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Mbiri ya Tanzania

Kufuma Wikipedia

Charu cha Tanzania icho chili ku Afilika, chikamba mu 1964, apo charu ichi chikapangika kufuma ku chigaŵa chikuru cha Tanganyika na chigaŵa cha Zanzibar. Charu ichi chikaŵa chigaŵa cha German East Africa kufuma mu 1880 m'paka mu 1919 apo chikaŵa pasi pa League of Nations. Mu nyengo ya Nkhondo Yachiŵiri ya Caru Cose, msumba uwu ndiwo ukaŵa malo ghakuliskako ŵasilikari ŵa Britain, ndipo ŵakapelekanga ndalama, vilwero, na ŵasilikari. Mu 1947, charu cha Tanganyika chikaŵa pasi pa boma la Britain, ndipo chikalutilira kulamulira m'paka apo chikapokera wanangwa mu 1961. Chirwa cha Zanzibar chikaŵa malo ghakwendeskera malonda, ndipo pamanyuma pake Ŵapwitikizi ŵakamba kulamulira charu cha Oman.

Julius Nyerere, mulongozgi wa wanangwa na "baba wa taifa" wa Tanganyika (baba wa mtundu wa Tanganyika), wakawusa chalo kwa virimika vinandi, apo Abeid Amaan Karume, wakawusa Zanzibar nga ni president na vice president wa United Republic of Tanzania. Nyerere wakati wafumapo pa udindo mu 1985, vinthu vikasintha pa ndyali na vyachuma. Wakasoleka na Pulezidenti Ali Hassan Mwinyi.

Nkhani za mu nyengo yakale[lemba | kulemba source]

Nyengo Yakwambilira ya Malibwe[lemba | kulemba source]

Malo gha Olduvai Gorge agho ghakumanyikwaso kuti "Malo gha ŵanthu"
Louis and Mary Leakey

Ku Tanzania kuli malo ghanyake ghakale comene agho ŵasayansi ŵakasanga. Vinthu vyakale chomene ivyo ŵanthu ŵakagwiliskiranga ntchito na viswaswa vikusangika mu Olduvai Gorge, kumpoto kwa Tanzania. Mu 1931, Louis Leakey wakabowozga kuti malibwe agho Hans Reck wakiza nagho ku Germany kufuma ku Olduvai mu 1913 ni malibwe. Mu chaka chenechicho, Louis Leakey wakasanga vinthu vyakale chomene mu Olduvai Gorge. Ivi ndivyo vikaŵa viyelezgero vyakwamba vya vinthu vyakale chomene ivyo ŵanthu ŵakavumbura mu Afilika, ndipo pamasinda vikamanyikwa pa charu chose chapasi kuti Oldowan.[1]

Nyengo ya Malibwe[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu mphanji ya Mumba, kumpoto kwa Tanzania muli vinthu vya mu nyengo ya pakati pa nyengo ya malibwe (MSA) m'paka mu nyengo yaumaliro ya malibwe (LSA). Mu nyengo iyi, ŵasayansi ŵanandi ŵakumanya umo ŵanthu ŵakugwilira ntchito mazuŵa ghano.[2]

Nyengo Yakunthazi ya Malibwe na Nyengo ya Malibwe[lemba | kulemba source]

Vyaka pafupifupi 10,000 kumasinda mu nyengo ya malibwe, ŵanthu ŵakagomezganga kuti mu Tanzania mukaŵa ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga na ŵanthu awo ŵakakoperanga. Pakati pa vilimika 4,000 na 3,000 ivyo vyajumpha, mu nyengo iyo yikumanyikwa kuti nyengo ya viŵeto, ŵaliska ŵa viŵeto awo ŵakendanga na ng'ombe, mberere, mbuzi, na mbunda ŵakiza ku Tanzania kufuma kumpoto.[3] Ŵanthu ŵa ku Savanna Pastoral Neolithic (awo ŵanthu ŵawo ŵakwenera kuti ŵakayowoyanga chiyowoyero cha ku Southern Cushitic) na Elmenteitan (awo ŵanthu ŵawo ŵakwenera kuti ŵakayowoyanga chiyowoyero cha ku Southern Nilotic) ndiwo ŵakamanyikwa. Luxmanda ni malo ghakurughakuru comene na ghakumwera comene agho ghakumanyikwa na ŵanthu ŵa ku Tanzania.[4]

Nyengo ya Chitsulo[lemba | kulemba source]

Pafupifupi vyaka 2000 ivyo vyajumpha, ŵanthu awo ŵakayowoyanga Chibantu ŵakamba kufuma ku vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Afilika. Magulu agha ghakaŵa na maluso ghakunozga visulo, ulimi, na fundo ziphya zakukhwaskana na ndyali. Ŵakapokeleraso ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Kushiti awo ŵakakhalako pambere iwo ŵandababike, kweniso ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakayowoyanga Chikhoisan. Nyengo yikati yajumphapo, ŵaliska ŵa viŵeto ŵa ku Nile ŵakafika mu chigaŵa ichi, ndipo ŵakalutilira kwiza m'paka mu ma 1800.[5]

Yumoza mwa malo ghakuzirwa comene gha ku Tanzania agho ghakusangika mu nyengo ya Iron Age ni Engaruka mu Great Rift Valley, uko kuli ulimi na ulimi.

Mbiri Yakwambilira ya Mphepete mwa Nyanja[lemba | kulemba source]

Ŵalendo na ŵamalonda ŵakufuma ku Persian Gulf na Western India ŵakendanga mu vyaru vya ku East Africa kwambira mu vyaka vya m'ma 1000 C.E. Malemba gha Cigiriki nga ni Periplus of the Erythraean Sea na Ptolemy's Geography ghakalongosora vya misika iyo yikaŵa mumphepete mwa nyanja. Vinthu ivyo vikusangika mu nyengo ya Ŵaroma vikulongora kuti ŵanthu ŵakaguliskanga vinthu, ndipo buku la Ptolemy's Geography likuti msumba wa Rhapta ukaŵa msumba wa ndyali. Ŵakufukura vinthu vyakale ŵandamanye uko kukaŵa msumba wa Rhapta, nangauli ŵanandi ŵakugomezga kuti ukaŵa pasi pa maji gha mu Mlonga wa Rufiji. Pa mabuku ghakale agha pakaŵavya nkhani zinandi izo zikulongosora vya malo agha.

