Mbili ya South Africa

Kufuma Wikipedia

Republic of South Africa

Ŵanthu ŵakwambilira ŵakamba kukhala ku South Africa vyaka vyakujumpha 100,000 ivyo vyajumpha. Mbiri yakale ya charu cha South Africa yili kugaŵika mu vigaŵa viŵiri: nyengo ya malibwe na nyengo ya visulo. Viŵaro vya viŵeto vya Australopithecine vikusangika ku Taung na mu mphanji za malibwe gha malibwe gha limestone ku Sterkfontein, Swartkrans na Kromdraai. Mu 1999, wupu wa Unesco ukati malo agha ntchiharo cha pa charu chose.[1]

Ŵanthu ŵakwambilira awo ŵakakhalanga ku South Africa ŵakaŵa Khoisan, Khoekhoe, na San. Kufuma waka mu 1000 B.C.E., ŵanthu awo ŵakafuma ku vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi na vyapakati ku Africa ŵakamba kusama. Ŵanyake ŵakakhalanga kwaŵekha, kweni ŵanyake ŵakaŵa mu gulu la ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yakupambanapambana. Ŵanthu aŵa ŵakaŵa ŵa mitundu yiŵiri panji kujumpha apa: Khoisan, Bantu, English, Afrikaners, Austronesians, East Asians na South Asians.

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakamba kusanda mumphepete mwa nyanja ya Africa mu ma 1300. Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1400 na 1500, ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal ŵakenda mumphepete mwa nyanja ya kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Africa, ŵakalemba na kupanga mapu gha mumphepete mwa nyanja. Mu 1488, ŵakazingilira Cape of Good Hope. Mu 1652, kampani ya Dutch East India Company yikakhazikiska malo gha malonda mu tawuni ya Cape Town pasi pa muwuso wa Jan van Riebeeck. Ŵantchito ŵa ku Europe awo ŵakakhazikika mu tawuni iyi ŵakamba kumanyikwa na zina lakuti Free Burghers.

Pamanyuma pakuti ŵa ku Britain ŵanjira mu charu cha Cape Colony mu 1795 na 1806, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakasamukira mu vyaru vinyake.[2]Vinthu ivyo vikasangika mu chigaŵa ichi mu vyaka vya m'ma 1800 vikawovwira kuti chigaŵa ichi chiŵe pa malo ghapacanya pa caru cose. Kweniso vinthu ivi vikapangiska kuti paŵe nkhondo pakati pa ŵanthu ŵa ku Boer na Ufumu wa Britain.

Pamanyuma pa kutondeka kwa ma Boers mu Nkhondo ya Anglo-Boer panji South African War (1899-1902), Union of South Africa yikapangika nga ni boma la Britain pa 31 May 1910 mu ndondomeko ya South Africa Act 1909, iyo yikasazga maboma ghanayi gha Britain: Cape Colony, Colony of Natal, Transvaal Colony, na Orange River Colony. Mu 1934, charu ichi chikaŵa pasi pa Ufumu wa Britain. Ufumu wa ufumu uwu ukamara pa 31 May 1961, ndipo ukasinthika na boma la republic.

Kwamba mu 1948 mpaka mu 1994, ndyali za ku South Africa zikayendeskeka na mtundu wa Afrikaner. Mu 1948, boma likakhazikiska vyakuti ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yakupambana na mitundu yinyake ŵachitenge vinthu mwakupambana. Pa Epulero 27, 1994, pamanyuma pa vilimika vinandi vya kulimbana, kulimbana na ŵasilikari, na ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yose awo ŵakasuskanga apartheid, chipani chakwamba cha ŵanthu ŵafipa, African National Congress (ANC) chikathereska ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yose pa chisankho chakwamba cha demokilase mu charu ichi. Kufuma waka pa nyengo iyi, African National Congress ndiyo yikulongozga charu cha South Africa, pamoza na South African Communist Party na Congress of South African Trade Unions.

Mbiri yakwambilira (pambere 1652)

Nkhani za mu nyengo yakale

Ŵasayansi awo ŵakufufuza ivyo vikachitika pambere ŵanthu ŵandambe kulemba mbiri yawo, ŵamanya kuti charu icho sono chikuchemeka South Africa chikaŵa pakati pa malo agho ŵanthu ŵakasambira. Vinthu ivi vikaŵako vyaka 2.5 miliyoni ivyo vyajumpha. Ŵanthu ŵakamba kukhala mu malo agha vyaka pafupifupi 125,000 ivyo vyajumpha mu nyengo ya malibwe, nga umo vikulongosorekera na ivyo ŵanthu ŵakufukura vinthu vyakale ŵali kusanga mu mphanji za mu mlonga wa Klasies. Ŵanthu ŵakwambilira awo ŵakakhalanga ku malo agha ŵakaŵa ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa DNA awo ŵakafuma ku chigaŵa cha kumpoto cha kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Africa. Kumwera kwa Africa kukaŵa ŵanthu awo ŵakayowoyanga chiyowoyero cha Bantu, awo ŵakafuma ku chigaŵa cha kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Africa.

Pulofesa Raymond Dart wakabowozga chiwangwa cha mwana munyake wa vyaka 2.51 mu 1924, uyo wakaŵa wakwamba kusanga Australopithecus africanus. Mu 1938, Robert Broom wakasanga hominid munyake wakukhora chomene, zina lake Paranthropus robustus, ku Kromdraai, ndipo mu 1947, wakasanga vinyama vinyake vya Australopithecus africanus ku Sterkfontein. Mu 2002, ku mphanji ya Blombos, ŵakasanga malibwe agho ghakaŵa na vithuzithuzi vyakupambanapambana ivyo vikalembeka vyaka 70,000 ivyo vyajumpha. Ici cikulongosoreka kuti nchakuwonerapo cakwambilira ca luso lwakupatulika panji luso lwaciyelezgelo ilo likaŵako na ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Homo sapiens.[3]

Mu vyaka vyasonosono apa, vyamoyo vinyake vinandi vya mtundu uwu vyawoneka. Cinyake ico nchakale comene ni Little Foot, cinthu ca viwangwa vya malundi vya munthu uyo wali na vyaka vyapakati pa 2.2 na 3.3 miliyoni. Clarke. - Kasi? Cinyake ico ŵakasanga ni Australopithecus sediba uyo wali na vyaka 1.9 miliyoni. Mu 2015, ŵanthu ŵakamanya kuti kuli mtundu unyake wa Homo naledi uwo ukasangika kufupi na Johannesburg. Ŵanji ŵakuti ni cinthu cakuzirwa comene ico ŵasayansi ŵasanga mazuŵa ghano.[4]

San na Khoikhoi

Ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalako mu nyengo iyi ŵakamanyikwanga kuti mba fuko la San na Khoikhoi. Ŵanthu aŵa ŵakucemeka Khoisan, zina ilo ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakulemba kufuma ku mazina gha mafuko agha. Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Khoisan awo ŵakakhalanga kumwera kwa Africa ndiwo ŵakamba kupatukana na ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Homo sapiens awo ŵalipo sono. Ŵanthu aŵa ŵakumanya kuti ŵakukhala mu chigaŵa cha kumpoto cha kumwera kwa Africa.[5][6][7]

Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa San na Khoikhoi ŵakupambana chomene na ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake chifukwa cha ntchito izo ŵakuchita. Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa San ŵakakhalanga mu mizi, kweni Khoikhoi ŵakaliskanga viŵeto. Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Khoikhoi ŵakumanya yayi uko ŵakafuma.[8][9]

Ivyo ŵanthu ŵakufukura vinthu vyakale ŵali kusanga mu malo agha vikulongora kuti ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Khoikhoi ŵakamba kukhala mu malo agha vyaka pafupifupi 2,000 ivyo vyajumpha. Kuumaliro wa vyaka vya m'ma 1500 na kukwambilira kwa m'ma 1600, ŵanthu ŵakwamba ŵa ku Europe kufika ku Cape, ŵakakumana na ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Khoikhoi. Nyengo yikati yajumphapo, ŵanthu ŵa ku England na ku Netherlands awo ŵakendanga pa nyanja, ŵakamba kusinthiska visulo na ng'ombe na mberere. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakugomezga kuti cifukwa cakuti pakaŵa viŵeto vinandi, mu ma 1700, kampani ya Dutch East India Company yikakhazikiska malo agho sono ni msumba wa Cape Town.

Mu 1652, kampani ya Dutch East India Company yikati yakhazikiska malo agha, Khoikhoi ŵakamba kulimbana na Ŵachidachi pa nkhani ya malo. Ŵanthu ŵakamba kwiba ng'ombe na kwiba viŵeto. Nkhondo yakwamba ya Khoikhoi na Dutch yikacitika mu 1659, yachiŵiri mu 1673, ndipo yacitatu mu 1674 na 1677. Pa nyengo iyo ŵakathereskekera na kuchimbizgika ku Cape Peninsula na vigaŵa vyakuzingilizga, ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Khoikhoi ŵakakomeka na nthenda ya nthomba iyo yikamba kwiza na ŵanthu ŵa ku Netherlands.[10]

Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Bantu

Nkhulaŵiska mu malo agho mukaŵa maji ghanandi gha Mlonga wa Luvuvhu (kumalyero) na Mlonga wa Limpopo (kutali na kumazere)

Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Bantu ndiwo ŵakamba kusama mu charu cha Africa.[11] Ŵanthu awo ŵakayowoyanga chiyowoyero cha Bantu ŵakafika kumwera kwa Africa kufuma ku Congo cha m'ma 400 B.C.E. Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Bantu ŵakiza mu chigaŵa cha Khoikhoi, ndipo ŵakachichizga ŵanthu ŵa mu chigaŵa ichi kuti ŵasamire ku malo ghakomira. Ŵanthu ŵanyake awo ŵali kufuma ku mitundu ya Nguni (Ŵazulu, Ŵachixhosa, Ŵaswazi, na Ŵandebele) ŵakakhalanga kufupi na kumafumiro gha dazi kwa charu icho sono chikuchemeka South Africa.[12] Ŵanthu ŵanyake awo sono ŵakuchemeka Ŵasotho na Ŵatswana (Ŵatswana, Ŵapedi, na Ŵasotho) ŵakakhalanga mu chigaŵa cha Highveld, apo ŵanthu ŵa ku Venda, Lemba, na Tsonga ŵakakhalanga kumpoto kwa charu cha South Africa.

