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Ufumu wa Zanzibar

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Kufuma Wikipedia

Sultanate of Zanzibar
Mbendela Emblem
Nyimbo: National Anthem of Zanzibar
(Until 1890)
National March for the Sultan of Zanzibar
(1911–1964)[1]
Sultanate of Zanzibar in pink
Sultanate of Zanzibar in pink
Sultanate of Zanzibar in pink
Pasono Protectorate
Msumba WabomaStone Town
Mitundu ya Ŵanthu {{{ethnic_groups}}}
Vipembezo Islam[2]
Mtundu wa Boma Absolute monarchy
(1856–1963)
Constitutional monarchy
(1963–1964)
Ndalama Zanzibari ryal[3] (1882–1908)
Zanzibari rupee (1908–1935)
East African shilling (1935–1964)
Indian rupee and Maria Theresa thaler also circulated

Ufumu wa Zanzibar (Chiswahili: Usultani wa Zanzibar, Arabic: سلطنة زنجبار, romanized: Sulṭanat Zanjībār), uwo ukumanyikwaso kuti Ufumu wa Zanzibar, ukaŵa boma la Chisilamu ilo likawusikanga na Fumu ya Zanzibar, pakati pa 1856 na 1964.[4] Chigaŵa cha ufumu uwu chikapambananga nyengo na nyengo, ndipo pamanyuma pa nyengo ya kuchepa, boma likaŵa na mazaza pa chigaŵa cha Zanzibar Archipelago pera na chigaŵa cha makilomita 16 kufupi na m'mphepete mwa Kenyan coast.

Pa Okutobala 8, 1963, themba la Zanzibar likapangana kuti lileke kulamulira chigaŵa icho chikakhalako. Pa Janyuwale 12, 1964, Jamshid bin Abdullah, sultan waumaliro, wakathereskeka na kutaya mazaza pa ufumu wake waumaliro, wa Zanzibar.

Mbiri[lemba | kulemba source]

Founding[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu 1698, Zanzibar yikaŵa chigaŵa cha Oman pamanyuma pakuti Saif bin Sultan, Imam wa Oman, wathereska Ŵapwitikizi ku Mombasa, uko sono ni Kenya. Mu 1832 panji 1840, Sayid bin Sultan uyo wakaŵa fumu ya Oman wakasamuska nyumba yake kufuma ku Muscat kuya ku Stone Town pa cirwa ca Unguja (Zanzibar Island). Wakakhozga ŵanthu ŵa ku Arabia kuti ŵambe kulima viŵaya, na kugwiliskira ntchito ŵazga ŵa pa chirwa ichi. Ŵamalonda ŵa ku India ndiwo ŵakamba kuguliska vinthu mu Zanzibar, ndipo Said wakaŵachiska kuti ŵakhalenge pa chirwa ichi. Pamanyuma pa nyifwa yake mu 1856, ŵana ŵake ŵaŵiri, Majid bin Said na Thuwaini bin Said, ŵakakwesana pa nkhani ya kuwusa, ntheura Zanzibar na Oman vikagaŵikana mu vigaŵa viŵiri. Thuwaini wakazgoka Sultan wa Muscat na Oman apo Majid wakazgoka Sultan wakwamba wa Zanzibar, kweni wakeneranga kupeleka msonkho wa chaka na chaka ku khoti la Oman ku Muscat. Mu nyengo ya muwuso wake wa vilimika 14, Majid wakalutilira kuŵa na mazaza pa malonda gha ŵazga. Barghash bin Said, uyo wakanjira mu malo ghake, wakawovwira kuti ŵazga ŵaleke kuguliskika mu Zanzibar. Khalifa bin Said, uyo wakaŵa fumu yacitatu, nayo wakacitiska kuti caru ici cileke kuŵa na ŵazga.