Vinthu vinyake ivyo vikukhala mu matawuni agha vikulongora kuti ghakafuma ku ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha. Ndipo ciyowoyero ico ŵakayowoyanga, Ciswahili (ico sono ni ciyowoyero ca caru cose ca ku Tanzania), nchimoza mwa viyowoyero vya ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Bantu ivyo vikamba kucitika kumpoto kwa Kenya pambere Ŵaarabu ŵandambe kuŵapo mu cigaŵa ici. Pakwamba kwa vyaka vya m'ma 1000 C.E., matawuni gha Chiswahili ghakachitanga malonda ghanandi chomene ndipo ghakakumananga na ŵanthu ŵa ku Afilika awo ŵakakhalanga mu vigaŵa vya mukati na awo ŵakaguliskanga nawo mu nyanja ya Indian Ocean. Kufuma cha m'ma 1200 m'paka 1500 C.E., tawuni ya Kilwa Kisiwani (Kilwa), ku mphepete mwa nyanja ya kumwera kwa Tanzania, yikaŵa yikusambazi comene na yankhongono comene pa tawuni izi. Kuuyambiro wa vyaka vya m'ma 1400, Ibn Battuta, uyo wakaŵa mulendo wa ku North Africa, wakaluta ku Kilwa ndipo wakati ni msumba uwemi chomene pa charu chose. Chisilamu chikamba kugwira ntchito ku Swahili mu vyaka vya m'ma 800 panji 900 C.E.[6][7]

Mu 1498, Vasco da Gama, uyo wakafuma ku Portugal, ndiyo wakaŵa munthu wakwamba wa ku Europe kufika ku Afilika.[8] Mu 1505 Ŵapwitikizi ŵakapoka cirwa ca Zanzibar.[9] Ŵapwitikizi ŵakalutilira kuwusa mpaka mu ma 1800, apo Ŵaarabu ŵa ku Oman ŵakamba kukhala mu chigaŵa ichi. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Oman awo ŵakakhalanga mumphepete mwa nyanja ŵakathereska Ŵapwitikizi kumpoto kwa mlonga wa Ruvuma. Pakukhumba malo agha, Sultan Seyyid Said wa ku Oman wakasamuskira msumba wake ukuru ku msumba wa Zanzibar mu 1840.[9] Wakafika pa chirwa ichi na kupanga nthowa zakwendakwenda izo zikendanga m'paka ku Nyanja ya Tanganyika na Central Africa. Mu nyengo iyi, Zanzibar yikazgoka malo ghakurughakuru gha malonda gha ŵazga mu nyanja ya Indian Ocean. Chifukwa cha muwuso wa Ŵaarabu na Ŵaperesiya, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Europe ŵakatondeka kupulikiska umo ŵanthu ŵa ku Swahili ŵakakhalira. Ndipouli, mu vyaka 40 ivyo vyajumpha, ŵanthu ŵakamba kuleka kupulikiska makora chiyowoyero ichi chifukwa ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakumanya kuti ŵanthu ŵa ku Swahili ŵali kufuma ku Afilika.[10]

Tanganyika (1850–1890)[lemba | kulemba source]

Charu cha Tanganyika chikaŵa na malo na ndyali zinandi chomene, kweni chikaŵako yayi pambere Ufumu wa Wupu Wakulongozga undafike. Ntheura, ico cikuyowoyeka apa ni mbiri ya cigaŵa ico cikeneranga kuzgoka Tanzania. Chigaŵa chinyake cha chigaŵa cha Great Lakes, ndiko kuti, kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Nyanja ya Victoria, chikaŵa na maufumu ghachoko waka, chomenechomene Karagwe na Buzinza, agho ghakaŵa pasi pa mazaza gha vyaru vyapafupi nga ni Rwanda, Burundi, na Buganda.

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakamba kusanda malo agha pakati pa vyaka vya m'ma 1800. Mu 1848, mishonale wa ku Germany, Johannes Rebmann, wakaŵa munthu wakwamba wa ku Europe kuwona Phiri la Kilimanjaro.[11] Richard Burton na John Speke, awo ŵakaŵa ŵanthu ŵa ku Britain, ŵakambukira ku Nyanja ya Tanganyika mu Juni 1857.[12] Mu Janyuwale 1866, David Livingstone, uyo wakaŵa mishonale wa ku Scotland, wakaluta ku Zanzibar kukapenja maji gha mu Mlonga wa Nayelo. Pamanyuma pakuti wakakhala vyaka vinandi kwambura kuyowoyeskana na ŵanthu ŵa kuwaro, ŵakamusanga pa Novembala 10, 1871. Henry Morton Stanley, uyo wakatumika na nyuzipepara ya New York Herald kuti wamusange, wakamutawuzga na mazgu ghakumanyikwa comene ghakuti: "Dr. Livingstone, kasi?" Mu 1877, gulu lakwamba la ŵanthu ŵa ku Belgium ŵakiza ku Zanzibar. Mu 1879, ŵakazenga siteshoni ku Kigoma kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Nyanja ya Tanganyika. Masiteshoni ghose ghaŵiri agha ghakazengeka na zina la Comite D'Etudes Du Haut Congo, gulu ilo likaŵa lakwamba la Congo Free State. Mu 1884, boma la Germany likamba kukolerana na vyaru vinyake.[13]:page 90 Karl Peters, uyo wakambiska wupu wakucemeka Society for German Colonization, wakacita mapangano ghanandi agho ghakazomerezganga ŵalongozgi ŵa mafuko kuti ŵagaŵire malo ku ŵanthu aŵa.[13]:page 90 Mu 1885, boma la Fumu Otto von Bismarck likapeleka civikiliro ku kampani ya German East Africa Company iyo yikapangika na Peters.:page 90

Pa ungano wa ku Berlin mu 1885, boma la Belgium likakondwa comene cifukwa ca umo boma la Kigoma likakhazikiskikira na kupelekera vyakurya kufuma ku Zanzibar na Bagamoyo. Kuyana na umo ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakughanaghanira, pa ungano wa ku Berlin, caru ca Afilika cikagaŵikana yayi, kweni ŵakawoneseska kuti maboma gha vyaru vinyake na maboma ghanyake gha vyaru vinyake ghaŵe na malango ghakwendeskera vinthu. Apo ŵa ku Belgium ŵakamba kutemwa chomene Mlonga wa Congo, ŵa ku Britain na Germany ŵakamba kutemwa chomene vyaru vya kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Afilika ndipo mu 1886 ŵakagaŵikana chigaŵa cha East Afilika. Nyengo yikati yajumphapo, boma la Congo Free State likapeleka ku Germany chigaŵa cha Kigoma (malo ghake ghakale chomene mu Central Africa) na chigaŵa chilichose cha kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Nyanja ya Tanganyika.

German East Africa[lemba | kulemba source]

Ŵakaleka kulimbana na Ŵachijeremani mu vigaŵa vya mukati, ndipo ŵakamba kwambaso kuwungana mu German East Africa. Ŵakalutilira kucita nkhaza na mazaza ghawo kwambura kuzirwiska malango na mitheto ya uko ŵakakhalanga. Apo boma la Germany likapelekanga vyakurya, njanji, na misewu ku Tanganyika, ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakasuskanga ŵanthu ŵa ku Afilika. Pakati pa 1891 na 1894, ŵanthu ŵa Hehe awo ŵakalongozgekanga na Chief Mkwawa ŵakalimbana na Ŵachijeremani. Pamanyuma pa nkhondo ya ŵasilikari, Mkwawa wakajikoma mu 1898.