Ufumu wa Mapungubwe, uwo ukaŵa kufupi na mphaka ya kumpoto kwa charu cha South Africa, apo milonga ya Limpopo na Shashe yikukumana na Zimbabwe na Botswana, ukaŵa ufumu wakwamba wa ŵanthu ŵakwambilira ku Southern Africa pakati pa AD 900 na 1300. Ufumu uwu ndiwo ukaŵa ukuru comene pa caru cose pambere ukanalekeka cifukwa ca kusintha kwa nyengo mu vyaka vya m'ma 1400. Ŵakuzenga ŵakacitanga vinthu vyachisulo, mkuŵa, na golide kuti ŵajitozgere pakukongozga na malonda. Ufumu uwu ukaŵa na mazaza pa malonda agho ghakachitikanga mu vipata vya kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Africa, ku Arabia, India na China, kweniso kumwera kwa Africa, ndipo ukaŵa usambazi chifukwa cha kusinthana golide na njovu na vinthu vinyake nga ni vyakununkhira vya ku China na malibwe gha ku Persia.

Ŵanthu awo ŵakayowoyanga chiyowoyero cha Bantu na chiyowoyero cha Khoisan ŵakamanyanga yayi umo ŵanthu aŵa ŵakenderananga, nangauli pali ukaboni wakuti ŵanthu aŵa ŵakakolerana na chiyowoyero chawo.

Kuwusa kwa chikoloni

Ntchito ya Portugal

Cikozgo ca Bartolomeu Dias pa ofesi ya South Africa ku London. Wakaŵa munthu wakwamba wa ku Europe kuzingilira kumwera kwa Africa.

Munthu munyake wa ku Portugal, zina lake Bartolomeu Dias, ndiyo wakaŵa munthu wakwamba wa ku Europe kusanda mumphepete mwa nyanja ya South Africa mu 1488, apo wakakhumbanga kusanga nthowa yakwendera ku vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi. Mu Novembala 1497, ngalaŵa za ku Portugal, izo vikalongozgekanga na Vasco da Gama, zikenda pa mtunda wa mtunda utali chomene. Pa Disembala 16, ŵasilikari aŵa ŵakajumpha mu Mlonga wa Great Fish mumphepete mwa kumafumiro gha dazi kwa South Africa, uko Dias wakawerako. Da Gama wakathya nyanja iyo wakajumphangapo kuti Natal, kung'anamura Khisimasi. Ngalaŵa ya Da Gama yikalutanga kumpoto ku Zanzibar ndipo pamanyuma yikafika kumafumiro gha dazi.[13] Many Portuguese words are still found along the coast of South Africa including Saldanha, Algoa, Natal, Agulhas, Benguela and Lucia.

Ntchito ya Netherlands

Chithuzi cha munthu waku East India wa Dutch East India Company/United East Indies Company (VOC). Gulu la Dutch East India Company ndilo likawovwira chomene pa nyengo iyo ŵanthu ŵa ku Netherlands ŵakasandanga vinthu (cha m'ma 1590 m'paka 1720) kweniso pa nyengo iyo ŵanthu ŵa ku Netherlands ŵakalembanga mapu (cha m'ma 1570 m'paka 1670).

Chikoloni cha Dutch (1652–1815)

Kuwona Table Bay na sitima za Dutch East India Company (VOC), c. 1683.
Jan van Riebeeck, Mulara wakwamba wa Dutch East India Company
Groot Constantia ndiyo ni malo ghakale comene ghakusungirako mpheska ku South Africa. Vinyo wa ku South Africa (wa vinyo wa mu caru ciphya) ni cinthu cinyake cakuzirwa comene ico ŵanthu ŵa mu nyengo ya VOC ŵakaleka. Mbiri ya vyachuma ya South Africa yikamba mu nyengo ya VOC.

Mu 1652, kampani ya Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, panji VOC) yikadumura kuti yikhazikiske malo ghakukhazikika ku Cape. VOC, yimoza mwa vyaru vikuruvikuru vya ku Europe ivyo vikendanga mu nthowa ya vyakununkhira, yikaŵa na khumbo la kuzenga malo agha yayi. Pa chifukwa ichi, gulu lichoko waka la VOC ilo likalongozgekanga na Jan van Riebeeck likafika ku Table Bay pa 6 Epulero 1652.

Ŵasilikari ŵa VOC ŵakakhalanga ku Cape kuti ŵapeleke vyakurya ku ngaraŵa zawo. Cape na VOC ŵakeneranga kukora ŵalimi ŵa ku Netherlands kuti ŵakhazikiske minda iyo yikapelekanga vyakurya ku ngaraŵa izo zikendanga pafupi na malo agha. Gulu lichoko waka la ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga ku malo agha, likakura comene ndipo ŵakamba kusanuzga minda yawo kumpoto na kumafumiro gha dazi. Ŵanthu aŵa ŵakaŵa ŵasilikari na ŵalimi ŵa VOC awo ŵakatondeka kuwelera ku Holland apo ŵakamalizganga nchito yawo. Wupu wa VOC ukatozgaso ŵazga 71,000 kufuma ku India, Indonesia, East Africa, Mauritius, na Madagascar.[14]

The statue of Jan van Riebeeck, the founder of Cape Town, in Heerengracht Street.
Castle of Good Hope (Kasteel de Goede Hoop mu ChiDutch), Cape Town. Msumba wa Kaapstad/Cape Town ukazengeka mu 1652.

Ŵanandi mwa ŵanthu aŵa ŵakaŵa ŵa tchalitchi la Dutch Reformed Church, kweni pakaŵaso Ŵachijeremani ŵanyake awo ŵakaŵa ŵa tchalitchi la Lutheran. Mu 1688, Ŵachidachi na Ŵachijeremani ŵakalongozgana na Ŵaguenot ŵa ku France, Ŵaprotesitanti ŵa chisopa cha Calvin awo ŵakacimbiranga nthambuzgo za cisopa mu France mu nyengo ya Fumu ya Katolika, Fumu Louis XIV.

Van Riebeeck wakawonanga kuti ntchiheni chomene kugwiliskira ntchito ŵazga awo ŵakakhalanga mu vigaŵa vya Khoi na San, ntheura VOC yikamba kutolera ŵazga ŵanandi chomene kufuma ku vyaru ivyo vikaŵa pasi pa Indonesia. Nyengo yikati yajumphapo, van Riebeeck na VOC ŵakamba kugwiliskira ntchito ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Khoikhoi na San. Ŵana awo ŵakababika pakati pa ŵanthu ŵa ku Netherlands na ŵazga ŵa ku Khoi-San na ku Malaŵi ŵakachemekanga kuti Cape Coloureds na Cape Malays. Ŵanandi awo ŵakababika na ŵazga aŵa ŵakazgoka ŵazungu. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku South Africa awo ŵakuchemeka kuti "ŵatuŵa" ŵali kufuma ku mitundu yakupambanapambana, ndipo ŵakamba kukhala ku Cape pakati pa ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe na ŵazga ŵa ku Asia na ku Africa. Simon van der Stel, kazembe wakwamba wa caru ca Dutch, uyo wakaŵa wakumanyikwa comene cifukwa ca kupanga vinyo la ku South Africa, nayo wakaŵa wa mafuko ghakupambanapambana.[15]

Ukoloni wa Britain, Mfecane na Boer Republics (1815-1910)

Britain ku Cape

Rhodes Colossus Cecil Rhodes wakwendendeka "Cape to Cairo"

Mu 1787, pambere Nkhondo Yakwamba ya ku France yindachitike, gulu linyake la ku Netherlands ilo likamanyikwanga na zina lakuti Patriot Party, likayezga kuwuskapo boma la William V. Nangauli chigaluka ichi chikaphyoka, kweni chikaŵaso na nkhongono pamanyuma pakuti France yanjira mu Netherlands mu 1794/1795. Ŵalwani aŵa ŵakapharazga kuti charu cha Batavia chili pafupi na France. Pakuzgora, mulara wa boma uyo wakakhalanga ku England, wakalemba Makalata gha Kew, ndipo wakaphalira ŵalongozgi ŵa vigaŵa kuti ŵajipeleke ku ŵasilikari ŵa Britain. Kufuma apo, mu 1795 Ŵanung'una ŵakakora Cape kuti ŵaleke kunjira mu mawoko gha Ŵafarisi. Mu 1803, ŵa ku Netherlands ŵakawezga msumba uwu.[16] Mu 1805, ŵa ku Britain ŵakatora Cape iyi mu nyengo ya Nkhondo za Napoleon.

