ŴaTumbuka

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ŴaTumbuka
ŴaTumbuka pa mapu ya Afilika

ŴaTumbuka (panji, Kamanga, Batumbuka na Matumbuka) ni mtundu wa ŵanthu uwo ukusangika mu charu cha Malaŵi,ku Mafumilo gha Dazi gha Zambia mu maboma nga ni Lumezi,Lundazi na Chasefu na Kummwela kwa Tanzania.

ChiTumbuka chigaŵika nga ntchigaŵa cha gulu la chi Bantu, ndipo nakukhazikika mu malo gha pakati pa Dambo la Dwangwa kummwela, Dambo la Rukulu Wakumpoto cha kumpoto,Nyanja ya Malaŵi ku mafumilo gha dazi, na Dambo la Luangwa. ŴaTumbuka ŵakusangika mu visaghala (valleys) pafupi na madambo, nyanja kweneso mu malo ghakukwela ngati ni Nyika Plateau,uko ŵakuchemeka chomene kuti Ŵahenga nangauli uku nkhung'anamula magulu ghanyake gha chi Tumbuka agho ghalikugaŵana. Mtundu wa ŵaTumbuka ungagaŵikaso mu mitundu ingapo idoko idoko iyo yina mafumu ghawo agho ghose mafumu ghali pasi pa fumu ikulu Fumu Chikulamayembe. Magulu agha ghakusazgapo ŵina Henga, Poka na kamanga.

Mwakuyowoya mwakudumula,mtundu wa ŵaTumbuka ukaŵa umoza wa mitundu ichoko ichoko uwo ukafumila ku Luba (Mbili ya ŵaTumbuka kufuma 1400 mpaka 1900) agho sono ni malo ghakuthyeka kuti Democratic Republic of Congo. Iyi ikaŵa nyengo yakuti maboma kulije ghaliwose ghati ni agha ghaliko sono ndipo ŵakaŵa kuti ŵakhala kale paŵwekha kwa vyaka vyakujumpha ma handiledi (100+) ulendo wakuti wapasuka ku mtundu wa chi bantu kuchanya kwa chigaŵa cha pakati cha Afilika.

Mtundu wa ŵaTumbuka na mitunduso inyake idoko idoko ikadikizgika ku Luba na mlala wa nkhondo wa mtundu wachi Kongolo (mtundu uwo ukasazgikana na mitundu inyake iyo ikakhalila pa nyeno iyo ku Luba) ŵati ŵayezgesa kunyengelela ŵaTumbuka kuti ŵathele ndipo ŵakatondeka.

Vyakuŵelenga na Chiyowoyelo[lemba | kulemba source]

Malo ghanadi ghakuchitla kafukufuku wa ŵaTumbuka ukusachizga kuti ŵaTumbuka ŵanandi ŵakujumpha 4 miliyoni wakhukhala ku mpoto kwa Malaŵi, kumpoto kwa mafumilo gha dazi gha Zambia na Tanzania. Ethnologue ukasachizga kuti mu chaka cha 2000 chivwelengelo cha ŵaTumbuka chikaŵa 4,546,000. Nangauli , Ember et al. wakusachizga kuti paliso miliyoni imoza ya ŵaTumbuka iyo yili mu vyaru vinyake vyapakati na kummwela kwa Afilika ngati ni Tanzania chifukwa cha kusazgana kwa ŵaTumbuka ngati mbakuzagwila ntchito ŵakufumila mu charu chinyake

Chiyowoyelo cha ChiTumbuka ntchiyowoyelo cha chi Bantu, icho chikuyana waka ngati ni viyowoyelo vinyake vachi Bntu. ChiTumbuka chigaŵika ngati ntchiyowoyelo cha pakati chachi Bantu mu banja la chiyowoyelo chikulu cha cha Niger-Congo,ndipo china mitundu inandi ya kayowoyelo. ŴaTumbuka mu unandi ŵakuchemeka kuti ŵaTumbuka ndipo yumoza wakuchemeka kuti "mutumbuka" kung'anamula munthu wakufumila ku mtundu wa uTumbuka. ChiTumbuka ntchakukozgana na chi Tonga ichoso chikuyowoyeka ku mpoto mu boma la Nkhata-bay ndipo vikusachizgika kuti kale pambele ŵazungu ŵa tchalitchi ŵandafike,mitundu iŵili iyi ukaŵa mtundu umoza uwo ukapambananga waka pachoko mu mayowoyelo.