Kulimbana na Maji Maji[lemba | kulemba source]

Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakakwiya, ndipo mu 1902, ŵakamba kulimbana na ŵanthu awo ŵakaŵachichizganga kugwira ntchito za wuzga. Nkhondo iyi yikamara mu Julayi 1905 apo Matumbi ŵa ku Nandete ŵakalongozgeka na Kinjikitile Ngwale ŵakagalukira ŵamazaza ŵa ku malo agha (akida) ndipo mwamabuci ŵakamba kusanuzgika kufuma ku Dar Es Salaam kuya ku mapiri gha Uluguru, Kilombero Valley, Mahenge na Makonde plateaus, Ruvuma mu chigaŵa chakumwera chomene na Kilwa, Songea, Masasi, na kufuma ku Kilosa kuya ku Iringa mpaka ku mafumiro gha dazi kwa Nyanja ya Nyasa. Kuwukira uku kukafika pachanya mu nyengo ya Maji Maji mu 1905-1907. Nkhondo iyi yikati yamara, ŵanthu pafupifupi 300,000 ŵa ku Afilika ŵakafwa na njara. Kafukufuku wakulongora kuti ŵanthu ŵakasuzgikanga comene cifukwa ca mitheto yawo.

Ŵachijeremani ŵakakhalira mu malo agha kwambira mu 1897 ndipo ŵakasintha comene umoyo wa ŵanthu. Ŵamishonale ŵakaŵawovwira comene ndipo ŵakayezga kuti ŵaparanyirethu visambizgo vya ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha, comenecomene ŵakawotcha nyumba za mahoka uko ŵanthu ŵakasopanga mizimu ya ŵasekuru ŵawo. Ici cikaŵa cambura kuluwika panji kugowokereka; nkhondo yakwamba iyo yikacitika pa Uwereka mu Seputembala 1905 pasi pa muwuso wa Count Gustav Adolf von Götzen, nyengo yeneyiyo yikasintha kuŵa nkhondo yikuru comene na kukoma ŵanthu kwambura kupambaniska na kukoma ŵanthu ŵanandi pa vigaŵa vyose. Nkhondo iyi yikamanyikwa kuti Nkhondo ya Maji-Maji, ndipo ŵanthu ŵa ku Ngoni ndiwo ŵakathereskeka comene.

Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Caru Cose[lemba | kulemba source]

Nkhondo ya Tanga, yikacitika pakati pa Ŵanandi na Ŵachijeremani mu Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Caru Cose

Pambere nkhondo yindambe, caru ca German East Africa cikaŵa cakunozgeka kulimbana na cilicose ico cingacitika kwambura kunozgekera. Mu chaka chakwamba cha nkhondo, Ŵachijeremani ŵakaŵa ŵankhongono comene mwakuti ŵakamba kuwukira vigaŵa vya ŵazengezgani ŵawo. Mwaciyelezgero, kanandi ŵakasuzganga njanji za ku British East Africa. Nkhondo yikati yamba, ŵanthu ŵakamanyanga yayi umo ŵasilikari ŵa Germany ŵakaŵa ŵankhongono. Mulara wa ŵasilikari ŵa ku Britain, Jan Smuts, uyo wakadangiliranga ŵasilikari ŵa ku East Africa kwamba mu 1916, wakati ŵakaŵa Ŵachijeremani 2,000 na Ŵaaskari 16,000. Mu 1913, ŵanalume ŵambura kutengwa ŵakaŵapo 3,500 (panji kuti pakaŵavya ŵasilikari ŵa ku Germany). Kweniso, ŵanthu ŵa mu caru ici awo ŵakaŵa ŵakujumpha 7,000,000, ŵakaŵa na ŵanthu ŵanandi comene kuti ŵagwirenge nchito. "Palije cifukwa ca kukayikira kuti Ŵaciroma ŵakagwiliskira nchito comene vinthu ivi mu myezi pafupifupi 18 iyo yikajumphapo kufuma apo nkhondo yikambira mpaka apo ŵasilikari ŵakamba kuwukira caru cawo".

Kweniso malo gha ku German East Africa ghakaŵa ghakusuzga chomene ku ŵasilikari ŵa Britain na ŵanyawo. Ku mumphepete mwa nyanja kukaŵa malo ghacoko waka ghakukwana ghakukhilirapo, ndipo kukaŵa vyakumera vinandi. Ku chigaŵa cha kumanjiliro gha dazi kukaŵa nyanja na mapiri ndipo ŵanthu ŵakasuzgikanga chomene. Ŵasilikari ŵa boma la Belgian Congo ŵakeneranga kujumpha mu Uganda. Kumwera, mlonga wa Ruvuma ukendanga pera. Ku mpoto, kukaŵa waka malo ghamoza agho ghakaŵa ghakukwana makilomita ghankhondi na ghatatu pakati pa mapiri gha Pare na Phiri la Kilimanjaro, ndipo kuno ŵasilikari ŵa Germany ŵakasunkhunyika kwa myezi 18..[14]

Mu 1914, caru ca Germany cikamba nkhondo mwa kuwukira msumba wa Tanga. Ŵasilikari ŵa Britain ŵakamba kuwukira tawuni iyi mu Novembala 1914, kweni ŵasilikari ŵa Jenerale Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck ŵakaŵathereska pa Nkhondo ya Tanga. Mu Janyuwale 1915, ŵasilikari ŵa boma la Britain ŵakanjira mu caru ca Mafia Island. Ndipouli, "ciwukirano ico cikacitikira ku Tanga na nkhondo zinandi zicoko comene izo zikalondezgana na ici, [vikalongora] nkhongono za... [Ŵasilikari ŵa Germany] ndipo vikalongora kuti pakwenera kuŵa ŵasilikari ŵankhongono comene pambere ŵandambe kupoka [Afirika Wakumafumiro gha Dazi kwa Germany]. Cinthu ca mtundu uwu cikeneranga kulindilira nyengo yiwemi pa nkhondo za ku Europe na kunyake. Kweni mu Julayi 1915, ŵasilikari ŵaumaliro ŵa Germany ŵakaluta ku Southwest. Ŵafrika ŵakajipeleka ndipo ŵasilikari awo ŵakakhumbikwiranga ŵakasangika". Ŵasilikari ŵa Britain kufuma kumpoto ca kumafumiro gha dazi na kumwera ca kumanjiliro gha dazi na ŵa Belgian kufuma kumpoto kwa kumanjiliro gha dazi ŵakamba kuwukira na kuthereska ŵasilikari ŵa Germany kwamba mu Janyuwale 1916. Mu Okutobala 1916, Jenerale Smuts wakalemba kuti: "Kupatulako ku Mahenge Plateau, [Ŵajeremani] ŵali kutaya cigaŵa cilicose ciwemi panji cakuzirwa ca malo ghawo.".[14]