Nga mba Dutch awo ŵakaŵa pambere iwo ŵandaŵeko, Ŵabritishi nawo ŵakakhumbanga yayi kuluta ku Cape Colony. Mulimo wawo wakwamba ukaŵa wakuti mu 1806 ŵakanjizge ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe mu ciyowoyero na mitheto ya ku Britain. Mu 1806, dango la ku Cape likazomerezga kuti charu ichi chikhalilire na "wenelero na wanangwa uwo chikaŵa nawo", ndipo ichi chikapangiska kuti charu cha South Africa chileke kwendera fundo za Ufumu wa Britain. Mu 1815, pa ungano wa ku Vienna, Britain yikazomera kuti ndiyo yili na mazaza pa chigaŵa ichi. Ici cikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Netherlands ŵafumeko ku Britain. Pakati pajumpha nyengo, mu 1820, boma la Britain likaciska ŵanthu pafupifupi 5,000 awo ŵakasamukira ku Britain (ŵanandi ŵakaŵa awo ŵakagwiranga nchito ya malonda) kuti ŵafume mu Britain. Ŵanandi awo ŵakakhazikika mu 1820 ŵakakhala ku Grahamstown na Port Elizabeth.

Ndondomeko ya Britain yakukhwaskana na South Africa yikasintha apo maboma ghakalondezgana, kweni mu vyaka vya m'ma 1800 vyose vikakhumbikwanga kuvikilira nthowa ya malonda iyo yikalutanga ku India. Kweni cifukwa ca nkhondo izo zikacitika pa mphaka na Ŵaburu, ŵanthu aŵa ŵakamba kutinkha boma la Britain.[12]

Ku Europe, ŵanthu ŵakasanda malo gha mukati

Mulara wa ŵasilikari ŵa Dutch East India Company, zina lake Robert Jacob Gordon, wakaŵa yumoza wa ŵanthu ŵakwambilira ŵa ku Europe awo ŵakendera mu vigaŵa vinyake vya mu charu ichi apo wakalongozganga ŵasilikari ŵa Dutch pa Cape of Good Hope, kufuma mu 1780 m'paka mu 1795. Ivyo Gordon wakacita pakati pa 1777 na 1786, vili kulembeka mu mabuku gha masausandi ghanandi agho ghakucemeka Gordon Atlas, kweniso mu magazini ghake agho ghakasangika mu 1964.

Pakwamba, ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakakhalanga mwamtende na ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Xhosa. Ndipouli, pakaŵa mphindano ya malo, ndipo ivi vikapangiska kuti mu 1779 paŵe nkhondo ya viŵeto.

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Britain, David Livingstone na William Oswell, ndiwo ŵakayamba kwendera mu chipalamba cha Kalahari mu 1849. Pamanyuma, wupu wa Royal Geographical Society ukamupa mendulo ya golide Livingstone cifukwa ca kusanga Nyanja ya Ngami mu mapopa.[17]

Nkhondo na kusazgikira kwa vinthu mu caru ca Zulu

Kuwuka kwa Ufumu wa Zulu  mu nyengo ya muwuso wa Shaka, ŵanthu ŵa mafuko ghanyake ŵakachimbira mu vigaŵa vinandi vya kumwera kwa Africa. Ŵanthu ŵakuchimbira nkhondo ya ku Zulu   Ŵanyake mwa ŵanthu aŵa ŵakaŵa ŵa Soshangane, Zwangendaba, Ndebele, Hlubi, Ngwane, na Mfengu. Ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakakakika pakati pa Ufumu wa Zulu na ŵa Voortrekkers na Ufumu wa Britain   nga ni Xhosa  .

Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Zulu ŵali mu fuko la Nguni ndipo pakwamba ŵakaŵa ŵa fuko lichoko chomene ilo lili kumpoto kwa KwaZulu-Natal.

M'ma 1820 kukaŵa nyengo ya masuzgo ghakuru chifukwa cha kusazgikira kwa ŵasilikari ŵa Ufumu wa Zulu, uwo ukasinthanga muwuso wa mafuko gha mu Africa na maufumu. Ŵanthu awo ŵakuyowoya Chisotho ŵakumanya nyengo iyi kuti ni difaqane ("kusama mwakuchichizgika"); ndipo awo ŵakuyowoya Chisulu ŵakuyichema kuti mfecane ("kuswa").

Ŵanthu ŵakuyowoya vinandi vyakukhwaskana na ivyo vikupangiska nthenda iyi. Fundo yinyake njakuti ŵanthu ŵakaguliskanga ŵazga kufuma ku Delgoa Bay ku Mozambique, kumpoto kwa Zululand. Ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakusanda mdauko ŵakumanya kuti Mfecane yikaŵa nkhani ya vinthu ivyo vikacitika pambere Ufumu wa Zulu undaŵeko. Kweni pakaŵa vinthu vinandi ivyo vikacitika pambere Shaka Zulu wandafike pa mazaza.

Mu 1818, mafuko gha Nguni mu charu cha Zululand ghakazenga ufumu pakati pa Mlonga wa Tugela na Pongola. Shaka wakazenga ŵasilikari ŵanandi, ndipo wakaleka kulondezga mitheto ya mafuko. Kufuma apo, wakambiska ntchito yikuru yakupharazga, kukoma panji kuzgora ŵazga awo ŵakamususkanga mu vigaŵa ivyo wakapoka. Ŵasilikari ŵake ŵakalangika chomene.

Shaka Zulu mu vyakuvwara vya nkhondo vya Ŵazulu

Ŵazulu ŵakapangiska kuti mafuko ghanandi gha ku mizi ghafumemo mu vigaŵa vyawo na kwamba kuwusa vigaŵa vinyake. Ivi vikapangiska kuti paŵe vyaru vinandi, chomenechomene vya Sotho (lero ni Lesotho) na Swaziland. Ivi vikapangiska kuti mitundu yinyake nga ni Matebele, Mfengu, na Makololo yikanjire pamoza.

Mu 1828 Shaka wakakomeka na ŵakuru ŵake Dingaan na Umhlangana. Dingaan uyo wakaŵa na maluso ghacoko waka, wakazgoka fumu, ndipo wakalutilira kulamulira ŵanthu. Kweniso Dingaan wakayezga kukolerana na ŵamalonda ŵa ku Britain awo ŵakakhalanga mumphepete mwa nyanja ya Natal, kweni vinthu vikamba kunangika. Ŵanthu ŵakuyowoya kuti ŵanthu 1 miliyoni panji 2 miliyoni ŵakafwa na mphepo ya Mfecane.[18][19][20][21]

Ŵanthu ŵa Boer na vyaru vyawo

Mu 1806, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Cape Colony awo ŵakayowoyanga Ciholanji ŵakamba kwenda mu tumagulu. Paumaliro, mu ma 1830, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Boer ŵakasamukira ku malo ghanyake. Cifukwa cimoza ico ŵakafumira mu cigaŵa ca Cape ni cifukwa cakuti ŵanthu ŵakayowoyanga Cingelezi. Chisopa chikaŵa chakuzirwa comene mu mitheto ya ŵanthu ŵa mu caru ici, ndipo Baibolo na maungano gha mpingo vikacitikanga mu Ciholandi. Mwakuyana waka, sukulu, makhoti, na malonda mpaka apo ŵa ku Britain ŵakiza, vyose vikacitikanga mu ciyowoyero ca ku Netherlands. Dango la ciyowoyero likapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵaleke kugomezgana, kweniso kuti ŵaleke kukhorwa.

Nkhani ya ŵanthu ŵakwambilira ŵa ku trekboers

Cifukwa cinyake ico ŵalimi ŵazungu awo ŵakayowoyeranga Ciholanji ŵakafumiranga ku Cape ni cifukwa cakuti boma la Britain likamazga wuzga pa Zuŵa la Kufwatuka, pa Disembala 1, 1838. Ŵalimi ŵakadandawuranga kuti ŵangakwaniska yayi kuwezgerapo ŵazga ŵawo kwambura kutaya ndalama zinandi.[22] Ŵalimi ŵakaguliska ŵazga ndalama zinandi. Ŵenecho ŵa ŵazga awo ŵakagura ŵazga pa ngongoli panji kuŵapeleka nga mbukaboni wa ngongoli, ŵakasuzgikanga comene. Britain yikapeleka ndalama zakukwana 1 200 000 British Pounds ku ŵakukhazikika ŵa ku Netherlands, pa cigaŵa cakuti ŵalimi ŵa ku Netherlands ŵapeleke ivyo ŵakukhumba ku Britain ndiposo kuti mtengo wa ŵazga uŵe wakukwana kanandi waka na ndalama izo ŵakapika. Ici cikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵa ku Netherlands ŵaleke kukhorwa. Ŵanthu aŵa ŵakagomezganga kuti boma la Cape Colony likapoka ndalama izo ŵakeneranga kupeleka kuti ŵazga ŵawo ŵafwatuke. Awo ŵakapika ndalama, ŵakeneranga kukapempha ku Britain mwekha panji kwizira mwa munthu munyake. Ndalama izo ŵantchito ŵakatoranga zikaŵa zakuyana waka na za muzga yumoza, ntheura awo ŵakakhumbanga muzga yumoza pera ŵakapokeranga kanthu yayi.[23]

Charu cha South Africa

Flag of the South African Republic, often referred to as the Vierkleur (meaning four-coloured)