Munthu munyake uyo wakalembako mabuku mu vyaka vya m'ma 1500, zina lake Leo Africanus, wakati Zanzibar (Zanguebar) ni zina ilo Ŵaarabu na Ŵaperesiya ŵakagwiliskiranga ntchito pakuyowoya za kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Africa, kufuma ku Kenya m'paka ku Mozambique. Africanus wakayowoyaso kuti wose ŵakaŵa na mapangano gha kugomezgeka na vyaru vikuruvikuru vya ku Central Africa, kusazgapo Ufumu wa Mutapa.[5][6]

Ivyo vikulongora kuti Sultani wakaleka kuwusa[lemba | kulemba source]

Ufumu wa Zanzibar c. 1875

M'paka mu 1884, mafumu gha ku Zanzibar ghakaŵa na mazaza pa chigaŵa chikuru cha mumphepete mwa nyanja ya Swahili, icho chikachemekanga Zanj, kweniso pa nthowa zakwendakwenda izo zikendanga m'paka ku Kindu pa Mlonga wa Congo. Ndipouli, mu caka ici, wupu wa German Colonization Society ukacicizga ŵalongozgi ŵa cigaŵa ici kuti ŵavomerezgenge kuvikilirika na ŵa German. Mu 1885 pakaŵaso kampani yinyake ya ku Germany yakuchemeka German East Africa Company, iyo yikaŵa na mulimo wa kuzenga malo agha.

Mu 1886, ŵa ku Britain na Germany ŵakakumana mwakubisilizga na kudumbiskana za ivyo ŵakakhumbanga kucita kuti ŵasazgireko mazaza ghawo mu vyaru vya ku Africa. Maufumu ghose ghaŵiri ghakachita lenti malo gha mumphepete mwa nyanja kufuma ku Zanzibar na kuzenga malo ghakwendeskera malonda. Mu vilimika vicoko waka vyakulondezgapo, vyaru vyose vya ku Zanzibar vikaŵa pasi pa mazaza gha ufumu wa Europe, kwamba mu 1888 apo British East Africa Company yikamba kuwusa msumba wa Mombasa.[7]

Mu chaka chenechichi, kampani ya German East Africa Company yikamba kulamulira chigaŵa cha mumphepete mwa nyanja icho kale chikaŵa pasi pa boma la Germany. Ici cikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵa mu caru ici ŵambe kuwukira boma la Abushiri, ilo likadumulika na ŵasilikari ŵa Kaiserliche Marine.

Chirwa cha Unguja na charu cha Africa

Kukhazikiska Charu cha Zanzibar[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu 1890, Ufumu wa Britain na Ufumu wa Germany ukati wasazga phangano la Heligoland-Zanzibar, Zanzibar yikazgoka chigaŵa cha Britain. Mu Ogasiti 1896, pamanyuma pa nyifwa ya Sultan Hamad bin Thuwaini, Britain na Zanzibar ŵakarwa nkhondo ya maminiti 38, iyo yikaŵa yifupi comene kuluska yose. Ŵakalimbana kuti ŵatore ufumu apo mubali wa Sultani uyu, Khalid bin Barghash, wakatora mazaza. Ŵanandi ŵakakhumbanga kuti Hamoud bin Mohammed waŵe Sultan, cifukwa ŵakagomezganga kuti nchipusu kugwira nayo nchito. Ŵa Britain ŵakapeleka ora limoza kwa Khalid kuti wafumemo mu nyumba ya fumu ya ku Stone Town. Kweni Khalid wakatondeka kucita nthena, ndipo wakawunganya ŵasilikari 2,800 kuti ŵarwe na Ŵacigiriki. Ŵanalume ŵa ku Britain ŵakamba kuwukira nyumba ya ufumu na malo ghanyake agho ghakazingilizga msumba uwu. Pamanyuma pake Hamoud wakimikika kuŵa Sultan.