Cifukwa cakuti wakaŵa kutali na Germany, Jenerale Von Lettow wakalutilira kucita nkhondo ya nkhondo mu 1917. Mu Disembala, ŵasilikari ŵa Germany awo ŵakaŵa kuti ŵachalipo ŵakafumamo mu tawuni iyi na kwambuka Mlonga wa Ruvuma kuluta ku Mozambique. Ŵasilikari aŵa ŵakaŵa 320 na Askari 2,500. Mu myezi yinkhondi na umoza ya 1917, Ŵachijeremani 1,618 na Ŵaaskari 5,482 ŵakakomeka panji kukakika. Mu Novembala 1918, ŵasilikari ŵake ŵakakhalako ŵakajipeleka kufupi na ku Mbala, Zambia, ndipo ŵakaŵa na ŵanthu 155 ŵa ku Europe, 1,165 ŵa ku Askari, 2,294 ŵa ku Afilika, na ŵanakazi 819 ŵa ku Afilika.[14]

Kuyana na phangano la ku Versailles, caru ca Germany cikapeleka malo ghake ghose agho ghakaŵa ku vyaru vinyake, kusazgapo German East Africa.[15] Ŵasilikari 3,443 ŵa Britain ŵakafwa pa nkhondo, ndipo 6,558 ŵakafwa na matenda.[13]:page 246 Chiŵelengero chakuyana na cha Belgium chikaŵa 683 na 1,300..[13]:page 246 Ŵajeremani ŵakataya ŵanthu 734 ŵa ku Europe na 1,798 ŵa ku Afilika.[13]:page 246

Ndondomeko ya Von Lettow ya kuwotcha caru na kupoka nyumba zikapangiska kuti boma lileke kusambizga ŵanthu, nangauli masukulu ghanyake ghakasungilira visambizgo. Mwakupambana na maboma gha ku Belgium, Britain, France, na Portugal, agho ghakaŵa ku Afilika, ku Germany kukaŵa masukulu ghakwamba, ghaciŵiri, na ghasono. Ŵasambizgi ŵakeneranga kuŵa na maluso, mabuku, na vinthu vinyake vyakusambizgira."[16] Mu 1924, pati pajumpha vilimika 10 kufuma apo Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Caru Cose yikambira ndiposo vilimika vinkhondi na cimoza kufuma apo Britain yikambira kuwusa, wupu wa Phelps-Stokes Commission wa ku America ukayowoya kuti: Pa nkhani ya masukulu, Ŵajeremani ŵacita vinthu vyakuzizwiska. Pakwenera kujumpha nyengo yitali pambere masambiro ghaleke kuŵa nga umo ghakaŵira mu nyengo ya Ŵachijeremani..[16] Kweni mu 1920, Dipatimenti ya Masambiro yikaŵa na mulara yumoza na ŵantchito ŵaŵiri, ndipo ndalama izo ŵakagwiliskiranga ntchito zikaŵa zakukwana 1% ya ndalama za mu charu.

Boma la Britain pamanyuma pa Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Caru Cose[lemba | kulemba source]

In 1919, the population was estimated at 3,500,000.

Mulara wakwamba wa boma la Britain pamanyuma pa Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Caru Cose wakaŵa Sir Horace Archer Byatt CMG, uyo wakasankhika na Royal Commission pa 31 January 1919.[17]:page 2 Mu Janyuwale 1920, chigaŵa ichi chikapika zina lakuti Tanganyika Territory.[13]:page 247[17]:page 3Mu Seputembala 1920, Dango la mu 1920 likakhazikiska mphaka za chigaŵa ichi, wupu wa Executive Council, na maofesi gha kazembe na mulara wa ŵasilikari..[17]:page 2 Kazembe wakapanganga malango mwakuyana na dango m'paka mu 1926.[17]:page 4

Britain na Belgium ŵakasazga phangano lakukhwaskana na mphaka pakati pa Tanganyika na Ruanda-Urundi mu 1924.[18]

The administration of the Territory continued to be carried out under the terms of the mandate until its transfer to the Trusteeship System under the Charter of the United Nations by the Trusteeship Agreement of 13 December 1946.

Boma la Britain likalongozganga ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha[lemba | kulemba source]

Kazembe Byatt wakawovwira kuti maboma gha mu Afilika ghaŵeso na nkhongono. Wakazomerezga kuti mu 1922 mabungwe gha ndyali ghapangike nga ni African Civil Service Association ya ku Tanganyika Territory, iyo mu 1929 yikazgoka Tanganyika African Association ndipo pamasinda yikaŵa chigaŵa chikuru cha gulu la ndyali.[19][better source needed] Kuyana na malango gha mu 1923, ŵalongozgi ŵanyake awo ŵakamanyikwanga ŵakaŵa na mazaza ghachoko waka.[17]:page 6

Sir Donald Cameron wakaŵa kazembe wa Tanganyika mu 1925.[17]:page 5 "Mulimo wake... ukaŵa wakuzirwa comene pakusintha ndyali za boma, comenecomene pakuyezgayezga kukhazikiska ndondomeko ya 'Ulamuliri Wambura Kuŵa Wakudunjika' kwizira mu ŵamazaza ŵa cikaya".[17]:page 5 Wakasuskanga comene fundo za Kazembe Byatt zakukhwaskana na muwuso wambura kwenelera Native Administration Memorandum No. 1, Principles of Native Administration and their Application.[17]:page 6

Mu 1926, Wupu Wakulongozga ukaŵa na ŵanthu 7 (ŵakufuma ku vyaru vinyake) na ŵanthu 13 awo ŵakazomerezgekanga na boma.[17]:pages 4–5 Mu 1945, ŵanthu ŵakwamba ŵa ku Afilika ŵakimikika mu wupu uwu.[17]:page 5 Wupu uwu ukapangika mu 1948 pasi pa Kazembe Edward Twining, ndipo ukaŵa na ŵanthu 15 (7 ŵa ku Europe, 4 ŵa ku Afilika, na 4 ŵa ku India) kweniso ŵanthu 14 ŵa boma.[17]:page 9 Julius Nyerere became one of the unofficial members in 1954.[17]:page 9 Mu 1955, wupu uwu ukaŵaso na ŵanthu 44 (10 ŵa ku Europe, 10 ŵa ku Afilika, 10 ŵa ku India, na ŵimiliri 14 ŵa boma) kweniso ŵanthu 17 ŵa boma.[17]:page 9

Mu 1929, Kazembe Cameron wakafumiska dango lakucemeka Native Courts Ordinance No. 5, ilo likawuskapo makhoti agha mu mawoko gha makhoti gha mu vyaru vinyake na kunozga nthowa yakuti kazembe ndiyo wapemphenge dankha.[17]:page 6

Kupanga njanji[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu 1928, njanji ya Tabora na Mwanza yikajulika.[20][21] Mzere kuchokera ku Moshi mpaka ku Arusha unatsegulidwa mu 1930.[13]:page 136

Kalembera wa 1931[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu 1931, ŵanthu ŵa ku Tanganyika ŵakaŵa 5,022,640, kusazgapo ŵanthu ŵa ku Asia 32,398 na ŵa ku Europe 8,228.