Charu cha South Africa (Dutch: Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek panji ZAR, kuti chileke kupambanika na charu cha South Africa), kanandi chikuchemeka Transvaal ndipo nyengo zinyake Republic of Transvaal. Chikaŵa boma lakujiyimira palokha ndipo ŵanthu ŵa mu vyaru vinyake ŵakalimanya. Ufumu wa Britain ukazomera kuti charu ichi ntchakujiyimira paŵekha apo ukachita phangano la Sand River Convention pa 17 January 1852. Boma ili likathereska ŵasilikari ŵa Britain pa Nkhondo Yakwamba ya ku Boer ndipo likalutilira kuŵa lakujiyimira palokha m'paka pa 31 May 1902. Pamanyuma pa nkhondo iyi, caru ca South Africa cikacemeka Transvaal Colony.[24]

Boma la Free State

Flag of the Republic of the Orange Free State

Boma la Orange Free State likafuma mu ufumu wa Britain uwo ukaŵa na mazaza pa Mlonga wa Orange. Britain, cifukwa ca masuzgo agho yikaŵa nagho cifukwa ca Nkhondo ya ku Crimean ku Europe, yikawezga ŵasilikari ŵake mu 1854, apo Boers ŵakayowoya kuti malo agha pamoza na malo ghanyake gha mu cigaŵa ici ni caru ca Boer, ico ŵakacema Orange Free State. Mu Malichi 1858, pamanyuma pa kulimbana pa malo, kwiba viŵeto, na kuwukira, boma la Orange Free State likapharazga nkhondo ku ufumu wa Basotho. Nkhondo zinandi zikacitika pakati pa Ŵaburu na Ŵasotho mu vilimika 10 vyakulondezgapo.[25] Zina lakuti Orange Free State likasinthikaso kuŵa Orange River Colony, ilo likapangika na Britain pamanyuma pakuti likapoka charu ichi mu 1900. Mu 1904, chigaŵa ichi chikaŵa na ŵanthu ŵakukwana 400,000. Kweni mu 1910, chikaŵa pasi pa boma la Orange Free State.

Natalia

Natalia yikaŵa boma la ŵanthu ŵa ku Boer ilo likamara nyengo yichoko waka, ndipo likakhazikiskika mu 1839 na ŵanthu ŵa ku Boer Voortrekkers awo ŵakafuma ku Cape Colony. Mu 1824, gulu la ŵanalume 25 awo ŵakalongozgekanga na Mulara F. G. Farewell, ŵakafuma ku Cape Colony ndipo ŵakakhazikika kumpoto kwa nyanja ya Bay of Natal. Mu 1838, ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Boer Voortrekkers ŵakakhazikiska boma la Natalia mu chigaŵa ichi. Mu usiku wa pa 23 m'ma 1842, ŵasilikari ŵa Britain ŵakawukira msasa wa Voortrekker ku Congella. Ŵasilikari ŵa boma la Britain ŵakawelera ku Durban, uko ŵakazingilizga. Munthu munyake wakwendeska malonda, zina lake Dick King, na muteŵeti wake, Ndongeni, awo pamasinda ŵakazgoka vinkhara vya ŵanthu, ŵakachimbira na kuluta ku Grahamstown, mtunda wa makilomita 600 mu mazuŵa 14 kuti ŵakakhozge ŵasilikari ŵa Britain. Ŵasilikari ŵakiza ku Durban pati pajumpha mazuŵa 20, ndipo ŵasilikari ŵakathera. Mu 1844, ŵa Boer ŵakazomera kuti ŵanjireso mu ufumu wa Britain. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Natalia Boers awo ŵakakana kuzomerezga Ufumu wa Britain, ŵakenda mu mapiri gha Drakensberg kuti ŵakakhale mu vigaŵa vya Orange Free State na Transvaal.[26]

Cape Colony

Harry Smith

Pakati pa 1847 na 1854, Harry Smith, kazembe wa Cape Colony, wakapoka malo agho ghakaŵa kumpoto kwa malo agho ŵanthu ŵa ku Britain na Dutch ŵakakhalanga.

Smith wakalutilira kusazgirako malo gha Cape Colony ndipo wakasangana na ŵanthu ŵa ku Orange River awo ŵakakondwa yayi na ivyo ŵakachitanga. Mu 1848, ŵanthu ŵa ku Cape Mounted Rifles ŵakathereska ŵanthu ŵa ku Boomplaats. Kweniso kukolerana na ufumu wa Britain kukapangiska kuti mu 1850 paŵe nkhondo pakati pa ŵasilikari ŵa Britain na ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Xhosa.

Kwambira m'ma 1800, Cape of Good Hope, iyo yikaŵa chigaŵa chikuru chomene kumwera kwa Africa, yikamba kujiyimira payekha. Mu 1854, boma ili likapika mazaza ghakwendeskera malango, ndipo likachemeka Cape Parliament.

Mu 1872, pamanyuma pa kulimbana kwa nyengo yitali, boma ili likaŵa na ŵalara na nduna yikuru. Kweni Cape Cape yikaŵa chigaŵa cha Ufumu wa Britain, nangauli yikaŵa yakujiyimira.

Charu cha Cape Colony chikaŵa chachilendo chomene kumwera kwa Africa chifukwa malango ghake ghakakanizganga ŵanthu kusankhana mitundu, ndipo mwakupambana na vyaru vya Boer, ŵanthu ŵakasankhiranga mu vyaru vinyake.

Pakwamba, vinthu vikamba kwenda makora pa nkhani ya vyachuma. Ndipouli, cifukwa cakuti ŵa ku Britain ŵakakhumbanga kuti caru ca kumwera kwa Africa ciŵe mu wupu wa Britain, ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yakupambanapambana ŵakamba kutinkhana. Pa nyengo yeneyira, ŵanthu ŵakasanga malibwe gha dayamondi pafupi na Kimberley na golide mu Transvaal, ndipo pamasinda vinthu vikamba kwenda makora yayi. Pakuŵa Nduna Yikuru ya Cape, Rhodes wakathereska ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yakupambanapambana, ndipo ndyali zake zikambiska Nkhondo Yachiŵiri ya ku Boer.[27]

Natal

Ŵantchito ŵa ku India ŵakiza ku Durban

Mu 1654, ŵazga ŵa ku India awo ŵakakhalanga mu vyaru ivyo vikaŵa pasi pa boma la Dutch, ŵakiza ku South Africa.

Kuumaliro wa 1847, apo boma la Britain likakolerana na boma la Boer la Natalia, pafupifupi ŵanthu wose ŵa ku Boer ŵakafumamo mu charu ichi. Ŵanji awo ŵakakhalanga mu vigaŵa ivi ŵakaŵa ŵa ku Britain, ndipo pakati pa 1849 na 1851 pakafika ŵanthu 5,000.

Kuzakafika mu 1860, ŵazga ŵakalekeka mu 1834, ndipo mu 1843, ŵakati ŵanjira mu charu cha Natal (lero ni KwaZulu-Natal), ŵanthu ŵa ku Britain ŵakawelera ku India kuti ŵamazge suzgo la ŵantchito. Mu caka ici, ngaraŵa yakucemeka SS Truro yikafika mu dowoko la Durban na ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 300.

Mu vilimika 50 vyakulondezgapo, ŵateŵeti na ŵantchito ŵa ku India ŵakukwana 150,000 ŵakafika, kweniso "Ŵaindiya ŵanandi" awo ŵakaŵa na wanangwa wa kwenda.

Kuzakafika mu 1893, apo loya kweniso munthu wakulimbikira vya wanangwa wa ŵanthu, Mahatma Gandhi, wakafika mu tawuni ya Durban, mu Natal mukaŵa ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku India kuluska ŵazungu. Nkhondo ya Gandhi yakuvikilira wanangwa wa ŵanthu yikaŵa yakutondeka; m'paka mu 1994, apo boma la South Africa likamba kulamulira ŵanthu mwaurunji, ŵanthu ŵa ku India ŵakasuzgikanga na malango ghanandi agho ghakaŵasuzganga.[28]

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Griqua

Nicolaas Waterboer, muwusi wa Griqualand, 1852-1896

Kuumaliro wa ma 1700, ŵanthu ŵa ku Cape Colony ŵakamba kuŵa na ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa mitundu yakupambanapambana awo ŵakachemekanga "ŵanthu ŵa mitundu" awo ŵakaŵa ŵana ŵa ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yakupambanapambana pakati pa ŵanalume ŵa ku Dutch, ŵanakazi ŵa Khoikhoi, na ŵazga ŵanakazi awo ŵakafuma ku vyaru vya ku Dutch. Ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yakupambanapambana aŵa ndiwo ŵakaŵa ŵanthu ŵakwamba ŵa mtundu wa Griqua.

Ŵakaŵa pasi pa muwuso wa muzga munyake zina lake Adam Kok, ndipo "ŵanthu ŵa mitundu" aŵa ŵakamba kwenda kumpoto, kujumpha mu chigaŵa icho sono chikuchemeka Northern Cape Province. Ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakuti ulendo wa vikoko vya Griqua uwu "njimoza mwa vinthu vyakuzizwiska chomene vya m'ma 1800". Pa ulendo wawo utali, ŵakalongozgana na ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa San na Khoikhoi, ŵanthu ŵa mafuko gha ku Africa, kweniso ŵazungu ŵanyake awo ŵakagaluka. Mu 1800, ŵakamba kwambuka mphaka ya kumpoto iyo yikaŵa mumphepete mwa Mlonga wa Orange, ndipo ŵakafika ku malo ghambura ŵanthu, agho ŵakaghacemanga kuti Griqualand.