Pambele charu cha Nyasaland chindaŵe pa ulamulilo wa ŵazungu ŵaku Britain,kukaŵa mitundu inandi ya ŵanthu ŵa viyowoyelo vyakupambana pambana mumalo agho sono ghakuchemeka Chigaŵa Cha Kumpoto kwa Malaŵi kusazgaposo na mitundu inyake yakukozgana mu mwambo na viyowoyelo, awo ŵakakhala zakutandazgika kulamulilika na fumu imoza ya ChiTumbuka. Ŵazungu ŵa chalitchi mu vyaka vya muma 1900 wakasintha na kugaŵa viyowoyelo ivi mu tuma gulu tunandi tuchokotuchoko, nakusankha ChiTumbuka kuŵa chiyowoyelo cha boma cha chigaŵa cha ku mpoto kwa Nyasaland icho chikayamba kusambizgika muma sukulu,kusankhapo kwa kukhumba kufuma ku viyowoyelo vinyake ngati ntchi Ngoni,ChiTonga panji Chingonde ivyoso navo panyengo iyo vikamanyikawanga . Kwamba mu vyaka vyama 2000, Chi Ngoni na ChiNgonde lvikayamba kukhila ,nangauli Chitonga chikaŵa kuti chichali kuyowoyeka na ŵanthu ŵanandih Tonga.

Mu 1968, ChiTumbuka chikauskikamo mu boma,mu masambilo,muma wayilesi,mu masambilo gha sukulu zakwamba na sukulu zachiwili,kusazgapo mu sukulu zaumalilo, ndipo ivi vikapangikaska kuti ŵasambili ŵa sukulu ŵakufumila ku mpoto kuwelela mumanyuma kuluska ŵanji ŵa kummwela na vigaŵa vinyake. Ŵanandi awo wakasuskana na zakujala ChiTumbuka ŵakamangika na kulengeskeka nangauli mipingo ngati ni Church of Central Africa Presbyterian (CCAP) na Katolika ikapitilizga kugwiliska ntchito chiTumbuka mu kuphalazga mazgo ghawo mu Chigaŵa cha kumpoto kwa Malaŵi.

Ulamulilo wa vipani vinandi wati wayamba, ma pulogilamu gha mu ChiTumbuka ghakayambaso kuwuluskika mu chaka cha 1994 kwene mu 1996 zakuti ChiTumbuka chiweleleso muma sukulu vikapangika chala.Chifukwa chikulu chomene icho chikapangiska kuti ChiTumbuka chileke kuwelela mu boma ntchakuti viyowoyelo vyaku mpoto vidoko vidoko ngati ntchi Tonga,Chinkhonde na vinyake vikayambaso kupikisana na ChiTumbuka kuti navo vingaŵa vikulu.Ivi vikapangiska kuti paŵevye kukolelanako pakati pa ŵanthu ŵa ku mpoto kwa Malaŵi.

Mbili[lemba | kulemba source]

Mapu yakulongola kukhala kwa ŴaTumbuka mu 1906 British Central Africa

Ŵatumbuka ŵakusachizgika kuti ŵakanjila mu malo ggha pakati pa chisaghala cha Luangwa ( Luangwa valley ) na kumpoto kwa Nyanja ya Malaŵi mu vyaka vya muma 1500. Kumayambililo gha vyaka vyamuma 1800,Ŵatumbuka ŵakapanga magulu ghangapo, kusazgapo linyake lakuchemeka Henga,kukhala mu uchoko, mwakujilamulila na kwambula kugomezga nkhongono za mulamulili waliyose, ŵakatandazgika mu malo agha. Ku umalilo kwa vyaka vya muma 1800, ŵamalonda ŵakuvyala ngati ni ma “Arabs”, nangauli ŵakafumila ku Chigaŵa cha Unyamwezi icho sono ni malo gha Tanzania ŵakapanganga malonda ghakuguliska mazipondo gha zovu na nyengo zinyake ŵakagulisanga ŵakapolo mumalo ngati nga chisaghala cha Luangwa (Luangwa valley).Ŵakapanga umoza na Henga, ndipo mulamulili wawo wakaŵa Chikulamayembe uwo ukalamulilanga fumu zichokzichoko Nnagauli mu vyaka vya muma 1830, ufumu wa Chikulamaybe uwu ukayamba kuwa ndipo malo ghake ghakazgoka gha vya ndale vyambula kukolelananko