Vyakuchita vya umoyo na masambiro[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu nyengo ya ufumu wa Britain, ŵanthu ŵakamba kulimbana na nthenda ya tsetse fly (iyo yikwambiska nthenda ya African trypanosomiasis), maleriya na bilharziasis.

Mu 1926, boma likapeleka wovwiri ku masukulu agho ghakacitiskikanga na ŵamishonale. Kweni mu 1935, bajeti ya vya masambiro mu charu chose cha Tanganyika yikaŵa madola 290,000 gha ku America pera.

Ndondomeko ya tirigu wa Tanganyika[lemba | kulemba source]

Boma la Britain likaghanaghana vyakuti likure tirigu kuti lipeleke vyakurya ku Britain, uko kukaŵa nkhondo, kweniso ku Europe, uko ŵasilikari ŵa vyaru vyakupambanapambana ŵakalindiliranga kuti ŵathereske paumaliro wa Nkhondo Yachiŵiri ya Caru Cose. Mulimi munyake wa ku America wa ku Tanganyika, zina lake Freddie Smith, ndiyo wakalaŵiliranga, ndipo David Gordon Hines ndiyo wakalaŵiliranga ndalama. Chigaŵa ichi chikaŵa na malo ghakukwana 50,000 acres (202 km2) mu vidika vya Ardai kufupi na Arusha; 25,000 acres (101 km2) pa Phiri la Kilimanjaro; na 25,000 acres (101 km2) kulazga ku Ngorongoro kumanjiliro gha dazi. Makina ghose ghakafuma ku United States, kusazgapo mathirakitala 30, viŵiya vyakulimira, na viŵiya vyakulimira 30. Pakaŵa ŵalongozgi ŵa vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi awo ŵakagwiranga ntchito zaulimi na kuzenga. Ŵanandi mwa ŵantchito aŵa ŵakaŵa ŵazga ŵa nkhondo ŵa ku Italy ŵakufuma ku Somalia na Ethiopia. Mu vigaŵa vya Ardai mukaŵa vyakurya vinandi yayi, kweni mu vigaŵa vya Kilimanjaro na Ngorongoro mukaŵa vyakurya vinandi.[22][23]

World War II[lemba | kulemba source]

Pakati pajumpha mazuŵa ghaŵiri kufuma apo Nazi yikapokelera Poland, Britain yikapharazga nkhondo ndipo ŵasilikari ŵa Britain ku Tanganyika ŵakaphalirika kuti ŵakakake ŵanalume ŵa ku Germany awo ŵakakhalanga ku Tanganyika. Boma la Britain likawopanga kuti ŵanthu ŵa mu vyaru vya Axis aŵa ŵangayezga kovwira ŵasilikari ŵa Axis ndipo Ŵachijeremani ŵanyake awo ŵakakhalanga mu Dar es Salaam ŵakayezga kuti ŵafumemo mu charu ichi kweni ŵakakanizgika na Roald Dahl na gulu lichoko la ŵasilikari ŵa Tanganyikan ŵa King's African Rifles.[24]

Mu nyengo ya nkhondo, ŵanthu pafupifupi 100,000 ŵakufuma ku Tanganyika ŵakanjira gulu la ŵasilikari ŵa vyaru vinyake. Ŵakaŵa mu gulu la ŵasilikari 375,000 ŵa Britain awo ŵakarwa nkhondo na ŵasilikari ŵa Axis. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Tanganyikan ŵakarwa mu gulu la King's African Rifles ndipo ŵakarwa mu East African Campaign ku Somalia na Abyssinia kwimikana na ŵa ku Italy, ku Madagascar kwimikana na ŵa Vichy French mu nyengo ya Madagascar Campaign, na ku Burma kwimikana na ŵa ku Japan mu nyengo ya Burma Campaign. Charu cha Tanganyika chikaŵa chakukhumbikwa chomene pa vyakurya, ndipo ndalama izo ŵanthu ŵakaguliskanga ku vyaru vinyake zikakura chomene kufuma apo kukaŵa suzgo yikuru. Ndipouli, nangauli ŵanthu ŵakasanganga ndalama zinandi, kweni nkhondo yikapangiska kuti vinthu visinthe mu caru.

Kusamukira ku wanangwa[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu 1947, charu cha Tanganyika chikazgoka chigaŵa cha wupu wa United Nations. "Charu cha Tanganyika chili na malo ghanandi, nyengo, ndyali, umo ŵanthu ŵakakhalanga na mbiri yake."[25]:page 11 Kweni ŵanthu ŵaŵiri pa ŵanthu ŵatatu ŵakakhalanga mu cigaŵa cimoza pa vigaŵa 10 vya caru ici cifukwa ca kupeleŵera kwa maji, kunangika kwa dongo, vula zambura kugomezgeka, viyuni vya tsetse, kweniso cifukwa ca suzgo la kwendera na kwendera.[25]:page 11

Sitampu ya British East Africa na cithuzithuzi ca Fumukazi Elizabeth II

Ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yakupambanapambana[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu 1957, matawuni 15 pera ndigho ghakaŵa na ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 5,000.[25]:page 12 Charu cha Tanganyika chikaŵa na ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yakupambanapambana, ntheura chikaŵa chapadera chomene pa charu chose. Ŵanthu awo ŵakaŵako mu 1957 ŵakaŵa 123,310 ndipo ŵakasangika mu vyaru ivi: 95,636 ŵakaŵa ŵa ku Asia na Ŵaarabu (ŵakaŵa 65,461 ŵakaŵa ŵa ku India, 6,299 ŵakaŵa ŵa ku Pakistan, 4,776 ŵakaŵa ŵa ku Goan, na 19,100 ŵakaŵa Ŵaarabu), 3,114 ŵakaŵa ŵa ku Somalia, na 3,782 ŵakaŵa ŵa mitundu yinyake. Ŵazungu, awo ŵakaŵa ŵa ku Europe (Ŵacigiriki, Ŵachitaliya, Ŵachigiriki, na Ŵachijeremani) na ŵa ku South Africa, ŵakaŵa 20,598. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Tanganyika ŵakasuzgikanga cifukwa ca mitundu yawo kweniso cuma. Ndondomeko yawo yikaŵa yakuti ŵaŵikengepo ŵanyawo ŵa ku Europe kuti ŵakhozge chuma cha caru ici. Kweni Ŵanung'una ŵakeneranga kupulikira ivyo Ŵafrika ŵakakhumbanga.[25]:page 13