Mu 1825, Dr. John Philip, uyo wakaŵa mulaŵiliri wa London Missionary Society ku Southern Africa, wakakhuŵilizga gulu la ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Griqua kuti ŵasamire ku malo ghakucemeka Philippolis, agho ghakaŵa malo gha upharazgi ku San. Philip wakakhumbanga kuti ŵamunyumba ya Griqua ŵavikilire ofesi ya ŵamishonale ku vigeŵenga vya mu chigaŵa ichi. Kweniso ŵakakhumbanga kuti iyi yiŵe linga lakukhora kuti ŵanthu ŵatuŵa awo ŵakakhalanga ku Cape Colony ŵaleke kwiza kumpoto. Cifukwa ca mphindano pakati pa ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Griqua na awo ŵakakhalanga ku malo agha, ŵasilikari ŵa Britain ŵakatumika ku malo agha mu 1845. Ici cikaŵa kwamba kwa vilimika vinkhondi na viŵiri vya kucitako vinthu vya ku Britain mu cigaŵa ici.[29]

Mu 1861, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa mtundu wa Philippolis Griquas ŵakaluta ku malo ghanyake kuti ŵaleke kukakika na boma la Orange Free State. Ŵakasamukira kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Quathlamba (uko sono ni mapiri gha Drakensberg), ndipo ŵakakhala mu malo ghakucemeka "Nomansland". Kufuma apo, mu 1874 charu cha East Griqualand chikapokeka na Britain, ndipo mu 1879 chikazgoka chigaŵa cha Cape Colony.

Griqualand wakwambilira, kumpoto kwa Mlonga wa Orange, wakatoleka na Britain ndipo wakacemeka Griqualand West pamanyuma pakuti mu 1871 ŵakasanga malibwe gha daimondi ghanandi ku Kimberley.

Nangauli pakaŵavya mphaka izo zikalembeka, kweni mulongozgi wa Griqua, Nicolaas Waterboer, wakati malo agha ghakaŵa gha Griqua. Maboma gha Boer gha Transvaal na Orange Free State nagho ghakakwesananga kuti ghaŵe na malo agha, kweni Britain ndiyo yikaŵa na mazaza pa malo agha. Mu 1878, Waterboer wakalongozga gulu lakugalukira maboma, ndipo ŵakamukora na kumujalira mu caru cinyake.[30]

Nkhondo na Ŵachixhosa

Mu nyengo yakwambilira, ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakamanyanga yayi mphaka za charu chawo na malo agho ŵakakhalanga. Kwa Moshoeshoe, mulongozgi wa BaSotho wa ku Lesotho, ntchawanangwa cha mahachi na viŵeto.[31][32]Ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe awo ŵakakhalanga kumwera kwa Africa ŵakagomezganga kuti munthu uyo wakupeleka msonkho uwu ndiyo wakugura na kuŵa mweneko wa malo.

Apo ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakambanga kupanga minda yikuruyikuru mu charu chose kuti ŵasange malo ghakutowa ghakuryapo, ŵanthu ŵa ku Bantu awo ŵakasamukira kumwera kufuma ku Central Africa, ŵakaŵasuska. Nkhondo izo zikacitika pa mphaka zikamanyikwa kuti Nkhondo za Xhosa (izo zikayowoyeka mu nyengo yira kuti Nkhondo za Kafir panji Nkhondo za Cape Frontier). [33]Ku chigaŵa cha kumwera kwa South Africa, ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Boer na ŵa mtundu wa Xhosa ŵakalimbananga mumphepete mwa Mlonga wa Great Fish, ndipo mu 1779 Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Ŵa Xhosa yikamba. Kwa vyaka pafupifupi 100, Ŵachixhosa ŵakarwa nkhondo na ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mu charu ichi. Mu Nkhondo yacinayi ya Ŵa Xhosa, iyo yikacitika kwambira mu 1811 m'paka mu 1812, ŵamazaza ŵa Britain ŵakacicizga Ŵa Xhosa kuti ŵambuke Mlonga Ukuru wa Somba na kuzenga vigongwe mumphepete mwa mphaka iyi.

Kuŵikapo mtima kwa ŵasilikari ŵa Britain pa vyachuma mu vigaŵa vya kumwera kwa Africa kwambira mu 1820, ndipo comenecomene pamanyuma pa kusanga dayamondi yakwamba ku Kimberley na golide mu Transvaal, kukacitiska kuti ŵanthu ŵambe kukhumba malo na ŵantchito ŵa ku Africa.

Mu 1818 mphindano pakati pa ŵalongozgi ŵa Xhosa ŵaŵiri, Ndlambe na Ngqika, zikamara apo Ngqika wakathereskeka, kweni ŵa ku Britain ŵakalutilira kumumanya Ngqika kuŵa mulongozgi mukuru. Wakalomba wovwiri ku Britain kuti wawovwire Ndlambe, uyo wakawezgera mu 1819 pa Nkhondo ya Cinkhondi ya ku Frontier.

Nkhondo na Ŵazulu

Fumu Cetshwayo (ca. 1875)

Ku chigaŵa cha kumafumiro gha dazi kwa charu cha South Africa, mu chigaŵa icho ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Boer ŵakachemanga kuti Natalia. Ŵanthu ŵakamba kwiba ng'ombe, ndipo gulu la ŵanthu ŵa ku Boer awo ŵakalongozgekanga na Piet Retief ŵakakomeka.

Pamanyuma pakuti ŵasilikari ŵa Retief ŵakomeka, Ŵaburu ŵakajivikilira ku Ŵazulu pa Mlonga wa Ncome pa Disembala 16, 1838. Ŵasilikari ŵakukwana 5,000 ŵa mtundu wa Zulu ndiwo ŵakaŵa pa nkhondo iyi. Ŵaburu ŵakamba kujikora pa mtunda pa Mlonga wa Ncome, ndipo ŵakakanizgika na magaleta ghawo. Ŵasilikari ŵa mtundu wa Zulu pafupifupi 3,000 ŵakafwa pa nkhondo iyo yikachemeka kuti Nkhondo ya Mlonga wa Ndopa.[34][35]

Mu 1879, ufumu wa Zulu ukatoleka na ufumu wa Britain. Fumu Carnarvon yikati yafika makora pa Canada, ŵanthu ŵakaghanaghananga kuti ndyali izo zikachitanga nthena, pamoza na ŵasilikari, zingawovwira maufumu gha mu Africa, vigaŵa vya mafuko, na vyaru vya Ŵaburu mu South Africa.

Mu 1874, Henry Bartle Frere wakatumika ku South Africa kuŵa mwimiliri wa Ufumu wa Britain kuti wakacite mulimo uwu. Pa masuzgo agha pakaŵa boma la South Africa na ufumu wa Zululand. Frere, kwambura kuzomerezgeka na boma la Britain, ndipo wakakhumbanga kutimbanizga nkhondo na Ŵazulu, wakapeleka ulongozgi kwa Themba Cetshwayo pa Disembala 11, 1878. Kufuma apo, Bartle Frere wakatuma Fumu Chelmsford kuti yikawukire caru ca Zululand. Nkhondo iyi yikumanyikwa cifukwa ca nkhondo zinandi zakuthiska ndopa, kusazgapo kutonda kwa Ŵazulu pa Nkhondo ya ku Isandlwana, kweniso cifukwa cakuti yikaŵa cinthu cakuzirwa comene mu nyengo ya ufumu wa caru cose.

Kuwina kwa Ŵazulu, uko kukaŵa umaliro wa wanangwa wa mtundu wa Ŵazulu, kukacitika na wovwiri wa ŵanthu awo ŵakakolerananga na Ŵazulu. Ŵanalume ŵa ku Britain ŵakamba kupanga minda yikuru ya shuga mu chigaŵa icho sono chikuchemeka KwaZulu-Natal Province.

Nkhondo na Basotho

Themba Moshoeshoe pamoza na ŵapharazgi ŵake

Kwambira mu ma 1830, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakufuma ku Cape Colony ŵakambuka Mlonga wa Orange ndipo ŵakamba kufika ku chigaŵa chakumwera cha Lower Caledon Valley, uko kukaŵa ŵaliska ŵa viŵeto ŵa Basotho. Mu 1845, ŵanthu ŵa ku Britain ŵakasazga phangano na ŵanthu ŵa ku Moshoeshoe. Pakaŵavya mphaka pakati pa malo agho kukaŵa ŵanthu ŵatuŵa na ufumu wa Moshoeshoe, ntheura pakaŵa nkhondo. Moshoeshoe wakaghanaghananga kuti wakupeleka malo ghakuliskako viŵeto ku ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mu charu ichi mwakuyana na dango la ku Africa lakuti ŵanthu ŵaŵikenge malo ghawo mu malo gha ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mu charu ichi. Ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mu vigaŵa ivi ŵakakhumbanga yayi kuŵa pasi pa mazaza gha Moshoesoe kweniso pakati pa Ŵafrika.[36]

Ŵanalume ŵa ku Britain, awo pa nyengo iyo ŵakaŵa na mazaza pa chigaŵa icho chikaŵa pakati pa milonga ya Orange na Vaal, ŵakawona kuti ntchakukhumbikwa kupanga mphaka na kugaŵa chigaŵa ichi. Ivi vikapangiska kuti Ŵasotho na Ŵanandi ŵa ku Britain ŵathereskeke na ŵasilikari ŵa Moshoeshoe pa nkhondo ya Viervoet mu 1851.

