi wa magazini.

Chaka chakulondezgapo, apo wakaŵa na vilimika 21, wakasankhika kuŵa mulembi mukuru wa wupu uwu. Wakacitanga milimo yinyake iyo yikaŵanga ya Malawi Railways na Imperial Tobacco Group. Wakasambira pa yunivesite ya Oslo na Dubrovnik ndipo wakapokera digiri ya masisitere mu vya ndyali pa yunivesite ya Bradford. Wakasambizganga pa Yunivesite ya Botswana.

Kucita vinthu vya ndyali[lemba | kulemba source]

Nkhondo yakwimikana na ukoloni[lemba | kulemba source]

Chihana wakajoyina chipani cha Malawi Congress (MCP) icho chikadankha kulimbana na boma la Rhodesia na Nyasaland kweniso boma la Britain. Kuumaliro wa 1963, wupu uwu ukawa ndipo Kamuzu Banda wakaŵa nduna yikuru ya Malawi. Apo Banda wakamba kukhozga mazaza ghake, Chihana wakalutilira kukhozgera wupu wakujiyimira payekha na demokilase. Pa chifukwa ichi, Banda wakamuchimbizga Chihana ku MCP. Ŵakamuphalira kuti walute ku caru cinyake ndipo ŵakamutimba. Wakawukira ku Kenya mwakubisilizga, na wovwiri wa wasembe wa Katolika. Wakalutizga kususka Kamuzu Banda ku Kenya apo wakagwiranga nchito nga ni pharazgi ku Kenya Federation of Labour.

Kuzgoka wa ndyali na kukakika[lemba | kulemba source]

Wakaŵa wakususka pa nyengo ya muwuso wa Pulezidenti Hastings Banda ndipo wakakhala mu jele panji ku wuzga mu vyaka vya m'ma 1970 na 1980. Pakuŵa mulongozgi wa wupu wa banthu na wakuvikilira demokilase, Chihana wakakakika apo wakatoleka na kuwerako ku Kenya mu 1970. Apo wakaŵa mu jele vyaka 7, ŵakamuyuzga, ndipo wakakhala vyaka vinkhondi mu jele la yekha. Chihana wakaŵa wa tchalitchi la Presbyterian, ndipo pamasinda wakasuska tchalitchi ilo likakhala chete. Ndipouli, wupu wa Amnesty International ukamuzunura kuti ni kayidi wa njuŵi, ndipo wakawovwira kuti wafumiskike.[2]

Mu 1977, ŵakamufumiska mu jele kweni wakalutilira kususka muwuso wa chipani chimoza. Pa nyengo iyi, wakaluta ku England kuti wakasambire ku Nuffield College, Oxford..[2]

Kugwira ntchito na SATUCC[lemba | kulemba source]

Wakalutilira kugwira nchito na mawupu gha ŵantchito mu vyaru vya kumwera kwa Africa; mu 1985, wakazgoka yumoza wa awo ŵakambiska na mulembi mukuru wa wupu wa mawupu gha ŵantchito wa kumwera kwa Africa.

Kucimbizgika kwaciŵiri na kukakika[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu 1992, wakawelera ku Malawi ku ungano wa demokilase. Ku malo agha, wakachema chipani cha Banda kuti "chipani cha nyifwa na mdima" ndipo wakachema kuti paŵe vyaru vinandi. Wakati wayowoya nkhani iyi, ŵakamukora ndipo ŵakamujalira mu jele vyaka viŵiri. Ndipouli, ŵanthu ŵakalutilira kuŵasuzga, ndipo Banda wakazomera kuti pa 17 Juni 1993, paŵe referendum.[4] Chinana wakafwatulika mazuŵa ghanayi pambere referendum yindambe chifukwa cha Vice President wa United States Al Gore, uyo wakacema kazembe wa Malawi ku White House kuti wakane kukakika kwa Chihana na kuchema kuti demokilase yiŵeko.

Kuwuka kwa vipani vya ndyali na kukhazikiska AFORD[lemba | kulemba source]

Wakaŵa mweneko na mulongozgi wa chipani cha Alliance for Democracy icho chikazgoka chipani apo chikazomerezgeka kukhazikiska vipani mu Malawi. Maphwando ena adapangidwanso pomwepo kuphatikiza United Democratic Front (UDF) ya Bakili Muluzi. Pa chisankho cha boma icho chikachitika, chipani cha Banda, Malawi Congress Party (MCP), chikathereskeka na chipani cha United Democratic Front (UDF) cha Bakili Muluzi, apo chipani chiphya cha Chihana, Alliance for Democracy (AFORD), chikaŵa chachitatu. Chakukondweska nchakuti nangauli Chihana wakaŵa mulongozgi wa demokilase mu Malawi, kweni wakatondeka pa viwoneskero vya boma. Muluzi wakazgoka purezidenti wakwamba wa Malawi uyo wakasankhika mwa demokilase kweni wakasora Chihana kuŵa vice president wachiŵiri mu boma lake.

Ntchito ya ndale[lemba | kulemba source]

Chihana wakaŵa Vice President wa Malawi mu nyengo ya President Bakili Muluzi kufuma 1994 mpaka 1996 ndipo kufuma 2003 mpaka 2004. Nyengo iyi yikaŵa na suzgo la ndyali la AFORD pasi pa muwuso wake, ndipo mu 2006 likakhala waka mipando yiŵiri mu nyumba ya malango ya vyalo 193. Chihana nayo wakasangana na mphindano na Tchalitchi la ku Central Africa.

Kuyana na nyuzipepara ya The Guardian, wakatondeka kumazga suzgo la vyakurya mu caru mu nyengo yake yaciŵiri, ico cikapangiska kuti waleke nchito.

Nyifwa[lemba | kulemba source]

Wakafwa pamanyuma pa opareshoni ya kansa ya mu wongo ku Johannesburg, South Africa pa 12 June 2006 apo wakaŵa na vyaka 67. Ŵakamusunga pa dindi la boma. Wasiya mkazi wake Christina Chihana, mwana Enoch Chihana,[2] na ŵana ŵaŵiri ŵasungwana, Nina na Tawonga.

Mphoto[lemba | kulemba source]

Maukaboni[lemba | kulemba source]

  1. "Chakufwa Chihana". Archived from the original on 2018-04-26. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Chakufwa Chihana". The Scotsman. 30 June 2006. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  3. "Chakufwa Chihana, 67, Malawi Politician, Is Dead". The New York Times. Agence France-Presse. 15 June 2006. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
  4. James Cordrey (17 November 1993). "Malawi Opposition Leader Tells Of Years In Prison Chakufwa Chihana Thanked The Local Chapter Of Amnesty International For His Release". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  5. "1992: Chakufwa Chihana, Malawi". Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights. Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2012.

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