Mu nyengo iyi, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Afilika ŵakaŵa ŵateŵeti ŵa boma, ŵantchito, ŵantchito, na ŵakulima vyakurya. Kweni ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakaŵa ŵalimi ŵambura ntchito ndipo ŵakapanganga vyakurya vinandi yayi. Ŵanthu ŵakakhalanga makora yayi, ŵakavwaranga makora yayi, kweniso vinthu vikaŵa makora yayi.[25]:page 12 Ŵanthu ŵa ku Asia na Ŵaarabu ŵakaŵa ŵamitundu yakupambanapambana ndipo ŵakaguliskanga vinthu vinandi. Ŵazungu ŵakaŵa ŵamishonale, ŵateŵeti ŵa boma, kweniso ŵakaŵa na minda, migodi, na mabizinesi ghanyake. Ŵazungu ndiwo ŵakapanganga vyakurya vinandi.[25]:page 13

Kulima mu vyaru vinyake kukamba[lemba | kulemba source]

Britain, kwizira mwa mulongozgi wake David Gordon Hines, wakaciska kuti kulima kwa makoperative kukhazikiskike kuti kovwire kuti ŵalimi ŵaŵeso na ndalama zinandi. Ŵalimi aŵa ŵakaguliskanga vyakurya vyawo ku ŵamalonda ŵa ku India pa mtengo wapasi. Kuuyambiro wa m'ma 1950, pa caru cose pakaŵa makoperati ghakujumpha 400.[26] Makampani ghakapanga "magulu" gha ŵanthu ŵa mu vigaŵa vyawo ndipo ghakapanga mafakitale gha makuni gha makuni gha makuni gha makuni, mafakitale gha khofi, na vyakumetera hona. Chinthu chikuru icho chikawovwira chomene ŵanthu ŵa ku Tanzania ni mashopu gha khofi gha ku Moshi agho ghakakopanga ŵanthu ŵanandi kufuma ku vyaru vinyake.

Ndondomeko iyi yikamba mu 1946 ndipo yikamara mu 1951.

Malo ghakulongozgeka na UN[lemba | kulemba source]

Ŵanji ŵati ŵamanya kuti charu cha Tanganyika chili pasi pa mawupu gha wupu wa United Nations, Ŵanandi ŵakamba kukhumba kuti vinthu vyende makora. Fundo ya Britain yakuti "kucita vinthu mwakucepa" yikamba kuwoneka kuti njambura kwenelera ndipo yikamara mu vilimika vicoko waka pambere caru cindaŵe na wanangwa. Maofesi gha UN ghankhondi ghakaluta ku Tanganyika, ndipo UN yikapokera makalata ghakukwana mahandiredi ghanandi, kweniso nkhani zinandi izo zikayowoyeka pa maungano gha ku New York pakati pa 1948 na 1960.[25]:page 16 Wupu wa UN na ŵanthu ŵa ku Afilika awo ŵakagwiliskira nchito wupu uwu kuti ŵafiske vilato vyawo, ndiwo ŵakapangiska kuti Tanganyika waŵe wakujiyimira payekha. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Afilika aŵa ŵakaluta ku maungano ku Tanganyika pamoza na ŵimiliri ŵa UN. Pakaŵa ŵalimi, ŵantchito ŵa mu matawuni, ŵantchito ŵa boma, na ŵalongozgi ŵa vigaŵa na ŵanthu ŵakumanyikwa awo ŵakalombanga ku UN pa nkhani izo zikakhumbikwiranga kuchitapo kanthu mwaluŵiro. Paumaliro, ŵanthu ŵa ku Afilika ndiwo ŵakaŵa na mazaza pa ndyali. Chilato chawo chikaŵa chakuti ŵanthu ŵa mu Afilika ŵalute panthazi pa ndyali. Wakawumbika mu 1929 nga ni wupu wa ŵateŵeti ŵa boma ŵa ku Afilika mu Dar es Salaam na Zanzibar. Gulu ili likasinthika zina kuti Tanganyika African Association (TAA) mu 1948 ndipo likaleka kunjilirapo pa vya ku Zanzibar.[25]:page 17

Kutemwa caru ca Afilika[lemba | kulemba source]

Kwamba mu chaka cha 1954, mtundu wa Afilika ukaghanaghana chomene vya Tanzania African National Union (TANU), gulu la ndyali ilo likapangika na Julius Nyerere.[25]:page 17 Chipani cha TANU chikapambana pa zisankho za mu 1958, 1959, na 1960, ndipo Nyerere wakazgoka nduna yikuru pamanyuma pa chisankho cha 1960. Boma likamba kulamulira pa 1 Meyi 1961, ndipo likamba kujiyimira pawekha pa 9 Disembala 1961.[25]:page 16

Zanzibar[lemba | kulemba source]

Malo gha Zanzibar mu Tanzania

Zanzibar lero likung'anamura cirwa ca zina ili, ico cikumanyikwaso na zina lakuti Unguja, na cirwa ca Pemba. Virwa vyose viŵiri vikaŵa pasi pa Ŵapwitikizi mu vyaka vya m'ma 1500 na m'ma 1700, kweni Ŵaarabu ŵa ku Oman ŵakaviwuskamo mu vyaka vya m'ma 1800. Ulamuliro wa Aarabu ukafika pachanya pa nyengo ya muwuso wa Sultan Said, uyo wakasamuska msumba wake ukuru kufuma ku Muscat, Oman kuya ku Zanzibar, wakambiska ufumu wa Aarabu, ndipo wakakhwimiska vyakumera vya clove, na kugwiliskira nchito ŵazga ŵa pa cirwa ici. Zanzibar na Pemba ŵakaŵa ŵakumanyikwa pa caru cose cifukwa ca malonda ghawo gha vyakununkhira ndipo ŵakamanyikwanga na zina lakuti Zanzibar Archipelago. Zanzibar yikaŵaso malo ghakuru ghakulongozgako ŵazga pa nyanja zikuruzikuru za mu Afilika na mu nyanja ya Indian Ocean. Zanzibar yikakopanga maboti ghakufuma kutali comene nga ni United States, iyo yikakhazikiska ofesi ya wupu wakuwona vya chalo mu 1833. Boma la United Kingdom likamba kutemwa chomene charu cha Zanzibar chifukwa cha malonda na kukhumba kumazga malonda gha ŵazga. Mu 1822, ŵa ku Britain ŵakasazga phangano lakwamba na Sultan Said kuti ŵamazge malonda agha, kweni mu 1876 pera ndiwo ŵakakanizga kuguliska ŵazga. Pa phangano la Heligoland-Zanzibar la mu 1890, Zanzibar na Pemba vikazgoka vigaŵa vya Britain, ndipo chigaŵa cha Caprivi mu Namibia chikazgoka chigaŵa cha Germany. Ufumu wa Britain ukendanga mwakuyana waka kufuma kuumaliro wa vyaka vya m'ma 1800 m'paka mu 1957, apo kukaŵa maungano gha ŵalara.