Unandi wa zovu za kumpoto zikayamba kuchema ŵa Swahili awo ŵakazelelanga zovu nakukola mazipondo ghake na ŵamalonda nawo ŵakayamba kwiza kusazgapo na Ŵazungu. Mu vyaka vya muma 1840, ŵaSwahili ŵachi Arab wakanjila ku mpoto kwa Malaŵi na mdangilili Jumbe Salim bin Abdallah nakupanga malo gha malonda ku Nkhotakota pafupi na Nyanja ya Malawi. Malonda gha awo wakachitanga Jumbe Abdallah ghakugula na kugulisa ŵakapolo nakukaŵapeleka ku Zanzibar uko ŵakakhumbikanga mu minda kukayambiska chiwawa chakulimbana na ŵa Tumbuka. Kapolo mwanalume wakachemekanga kuti muzga panji kapolo, apo chituntulu wakaŵa kapolo mwanakazi.

NKONDO YA CHEPERE MUŴEMBA.[lemba | kulemba source]

Chenjezo : Mutu uwu ukukhumba kunozgeka (kulemba makola) (THIS CHAPTER BELOW NEEDS TO BE FIXED/REWRITTEN)

Chepere wakaŵa muBemba uyo wakafuma ku charu cha Wiza, sirya la Luwangwa uyo wakachepeska charu cha Wiza , ndipo wakambuka Luwangwa kwiza

ku Katumbi na Muyombe. Ndipo wakiza na mauvighakheghanandi na "<Vanakazi wuwo na maturiwuwo na marwarawuwo,akatenge nkha poke charo cha Chikuramayembe. Ndipo para wakati wapulika Chikura mayembe mwakutiCheperewathandaigecharokwaKatumbi, p~ra ngawa kutuma matenga mu vyaro vyose mu zifumu wall, " Mutenakwenda I

Chepere wapoka charo cha uYombe na kwa Katumbi." Para yose ya

zifumu na mauvi gha"<Vo zimbata zikulira yikwiza ku Themba, para nga wakutumaso tenga linyakhe kwiza kwa Chungu, all, .. Wamnyane upite

uko pera, tikumanenge ku Uyombe; Chepere wapoka charo; endanga

ruwiro." Ndipera para Chungu nayo ku Nkhonde ndawakukumba

khondoyakheyose,zimbatazikulira wakurutawakwera nthowayaNthalire.

Kura Chikuramayembe wafika kale. Mwa Katumbi yasumbirirana;

na Chepere nayo akazenga, 'Mwe I nayo wati waka tarasu mu malinga

mukati; vitanda viku"Va, "Vasaza wakumara; mandamba pasi kwati

dyampu, " Vana " Va " Vantu I wakuchita ntheura mwina Nkhonjera Ka mphungu wakalipa waneneska wali, "Mivwi muvutirenge pa moto

yipyenge ; mochere nyumba zgawo mu linga " ; para nadi nga"Vakupa nga maluvumbo "Vakavukutira mivwi j para yapya yati kwa, yiri pafupi

na kununa nga ndi mphura, nga" Vakukoweka mu uta twe I pa nyumba

pachanyachwipi I nyumba toro, zgose mulinga; " Vantu mulinga,.. Ekwel

tapya"; ndiyo mbi. Wakuwaro '\Vati, .. Komani wantu I yoJa mbumba

na "<Vasaza wuwo I" skono tumalinga tose wakachitanga ntbaura pera,

napo malinga ghakawa ghanandiasukawakumana na munyakhe Chungu,

uko nayo Chungu waviyola waleka waka. Vinji *akasora viBemba vina

Chepere, ''\Vachimbizgana navyo wayakaviperekezga mu uSenga, skono

Zovu za kumpoto zakachema vyongo.