Pakupeleka cilango ku Basotho, kazembe na mulongozgi wa Cape Colony, George Cathcart, wakatuma ŵasilikari ku Mlonga wa Mohokare. Cifukwa cakuti wakakana kulipira ndalama zose, mu 1852 ku Berea Plateau kukawuka nkhondo, ndipo ŵasilikari ŵa Britain ŵakakomeka comene. Mu 1854, ŵa ku Britain ŵakapeleka chigaŵa ichi ku Ŵaburu. Malo agha pamoza na ghanyake ghakazgoka Republic of the Orange Free State.[37]

Kufuma mu 1858 m'paka 1868, pakaŵa nkhondo pakati pa ufumu wa Basotho na boma la Orange Free State. Mu nkhondo izo zikacitika pamanyuma pake, boma la Orange Free State likayezga kwambura kucitapo kanthu kuti lipoke msumba wa Thaba Bosiu, apo Ŵasotho ŵakacitanga nkhondo mu vigaŵa vya Free State. Vyaru vinandi na malo ghakuliskako viŵeto vikaparanyika. Pa 15 Okutobala, 1858, Moshoeshoe wakalemba phangano la mtende. Mu 1865, nkhondo yikambaso. Pamanyuma pa kupempha wovwiri ku ufumu wa Britain, Moshoeshoe wakalemba phangano la Thaba Bosiu mu 1866, apo Basotho ŵakapeleka malo ghanandi ku Orange Free State. Pa Malichi 12, 1868, Nyumba ya Malamulo ya Britain yikati Ufumu wa Basotho ni boma la Britain ilo likuvikilirika na Ufumu wa Britain. Nkhondo pakati pa Orange Free State na Basotho yikamara.[38] Pamanyuma, charu ichi chikachemeka Basutoland ndipo pasono chikuchemeka Lesotho.

Nkhondo na Ŵandebele

Boer Voortrekkers depicted in an early artist's rendition

Mu 1836, apo ŵanthu ŵakuchemeka Boer Voortrekkers (ŵapayiniya) ŵakafika ku chigaŵa cha kumpoto cha kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa charu cha South Africa, ŵakakumana na gulu la ŵanthu ŵakuchemeka Ndebele. Nkhondo zinandi zikacitika, ndipo Mzilikazi wakathereskeka. Wakafumamo mu chigaŵa ichi na kuluta na ŵanthu ŵake kumpoto ku malo agho pamasinda ghakazgoka chigaŵa cha Matabele ku Southern Rhodesia (uko sono ni Zimbabwe).

Ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵa mtundu wa Ndebele awo ŵakakhalanga mu vigaŵa vyakupambanapambana ŵakasangana na ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Voortrekkers, chomenechomene mu chigaŵa icho pamanyuma chikazgoka Northern Transvaal. Mu Seputembala 1854, ŵanthu 28 ŵa mtundu wa Boer awo ŵakaŵapa mulandu wa kwiba ng'ombe ŵakakomeka pa ngozi zitatu. Mokopane na ŵalondezgi ŵake ŵakaghanaghananga kuti ŵanthu ŵaheni ŵizenge na kuŵawukira. Kuumaliro wa Okutobala, ŵasilikari ŵa Boer awo ŵakakhozgekanga na ŵanthu ŵa fuko la Kgatla ŵakazingilizga mphanji. Pakati pajumpha masabata ghatatu, ŵanthu 1,000 na 3,000 ŵakafwa mu mphanji. Awo ŵakapona ŵakakoleka na kuzgoka ŵazga.[39]

Nkhondo na Ŵapedi

Nkhondo za ku Bapedi, izo zikumanyikwaso kuti Nkhondo za ku Sekhukhune, zikaŵa zinkhondo zitatu zakupambanapambana izo zikachitika pakati pa 1876 na 1879 kwimikana na ŵanthu ŵa ku Bapedi awo ŵakaŵa pasi pa Themba Sekhukhune I, mu chigaŵa cha kumpoto kwa charu ichi. Kweniso pakaŵa mphindano cifukwa cakuti Sekhukhune wakakana kuzomerezga ŵanthu awo ŵakapenjanga golide kuti ŵapenje golide mu caru ico iyo wakawonanga kuti nchakujiyimira yekha. Nkhondo Yakwamba ya ku Sekhukhune ya 1876 yikacitika na Ŵaburu, ndipo nkhondo yaciŵiri ya ku Sekhukhune ya 1878/1879 yikacitika na ŵa ku Britain.[40]

Pa nyengo ya nkhondo yaumaliro, Sekukuni (uyo wakalembekangaso Sekhukhune) na ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakabisama mu mphanji ya mu mapiri. Paumaliro wakajipeleka ku ŵasilikari ŵa ku Boer na ku Britain pa 2 December 1879. Sekhukhune, ŵamumbumba yake na ŵasilikari ŵanyake ŵa Bapedi ŵakajalirika mu jele ku Pretoria kwa vyaka viŵiri. Ŵakasanga yayi golide mu vigaŵa ivyo vikaŵa pasi pa ufumu wa Roma.[41]

Kusanga dayamondi

Cecil John Rhodes, wakayambiska De Beers Consolidated Mines ku Kimberley

Malibwe ghakwamba agho ghakasangika pakati pa 1866 na 1867 ghakaŵa gha mu malo agho ghakaŵa kumwera kwa Mlonga wa Orange. Kuzakafika mu 1869, dayamondi ŵakayisanga kutali na mlonga uliwose, mu malibwe ghakukhoma ghakucemeka blueground, agho pamasinda ghakacemekanga kimberlite. Malo agha ghakaŵa na mphaka zambura kupulikikwa makora kweniso ŵanthu ŵakakwesananga pa nkhani ya malo. Boma la South Africa (Transvaal), Orange Free State Republic, na mtundu wa Griqua awo ŵakaŵa na mitundu yakupambanapambana awo ŵakalongozgekanga na Nicolaas Waterboer ndiwo ŵakakhumbanga malo agha.[42] Kazembe wa Cape Colony, Henry Barkly, wakapangiska ŵanthu wose awo ŵakakhumbanga kuŵa na boma kuti ŵapulikire ivyo mweruzgi wakadumura, ntheura Robert W. Keate, mulaŵiliri mulara wa boma la Natal, wakapempheka kuti waŵe mweruzgi. Keate wakapeleka katundu uyu ku Griqua. Ŵasilikari ŵa ku Waterboer, ŵakawopa kuti ŵangakumana na boma la Orange Free State, ndipo ŵakapempha wovwiri ku Britain. Kufuma apo, mu 1871, Griqualand yikazgoka koloni lakwimira ufumu ndipo yikachemeka Griqualand West.

Mu 1877, charu cha Griqualand West chikapelekeka ku boma la Cape Colony. Ŵagiriki ŵakasangirapo candulo cilicose yayi cifukwa ca kukoloneska panji kukolerana na caru cawo. Ŵakapokerapo yayi usambazi wa dayamondi uwo ukasangika ku Kimberley. Pamanyuma, ŵanthu ŵa ku Griqua ŵakaŵasuska.

Kuzakafika m'ma 1870 na 1880, migodi ya Kimberley yikapanganga dayamondi pafupifupi 95 peresenti pa caru cose.[43] Ŵanthu ŵakamba kupenja golide na vinthu vinyake chifukwa cha usambazi uwo ŵakasanganga ku Kimberley. Vinthu ivyo vikasangika ku Cape Colony kufuma ku Kimberley vikapangiska kuti mu 1872 Cape Colony yipike udindo wa boma, chifukwa yikaŵa pasi pa boma la Britain yayi. Usambazi uwo ukafuma ku migodi ya dayamondi ya ku Kimberley, uwo ukakwera katatu kufuma mu 1871 m'paka mu 1875, ukakhozga chomene ŵanthu ŵa ku Cape Colony.

Mu 1888, Cecil John Rhodes, uyo wakaŵa mulara wa migodi ku Britain, wakawovwira kukhazikiska De Beers Consolidated Mines ku Kimberley, pamanyuma pakuti wagura na kusazga migodi iyi na ndalama izo mbumba ya Rothschild yikapeleka. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Africa awo ŵakagwiranga nchito ya kunozga dayamondi ku Kimberley ŵakakondwanga comene cifukwa ca nchito iyi. Ŵasayansi ŵanyake ŵakuti usambazi uwo ukapangika ku Kimberley ndiwo ukambiska nkhondo ya ku Africa iyo yikacitika mu 1902.[44][45]

Kusanga golide

Johannesburg pambere kulije migodi ya golide iyo yikapangiska kuti uŵe msumba wamoyo

Nangauli pali nkhani zinandi, kweni palije ukaboni wakukhorweska wakuti mbanjani awo ŵakasanga golide panji umo likasangikira kuumaliro wa vyaka vya m'ma 1800 ku Witwatersrand, mu chigaŵa cha Transvaal.[46] Mu Febuluwale 1886, ŵanthu ŵakasanga golide mu famu yinyake ku Witwatersrand. Ndipouli, kupaturako malo ghacoko waka, malo agho kukaŵa golide ghanandi ghakaŵa kuti ghabenekelereka na malibwe ghanandi. Pakakhumbikwanga ndalama zinandi na maluso gha ma injiniya kuti ŵasange na kufumiska golide mu malo ghakupambanapambana agho ghakaŵa pasi pa charu.[47]

Pakati pajumpha vilimika viŵiri kufuma apo ŵakasangira golide ku Witwatersrand, ŵakazenga mabungwe ghanayi ghakwendeska migodi. Yachiŵiri yikapangika na Hermann Eckstein mu 1887, ndipo pamanyuma yikamba kucemeka Rand Mines. Pamanyuma pake, Cecil Rhodes na Charles Rudd ŵakaluta na kampani yawo ya Gold Fields of South Africa. Rhodes na Rudd ŵakaŵa kuti ŵasanga ndalama zinandi cifukwa ca kuguliska dayamondi ku Kimberley.[48] Mu 1895, ndalama zinandi zikaguliskika mu migodi ya golide ya ku Witwatersrand. Vinthu ivi ndivyo vikawovwiranga chomene pa malonda pa charu chose.