Kudziyimira pawokha ndi Mgwirizano wa Tanganyika ndi Zanzibar[lemba | kulemba source]

Julius Nyerere wakakhumbanga kuti Tanganyika yiŵe na wanangwa wa ndyali mu 1961.

Mu 1954, Julius Nyerere, msambizgi wa sukulu uyo wakaŵa yumoza wa ŵanthu ŵaŵiri pera ŵa ku Tanganyikans awo ŵakasambira pa yunivesite, wakambiska chipani cha ndyali (Tanganyika African National Union (TANU). Pa Disembala 9, 1961, Tanganyika yikajiyimira pawekha, nangauli themba la Britain likalutilira kuŵa Fumukazi ya Tanganyika. Pa Disembala 9, 1962, boma la Republican likamba kulamulira ndipo Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere wakaŵa pulezidenti wakwamba wa Tanganyika.

Zanzibar yikapokera wanangwa wake kufuma ku United Kingdom pa 10 Disembala, 1963, nga ni boma lachifumu ilo likulongozgeka na Sultan wake. Pa 12 Janyuwale 1964, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Afilika ŵakagalukira themba la ku Zanzibar ndipo boma liphya likapangika na mulongozgi wa ASP, Abeid Karume, uyo wakaŵa purezidenti wa Zanzibar kweniso mulongozgi wa Revolutionary Council. Mu mazuŵa ghakwambilira gha nkhondo iyo yikamanyikwa kuti Zanzibar Revolution, Ŵaarabu na Ŵahindi pakati pa 5,000 na 15,000 ŵakakomeka. Mu nyengo ya vivulupi vinandi, ŵalondezgi ŵa John Okello ŵakakolelera ŵanthu ŵanandi na kuparanya nyumba na vinthu vinyake.[27] Mu masabata ghacoko waka, cigaŵa cimoza mu vigaŵa vinkhondi vya ŵanthu ŵakafwa panji kucimbira.

Pa nyengo iyi, ŵasilikari ŵa Tanganyika ŵakagaluka ndipo Julius Nyerere wakapempha Britain kuti watume ŵasilikari. Ŵasilikari ŵa Royal Marines ŵakatumika kufuma ku England kwizira ku Nairobi, ndipo ŵasilikari 40 ŵakakhira pa sitima ya nkhondo yakuchemeka HMS Bulwark. Ŵakapharazga kwa myezi yinandi na ŵasilikari awo ŵakendanga mu vyaru vyose. Nkhondo iyi yikati yamara, ŵasilikari ŵa Royal Marines ŵakafumapo ndipo ŵasilikari ŵa Canada ŵakamba kuŵawovwira.

Pa 26 Epulero, 1964, charu cha Tanganyika chikakolerana na charu cha Zanzibar ndipo chikazgoka United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. Pa Okutobala 29, mu chaka chenechichi, charu ichi chikamba kuchemeka United Republic of Tanzania. Zina lakuti Tanzania likusazgikana na mazina gha Tanganyika na Zanzibar ndipo pakwamba likaŵa na ng'anamuro lililose yayi. Kuyana na umo vinthu viliri, boma la Zanzibar lili na wanangwa wa kujilongozga.

Mbiri Yaposachedwapa[lemba | kulemba source]

Kuti wapange chipani chimoza cha boma mu vigaŵa vyose viŵiri vya chalo ichi, Julius Nyerere wakasazga TANU na chipani cha boma cha Zanzibar, Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP) of Zanzibar kuti wapange CCM (Chama cha Mapinduzi-CCM Revolutionary Party), pa February 5, 1977.

Nyerere wakagomezganga kuti maboma ghanandi, mu chalo icho chili na mafuko ghanandi, ghangaŵa pangozi ku umoza wa chalo ndipo wakakhumbanga nthowa zakovwilira kuti paŵe chipani chimoza[28] Mu nyengo iyo vinthu vikaŵa makora yayi, Nyerere 'wakamanyanga makora kuti ŵanthu ŵa mafuko ghakupambana, ntheura wakafumiskamo visopa mu ndyali.'[29][30] Kuti wawovwire ŵanthu kuti ŵaŵe ŵakukolerana, Nyerere wakasankha chiyowoyero cha Chiswahili kuŵa chiyowoyero cha charu.

Nyerere wakambiska cisopa ca ku Afilika, panji Ujamaa, kung'anamura'mbumba.' Boma la Nyerere likapangiska Ujamaa kuŵa visambizgo ivyo vikulongozga chitukuko cha chalo cha Tanzania; 'boma likadumulira dala malo gha mu matawuni kuti likanizge na kukanizga kuti vinthu vileke kwenda makora...malo ghakuru gha mu matawuni gha mu Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, ghakaŵa ghakusuzgika comene kwa virimika vinandi, comenecomene cifukwa cakuti ghakaŵa 'chakukumbuska Nyerere vya kuhara uko kukacitika mu nyengo ya ukoloni.[31]:page 44

Boma ili likakura mwaluŵiro chomene ndipo likakhwaska vigaŵa vyose. Mu 1967, boma likaŵa na nchito yikuru comene mu caru ici cifukwa ca kucitiska kuti caru cose ciŵe cawo. Wakawovwiranga pa vyose, kwambira pa malonda gha malonda gha malonda gha vyakurya na vyakurya, na kuphika. Ici cikapangiska kuti paŵe vimbundi. Ndondomeko zinonono za boma na misonkho yinandi iyo ŵakaŵikanga ŵalara ŵa boma, vikapwetekaso comene cuma. Ndalama zinandi za boma zikagwiliskirika nchito mwambura kwenelera. Nkhongono ya kugura yikamba kuchepa comene, ndipo nanga ni vinthu vyakukhumbikwa pa umoyo vikamba kusoŵa. Ŵalara ŵa boma ŵakasanganga vimbundi vikuru chomene chifukwa cha kupeleka vimbundi. Ivi vikapangiska kuti paŵe vimbundi. Ŵalara ŵa boma ŵakamba kumanyikwa na zina lakuti Wabenzi ("ŵanthu ŵa Benz"). Kuzakafika pakati pa 1979, vimbundi vikafika paheni chomene chifukwa chuma chikamba kunangika.[32]