Kuti "Zanzibar" pa vilato ivi yikasazgapo mtunda wa makilomita 16 (10 mi) wa m'mphepete mwa nyanja wa Kenya uwo pamanyuma ukazgoka Protectorate of Kenya ukaŵa nkhani iyo yikalembeka mu ma parliamentary debates pa nyengo iyo.[8]

Kukhazikiskika kwa Charu cha East Africa[lemba | kulemba source]

The Harem and Tower Harbour of Zanzibar (p.234), London Missionary Society[9]

Mu 1886, boma la Britain likakhozga William Mackinnon, uyo wakaŵa kuti wali kale na phangano na Sultan ndipo kampani yake yikaguliskanga katundu mu nyanja zikuru za ku Africa. Wakambiska bungwe la British East Africa Association, ilo likapangiska kuti mu 1888, kampani ya Imperial British East Africa Company yiŵe na wanangwa wakulamulira chigaŵa ichi. Chikaŵa na mtunda wa makilomita 240 (150 mi) kufuma ku Mlonga wa Jubba kujumpha ku Mombasa m'paka ku German East Africa. Mu 1885, pa ungano uwo ukachitikira ku Berlin, Britain yikazomerezga kuti charu ichi chiŵe na mazaza pa charu chose. Mu nyengo iyi, msumba wa Mombasa ndiwo ukaŵa msumba ukuru.

Ndipouli, kampani iyi yikamba kunangika, ndipo pa Julayi 1, 1895, boma la Britain likapharazga kuti charu ichi ni boma lakuvikilirika ku vyaru vinyake. Mu 1902, boma likasinthaso ku ofesi ya Colonial Office ndipo chigaŵa cha Uganda chikaŵaso chigaŵa cha boma. Mu 1897, Fumu Delamere, uyo ndiyo wakambiska vyaru ivyo ŵanthu ŵazungu ŵakakhalanga, wakafika ku malo gha mapiri gha Kenya, agho ghakaŵa chigaŵa cha Protectorate. Mu 1902, vigaŵa vya chigaŵa ichi vikaŵa na chigaŵa icho kale chikachemekanga chigaŵa cha kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Uganda. Fumu Delamere yikamba kulima chomene, ndipo mu 1905, apo ŵalendo ŵanandi ŵakafuma ku Britain na South Africa, boma la Britain likasinthika kufuma ku ofesi ya vyaru vinyake kuya ku ofesi ya Colonial Office. Mu 1906, boma na wupu wakulongozga vinthu vikapangika. Mulara J. Hayes Sadler wakaŵa kazembe wakwamba ndiposo mulongozgi wa ŵasilikari. Nyengo zinyake pakaŵanga masuzgo na mafuko ghanyake, kweni boma la ku Europe likawuskapo ŵanthu ŵanandi mu charu ichi.[10]:761

Kutaya mazaza pa Kenya[lemba | kulemba source]

Pa Julayi 23, 1920, vigaŵa vya mukati mwa East Africa Protectorate vikaŵa vya Britain. Chigaŵa ichi chikaŵa pasi pa boma la Kenya, ndipo kufuma nyengo yira, themba la Zanzibar likalutilira yayi kulamulira charu ichi. Mphepete mwa nyanja ya makilomita 16 (10 mi) (kupatula Witu) yikalutilira kuŵa chivikiliro pasi pa phangano na Sultan wa Zanzibar. Mphepete mwa nyanja iyi, yikaŵa pasi pa muwuso wa themba la Zanzibar, ndipo mu 1920 yikazgoka chigaŵa cha Kenya.[7][11]

Charu cha Kenya chikaŵa chigaŵa cha charu cha Kenya chifukwa cha phangano ilo likaŵa pakati pa Britain na Sultan pa Disembala 14, 1895. "Protectorate of Kenya" yikaŵa mtunda wa makilomita 16 (10 mi) pamoza na virwa vinyake ivyo vikaŵa pasi pa muwuso wa Sultan wa Zanzibar mpaka apo Kenya yikapokera wanangwa.