Pa ŵamalonda ŵakumanyikwa 25 ŵa ku vyaru vinyake awo ŵakagwiranga nchito ya kunozga migodi ya golide ku Witwatersrand, 15 ŵakaŵa Ŵayuda, 11 ŵakaŵa ŵa ku Germany panji Austria, ndipo 9 ŵakaŵa Ŵayuda. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Europe awo ŵakaŵa Ŵayuda, ŵakakopeka na malonda agho ghakacitika cifukwa ca kusanga golide. Ŵayuda awo ŵakakhalanga mu South Africa mu 1880 ŵakaŵa pafupifupi 4,000. Kweni mu 1914, ŵakaŵa kuti ŵakukwana 40,000. Ŵanandi mwa ŵanthu aŵa ŵakafuma ku Lithuania.

Kweni umo wakulemba mbiri munyake wakayowoyera, ŵanthu awo ŵakagwiranga nchito mu migodi iyi ŵakaŵa "ŵakofya, ŵankhaza, ndiposo ŵakusuzga", ntheura ŵakaŵatemwanga yayi ŵanthu ŵafipa ŵa ku Africa. Kulemba ŵantchito ŵa mitundu yinyake kukaŵa kwakusuzga, nangauli ŵakapika malipiro ghawemi. Pakati pa 1903, pa ŵanthu 90,000 ŵa fuko lakuda awo ŵakagwiranga nchito mu vyamalonda mu 1899, ŵakakhalapo hafu pera. Ŵakapangana kuti ŵambe kutolera ŵantchito ŵa ku China awo ŵakaŵa ŵakunozgeka kugwira nchito pa malipiro ghacoko comene kuluska ŵa ku Africa. Ŵanthu ŵakwamba 1,000 ŵa ku China ŵakiza mu Juni 1904. Mu Janyuwale 1907, ŵanthu 53,000 ŵa ku China ŵakagwiranga nchito mu migodi ya golide.[49]

Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Anglo-Boer

Malo gha mu chigaŵa mu nyengo ya nkhondo za Anglo-Boer:
  South African Republic/Transvaal
  Orange Free State
  British Cape Colony
  Natalia Republic

Mu 1877, boma la Britain likakolerana na boma la Transvaal Boer apo likakhumbanga kukolerana na vyaru vinyake vya kumwera kwa Africa. Nkhondo yakwamba ya Anglo-Boer, iyo yikumanyikwaso kuti Boer Insurrection, yikamba mu 1880.[50]Nkhondo iyi yikamara mwaluŵiro chomene apo ŵakawina nkhondo ya Majuba Hill (27 February 1881).

Charu ichi chikamba kujithemba ndipo chikachemekanga Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek ("South African Republic"). Paul Kruger, yumoza wa ŵalongozgi ŵa ciwukirano ici, wakaŵa purezidenti wa ZAR mu 1883. Pa nyengo yeneyira, ŵa ku Britain, awo ŵakawonanga kuti ŵakutondeka pa nkhondo ya ku Majuba, ŵakalutilira kukhumba kukolerana na vyaru vya kumwera kwa Africa. Ŵakawona kuti iyi yikaŵa nthowa yiwemi yakucitira vinthu na ŵanthu ŵacenje awo ŵakaŵa ŵanandi comene mu cigaŵa ici, kweniso kuti ŵalutilire kuŵa na vilato vyawo mu cigaŵa ici.[51]

Nkhondo za Anglo-Boer zikacitika cifukwa ca mphindano yakuti ni mtundu wuli uwo ukeneranga kulamulira migodi ya golide ya ku Witwatersrand. Usambazi ukuru wa migodi iyi ukaŵa mu mawoko gha "ŵakaronga ŵa ku Europe" awo ŵakalongozganga ŵantchito ŵakufuma ku vyaru vinyake, ŵantchito ŵakwendeska migodi, ŵantchito ŵakumanya kupanga vinthu, na ŵantchito ŵantchito awo Ŵaburu ŵakaŵachemanga kuti "uitlander". Ŵalendo aŵa ŵakasuskanga cifukwa cakuti ŵakaŵakananga mwaŵi wa kwimilira mu nyumba za malango na wa kuvota. Kweniso ŵakadandawuranga kuti boma likucedwa kupeleka malaisensi na vikalata, kweniso kuti boma likucita makora yayi vinthu.

Mu 1895, gulu la ŵasilikari awo ŵakateŵeteranga mu kampani ya Cecil John Rhodes yakuchemeka Rhodesian Charter Company ndipo ŵakalongozgekanga na Kaputeni Leander Starr Jameson ŵakanjira mu ZAR na cilato cakuti ŵambiske chigaluka pa cirwa ca Witwatersrand na kukhazikiska boma la Britain. Nkhondo iyi yikamanyikwa kuti Jameson Raid. Nkhondo iyi yikamara apo ŵasilikari ŵa Boer ŵakaŵawukira. Pulezidenti Kruger wakaghanaghananga kuti boma la Cape Colony ilo likalamuliranga na Cecil John Rhodes ndilo likakolerana na chigaluka ichi. Kruger wakachita phangano na boma la Orange Free State, ilo likaŵa pafupi na charu cha Boer. Ici cikapangiska kuti nkhondo yaciŵiri ya Anglo-Boer yileke kwambaso.

Nkhondo Yachiŵiri ya Anglo-Boer

Emily Hobhouse wakachitanga kampeni yakususkana na vinthu viheni ivyo vikachitikanga mu misasa yakuyuzgirako ŵanthu ku South Africa.

Mu 1899, pakaŵaso mphindano pakati pa Britain na Boers, ndipo ŵakakhumbanga kuti ŵazungu 60,000 awo ŵakakhalanga ku Witwatersrand ŵaŵe na wanangwa wa kuvota. Pambere ivi vindacitike, boma la Pulezidenti Paul Kruger likazomerezganga yayi kuti ŵalendo ŵagwirenge nchito iyi. Kruger wakakana ivyo Britain likakhumbanga ndipo wakacema ŵasilikari ŵa Britain kuti ŵafumemo mu caru ca South Africa. Ŵanandi ŵakakana, ndipo Kruger wakaŵaphalira kuti ŵarwe nawo nkhondo. Nkhondo yachiŵiri iyi, iyo yikumanyikwaso kuti Nkhondo ya ku South Africa, yikatora nyengo yitali kuluska yakwamba. Ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakuti ŵasilikari ŵa Britain na ŵa ku South Africa awo ŵakaŵa mu caru ici ŵakaŵa ŵanandi comene kuluska ŵanthu ŵa mu vyaru viŵiri ivi. Kuzakafika mu Juni 1900, msumba wa Pretoria, uwo ukaŵa waumaliro pa misumba yikuruyikuru ya Ŵaburu, ukajipeleka. Ndipouli, ŵanthu ŵa ku Boer awo ŵakaŵa na mtima wakununkha ŵakalutilira kulimbana na ŵasilikari kwa vyaka viŵiri. Ŵaburu ŵakalutilira kurwa nkhondo.

Mwanakazi munyake wa ku Britain, zina lake Emily Hobhouse, wakaluta ku misasa yakuyuzgirako ŵanthu ku South Africa ndipo wakalemba lipoti ilo likasuska vinthu viheni ivyo vikacitikanga. Kuzakafika mu 1902, ŵanakazi na ŵana 26,000 ŵa ku Boer ŵakaŵa kuti ŵafwa cifukwa ca matenda ndiposo kulekelereka mu misasa.[52]

Nkhondo ya Anglo-Boer yikakhwaska mafuko ghose mu South Africa. Ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yose yiŵiri ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake kuti ŵaŵawovwire pa nkhondo. Kafukufuku wakulongora kuti ŵanthu ŵafipa yayi. Ŵanandi ŵakaŵikika mu malaro ghambura mazina. Ndipouli, ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake 17,182 ŵakafwa na matenda mu misasa yakuyuzgirako ŵanthu ku Cape pera. Ŵalara ŵa misasa ya ŵakayidi ŵakalembanga yayi nyifwa za ŵanthu ŵafipa.[53]

Kufuma apo nkhondo yikambira mu Okutobala 1899 m'paka apo kukakhazikiskikira mtende pa Meyi 31, 1902, nkhondo iyi yikakoma ŵasilikari ŵa ufumu wa Roma ŵakukwana 22,000 na ŵasilikari ŵa boma la Republican 7,000. Mu phangano la mtende ilo likacemeka kuti Treaty of Vereeniging, maboma gha ŵa Boer ghakazomera muwuso wa Britain, ndipo ŵa Britain ŵakajipeleka kuti ŵazengeso malo agho ŵakaŵa na mazaza pawo.