Charu cha Tanzania icho chikaŵa pasi pa Nyerere chikaŵa paubwezi wakukhora na charu cha China[33], United Kingdom, na Germany. Mu 1979, caru ca Tanzania cikapharazga nkhondo ku Uganda, pamanyuma pakuti caru ca Uganda ico cikateŵeteranga ku Soviet Union cikanjira mu caru ici na kupoka cigaŵa ca Kagera. Tanzania yikathereska waka ŵasilikari ŵa ku Uganda yayi, kweni yikaŵaso na ŵasilikari ŵa ku Uganda. Pa Epulero 11, 1979, pulezidenti wa ku Uganda, Idi Amin, wakacicizgika kufumamo mu msumba ukuru wa Kampala, na kumazga nkhondo ya pakati pa Uganda na Tanzania.[34] Ŵasilikari ŵa ku Tanzania ŵakatora msumba uwu na wovwiri wa ŵasilikari ŵa ku Uganda na Rwanda. Amin wakacimbilira ku caru cinyake.[35]

Mu Okutobala 1985, Nyerere wakapeleka mazaza kwa Ali Hassan Mwinyi, kweni wakalutilira kuwusa chipani cha Chama cha Mapinduzi (CCM), nga ni Chairman mpaka 1990, apo wakapeleka mazaza agha kwa Mwinyi.

Mu 1990, gulu la ŵanthu ŵa mafuko na mitheto ya ku Zanzibar likapempha kuti paŵe referendum. Iwo ŵakati cifukwa ca kukolerana na caru cikuru ca Tanzania, ico cikalongozgekanga na cisambizgo ca wupu wakuwona vya wanangwa wa ŵanthu ico sono cafwa, Zanzibar wazgoka caru cakupeleŵera.[36] Ŵakapulikira yayi ivyo ŵakakhumbanga.

Ndipouli, chipani icho chili na mazaza pa charu chose chikatonda pa mavoti uku vinthu vikaŵa makora yayi[36] ndipo wakwimilira wake Benjamin William Mkapa wakalapizga kuŵa purezidenti muphya wa Tanzania mu mavoti gha vyaru vinandi pa 23 November 1995.[37][38] Paumaliro wa chaka cha 2000, pakaŵa masankho agho ghakatimbanizgika, ndipo mu Janyuwale 2001, boma likakoma ŵanthu 35 na kupweteka 600..[39] Mu Disembala 2005, Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete wakasankhika kuŵa pulezidenti wachinayi kwa nyengo ya vyaka vinkhondi.

Mu 1998, boma la United States likaponya mabomba mu msumba wa Dar Es Salaam, ndipo linyake mu Nairobi, Kenya. Mu 2004, chindindindi icho chikachitika ku nyanja ya Indian Ocean, chikapangiska tsunami mumphepete mwa nyanja ku Tanzania. Cingalaŵa cinyake ico cikanyamuliranga mafuta cikaŵa mu dowoko la Dar Es Salaam, ndipo cikananga maji.

Mu 2008, ku Zanzibar kukaŵa suzgo la magesi, ndipo mu 2008 ku Zanzibar kukaŵa suzgo la magesi.

Mu 2015, pamanyuma pa nyengo ya vyaka khumi ya purezidenti Jakaya Kikwete, John Magufuli ndiyo wakathereska pa chisankho cha purezidenti..[40] Mu Okutobala 2020, pulezidenti Magufoli wakasankhikaso pa chisankho icho chikaŵa na upusikizgi na viheni vinandi kuyana na ivyo ŵakususka ŵakayowoya. Chipani cha Chama cha Mapinduzi (CCM) chili na mazaza kwambira apo charu chikapokera wanangwa mu 1961. Ndilo gulu la ndyali ilo laŵapo nyengo yitali comene mu Africa. Purezidenti waliyose wa Tanzania wakwimira chipani ichi.[41] Malinga ndi bungwe la Human Rights Watch, kuyambira chisankho cha Pulezidenti John Magufuli mu December 2015, Tanzania yakhala ikuchepa kwambiri kulemekeza ufulu wa kulankhula, kusonkhana ndi kusonkhana

.[42]

Pa 19 March 2021, Wachiŵiri kwa Pulezidenti Samia Suluhu Hassan wakaŵa pulezidenti muphya pamanyuma pa nyifwa ya mwamabuci ya Pulezidenti John Magufuli. Wakaŵa mwanakazi wakwamba kuŵa purezidenti wa Tanzania..[43]

Ivyo ŵasayansi ŵasanga sonosono apa[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu Febuluwale 2021, akatswiri ofukula zakale aku Poland ochokera ku Yunivesite ya Jagiellonian adalengeza kuti apeza zojambula zakale za miyala yokhala ndi zifaniziro za anthu omwe ali bwino pamalo otetezera miyala a Amak??hee 4 ku Swaga Swaga Game Reserve ku Tanzania..[44][45]

Pa vithuzithuzi ivyo vikasangika pa malo agha, pakaŵa mitu ya ng'ombe, mutu na singo ya nkhalamira, na ng'ombe. Vinthu ivi vikalembeka vyaka vinandi ivyo vyajumpha. Ŵakufukura vinthu vyakale ŵakaghanaghananga kuti vithuzithuzi ivi vingaŵa kuti vikulongosora za kaluso ka ŵanthu ŵa ku Sandawe, nangauli visopa vyawo vya mazuŵa ghano vikulongosora yayi umo ŵanthu ŵakuwonera mbaŵala.[46][47][48]

Ukaboni[lemba | kulemba source]

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Wonani vinandi[lemba | kulemba source]

  • Gibbons, Ann (2007). The First Human: The Race to Discover our Earliest Ancestor. Anchor Books. ISBN 978-1-4000-7696-3.
  • Hyden, Goran (1980). Beyond Ujamaa in Tanzania: Underdevelopment and an Uncaptured Peasantry. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Iliffe, John (1971). Agricultural Change in Modern Tanganyika (Historical Association of Tanzania Paper no. 10. (Nairobi: East African Publishing House, 1971), 47 pp.
  • Kjekshus, Helge (1996). Ecology Control and Economic Development in East African History. London: James Currey.
  • Koponen, Juhani (1988). People and Production in Late Pre-colonial Tanzania: History and Structures. Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of International Studies.
  • Koponen, Juhani (1994). Development for Exploitation: German Colonial Policies in Mainland Tanzania, 1884–1914.
  • Paice, Edward (2007). Tip and Run: The Untold Tragedy of the Great War in Africa. London: Orion Publishing.
  • Waters, Tony (2007). The Persistence of Subsistence Agriculture: Life Beneath the Level of the Marketplace. Lanham: Lexington Books.

Vigaŵa vya kuwaro[lemba | kulemba source]