Pa Disembala 12, 1963, ufumu wa Kenya na wa Kenya ukaleka kugwira ntchito. Ufumu wa United Kingdom ukaleka kulamulira charu cha Kenya ndipo pakukolerana pa Okutobala 8, 1963, themba likazomerezga kuti para charu cha Kenya chafwatuka, lileke kulamulira charu cha Kenya. Pakati pajumpha myezi 12, pa Disembala 12, 1964, charu cha Kenya chikazgoka charu cha "Republic of Kenya".[10]:762

End of the Zanzibar Protectorate and deposition of the Sultan[lemba | kulemba source]

Sitampu ya kujiyimira pawekha iyo yili na mazgu ghakuti "Republic"

Pa Disembala 10, 1963, boma la United Kingdom likamazga muwuso uwo ukaŵa pa Zanzibar kwambira mu 1890. Boma la United Kingdom likazomerezga yayi kuti Zanzibar yiŵe na wanangwa uwu cifukwa likakhumba yayi kuwusa. Mu malo mwake, na Dango la Zanzibar Act 1963 la United Kingdom, UK yikamazga boma la Protectorate ndipo yikapeleka boma lakujiyimira palokha ku Zanzibar nga ni chalo cakujiyimira paŵekha mukati mwa Commonwealth. Pakumazga muwuso uwu, Zanzibar yikazgoka boma lachifumu. Sultan Jamshid bin Abdullah wakathereskeka pamanyuma pa mwezi umoza mu nyengo ya Zanzibar Revolution. Jamshid wakacimbilira ku caru cinyake, ndipo ufumu wa Sultanate ukasinthika na Republic of Zanzibar. Mu Epulero 1964, caru ici cikamara apo cikakolerana na Tanganyika na kupanga caru ca United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, ico pamanyuma pa myezi 6 cikacemeka Tanzania.[12]

Ŵanthu[lemba | kulemba source]

Kuzakafika mu 1964, caru ici cikaŵa na muwuso wa muwuso wa ŵeneco mukati mwa Commonwealth uyo wakawusikanga na Sultan Jamshid bin Abdullah. Mu Zanzibar mukaŵa ŵanthu pafupifupi 230,000, ndipo ŵanyake ŵakatenge mbakufuma ku Peresiya. Kweniso mu charu ichi mukaŵa ŵanthu ŵachoko waka, Ŵarabu 50,000 na ŵanthu ŵa ku South Asia 20,000. Ŵanthu ŵa mafuko ghakupambanapambana ŵakasazgikana, ndipo pakaŵavya mphambano pakati pawo. Munthu munyake wakulemba mdauko wakati chifukwa chikuru icho ŵanthu ŵakakhozgeranga Sultan Jamshid chikaŵa chifukwa chakuti mbumba yake yikaŵa yakupambana mitundu. Ndipouli, ŵanthu ŵa ku Arabia awo ŵakakhalanga pa cirwa ici, ŵakaŵa ŵasambazi comene kuluska ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha.[13]

Wonaniso[lemba | kulemba source]

Template:History of Oman

Ukaboni[lemba | kulemba source]

  1. "Zanzibar (1911-1964) – nationalanthems.info".
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named historyzanzibar
  3. "Coins of Zanzibar". Numista. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
  4. Ndzovu, Hassan J. (2014). "Historical Evolution of Muslim Politics in Kenya from the 1840s to 1963". Muslims in Kenyan Politics: Political Involvement, Marginalization, and Minority Status. Northwestern University Press. pp. 17–50. ISBN 9780810130029. JSTOR j.ctt22727nc.7.
  5. Africanus, Leo (1526). The History and Description of Africa. Hakluyt Society. pp. 51–54. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
  6. Ogot, Bethwell A. (1974). Zamani: A Survey of East African History. East African Publishing House. p. 104.
  7. 7.0 7.1 "British East Africa". www.heliograph.com.
  8. "BRITISH EAST AFRICA. (Hansard, 13 June 1895)". hansard.millbanksystems.com.
  9. "The Harem and Tower Harbour of Zanzibar". Chronicles of the London Missionary Society. 1890. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Roberts-Wray, Sir Kenneth (1966). Commonwealth and Colonial Law. F.A. Praeger.
  11. Kenya Protectorate Order in Council, 1920 S.R.O. 1920 No. 2343, S.R.O. & S.I. Rev. VIII, 258, State Pp., Vol. 87 p. 968
  12. Appiah & Gates 1999, p. 2045
  13. Shillington 2005, p. 1716

Mabuku[lemba | kulemba source]

Vigaŵa vya kuwalo[lemba | kulemba source]