Mgwilizano wa charu cha South Africa (1910-1948)

Union Buildings, boma la boma, Pretoria, c. 1925

Mu vyaka vyakulondezgapo nkhondo za Anglo-Boer, Britain yikamba kuwunganya vyaru vinayi ivyo vikaŵa pasi pa boma la Britain, kusazgapo vyaru ivyo vikaŵa pasi pa boma la Boer, kuŵa charu chimoza chakujiyimira paŵekha. Ivi vikachitika mu 1909, apo Dango la South Africa Act likazomerezga kuti charu cha Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal, na Orange Free State viŵe charu chimoza. Kuyana na dango ili, wupu uwu ukazgoka chigaŵa chakujiyimira paŵekha cha Ufumu wa Britain. Ŵalara ŵa boma ŵakasuzganga ŵanthu mu zina la boma. Vyaru vya British High Commission nga ni Basutoland (sono ni Lesotho), Bechuanaland (sono ni Botswana), na Swaziland (sono ni Eswatini) vikalutilira kulamulirika na Britain.[54]

Pakati pa malango ghanyake ghakofya agho ghakaŵa ghakususkana na ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake, kusazgapo dango lakuti ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake ŵaleke kuvota, Nyumba ya Malango ya ku South Africa yikapanga dango lakuti mu 1913 malo gha ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake ghaŵe gha ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake. Ŵazungu, awo ŵakaŵa 20 peresenti ya ŵanthu, ŵakaŵa na 90 peresenti ya malo. Dango lakukhwaskana na malo liŵenge libwe lapakona la kusankhana mitundu kwa vyaka 90.[55]

Daniel François Malan, mulongozgi wa National Party kufuma mu 1934 mpaka 1953

Mulara wa ŵasilikari Louis Botha ndiyo wakaŵa mulongozgi wa boma lakwamba la wupu uphya uwu, ndipo Jan Smuts wakaŵa wachiŵiri wake. Chipani chawo cha South African National Party, icho pamasinda chikachemekanga South African Party panji SAP, chikalondezganga fundo yakuti ŵazungu ŵakoleranenge na Britain. Ŵa Boer awo ŵakaŵa ŵankhongono chomene ŵakajipatura pasi pa muwuso wa Jenerale Barry Hertzog, ndipo ŵakambiska National Party (NP) mu 1914. Chipani cha National Party chikavikiliranga ŵanthu ŵa ku Afrika, ndipo chikachiskanga ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yiŵiri kuti ŵaŵe ŵakupambana, kweniso kuti ŵaŵe ŵakujiyimira ŵekha.[56]

Ŵanthu awo ŵakakhorwa yayi na umo Britain yikagwilira ntchito mu vyaru vya ku Europe ŵakamba kugaluka mu Seputembala 1914. Ŵanthu ŵakagaluka ŵakamara, ndipo mulara wa ŵasilikari yumoza ŵakamuphalira kuti wakomeke.

Mu 1924, chipani cha National Party, icho chikaŵa na ŵanthu ŵanandi chomene, chikamba kuwusa pamoza na chipani cha Labour. Chiyowoyero cha Afrikaans, icho kale chikawonekanga nga ni chiyowoyero cha ku Netherlands, chikanjira m'malo mwa chiyowoyero cha Dutch. Mu 1925, Cingelezi na Ciholandi vikaŵa viyowoyero viŵiri vya boma.

Wupu wa South Africa ukamara pa referendum pa 5 Okutobala 1960, apo ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku South Africa ŵakazomera kufumamo mu wupu wa British Commonwealth.

Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Caru Cose

Ufumu wa Britain ukaŵa pa mapu pa nyengo iyo ukaŵa pa malo ghapacanya comene m'ma 1910 na m'ma 1920. (India wakuwoneka makora mu viyuni.) Ku South Africa, pakati, kuli pakati pa vigaŵa viŵiri vya Ufumu.

Apo Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Caru Cose yikambanga, caru ca South Africa cikakolerana na Britain na ŵasilikari ŵanyake kuti ŵarwe na ufumu wa Germany. Mulara wa boma, Louis Botha, na mulara wa boma, Jan Smuts, wose ŵakaŵa ŵasilikari ŵa Nkhondo Yachiŵiri ya ku Boer. Gulu linyake la ŵasilikari ŵa South Africa likakana kurwa nkhondo na Ŵachijeremani kweniso ŵalwani ŵanyake ŵa boma. Pa Okutobala 14, 1914, boma likapharazga dango lakukanizga nkhondo, ndipo ŵasilikari awo ŵakalongozgekanga na Louis Botha na Jan Smuts ŵakathereska ŵanthu awo ŵakagalukira boma. Ŵalongozgi ŵa gulu la ŵakugaluka ŵakaŵeruzga, ŵakaŵapa ndalama zinandi, na kuŵakaka vyaka 6 m'paka 7.[57]

Ŵanthu ŵa ku South Africa ŵakaŵa ŵakupambana mitundu. Ŵasilikari ŵa Britain ndiwo ŵakaŵa ŵankhongono comene pa nkhondo iyi. Kweniso ŵanthu ŵa ku India (ŵakulongozgeka na Mahatma Gandhi) ŵakakolerana na nkhondo iyi. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Afrika ŵakaŵa ŵakupambana, ndipo ŵanyake nga ni Botha na Smuts ŵakaŵa na udindo ukuru pa nkhondo ya Britain. Ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakakhalanga ku mizi ŵakakana fundo iyi. Wupu wa ŵantchito ukagaŵikana. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa mitundu yinyake awo ŵakakhalanga mu matawuni ghakurughakuru ŵakakolerana na nkhondo iyi chifukwa ŵakagomezganga kuti yingaŵawovwira kuti ŵaŵe na umoyo uwemi. Ŵanyake ŵakatenge fundo iyi njambura kuzirwa pa nkhani ya wanangwa wawo. Ŵanandi ŵakateŵeteranga mu mawupu gha ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake mu vyaru vya kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Africa na France.[57]

Ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mu caru ici ŵakaŵa pafupifupi 6 miliyoni. Pakati pa 1914 na 1918, ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 250,000 ŵa mitundu yose ŵakateŵetera mu caru cawo. Ŵanandi ŵakateŵeteranga mu gulu la ŵasilikari ŵa Britain, ndipo ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 3,000 ŵakamba kuteŵetera mu gulu la ŵasilikari ŵa Britain. Vikuwoneka kuti pa ŵanalume wose ŵazungu awo ŵakaŵa ŵacekuru kuti ŵanjire usilikari, pafupifupi 50 peresenti ndiwo ŵakateŵeteranga pa nyengo ya nkhondo iyi. Ŵachikuda 83,000 na ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yakupambanapambana na ŵa ku Asia 2,500 nawo ŵakateŵeteranga ku German South-West Africa, East Africa, Middle East, panji ku Western Front ku Europe. Ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 7,000 ŵa ku South Africa ŵakakomeka, ndipo pafupifupi 12,000 ŵakapwetekeka.[58] Ŵanthu 8 ŵa ku South Africa ndiwo ŵakapokera Victoria Cross, uyo ni mphumphu ya nkhondo yapachanya chomene ya Ufumu wa Britain. Nkhondo ya ku Delville Wood na kubira kwa sitima ya nkhondo yakucemeka SS Mendi, ndivyo vikaŵa vyakofya comene.

Ŵalongozgi ŵa ŵasilikari ŵa Smuts (kumalyero) na Botha ŵakaŵa ŵa mu British Imperial War Cabinet mu nyengo ya Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Caru Cose.

Ŵanthu 25,000 ŵa ku South Africa ŵakalembeka ntchito na British War Cabinet kuti ŵagwirenge nchito mu South African Native Labour Contingent (SANLC). 21,000 ŵa iwo ŵakatumika ku France kuti ŵakateŵetere nga ni ŵantchito ŵa ku French ports. Pa 21 February 1917, ŵanthu 616 ŵa mu gulu la 5th Battalion la SANLC ŵakabira mu nyanja apo sitima ya nkhondo ya SS Mendi, iyo ŵakendangamo kuluta ku France, yikaswa ngalaŵa yinyake kufupi na Isle of Wight. Nkhondo ya ku Mendi yikaŵa yimoza mwa masoka ghakofya comene mu nyengo ya Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Caru Cose. Boma la South Africa likapeleka yayi mendulo ya nkhondo ku ŵasilikari ŵa fuko lakuda ndipo mendulo yapadera iyo Themba George V likapeleka ku "ŵasilikari ŵa mu caru ici" awo ŵakateŵeteranga Ufumu, iyo ni British War Medal mu mkuŵa, yikazomerezgeka yayi ndipo yikapelekeka yayi ku SANLC.

Ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yakupambanapambana awo ŵakakolerana na nkhondo iyi ŵakakwiya chomene apo ku South Africa kukaŵavya uyo wakazomerezga kuti ŵazungu ŵambe kulamulira.

Boma la Britain likapokera wovwiri ukuru comene kufuma ku South Africa. Vinyake ivyo vikaŵa mu vyaru viŵiri vya ku Africa ivyo vikaŵa na ŵasilikari ŵa Germany vikaŵa mu mawoko gha South Africa pera panji na wovwiri ukuru wa South Africa. Ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yose ŵakawovwira ŵasilikari ŵa vyaru vinyake kuti ŵarwe na Ufumu wa Ottoman. Maboti gha ku South Africa agho ghakaŵa ku chigaŵa cha kumwera kwa Africa ghakaŵa ghakukhumbikwa comene pakurwa nkhondo pa caru cose. Pakuti ŵasilikari ŵa Royal Navy ŵakasanganga malo ghakupumulirapo na kugwiliskira nchito mafuta, ŵakate ŵakwaniskenge kukolerana na boma la Britain.

Ku South Africa ndiko kukafuma golide wakukwana vigaŵa viŵiri pa vigaŵa vitatu vya ufumu wa Britain. Apo nkhondo yikambanga, ŵalara ŵa Bank of England ku London ŵakakolerana na South Africa kuti ŵaleke kupeleka golide ku Germany, ndipo ŵakacicizga ŵeneco ŵa migodi kuti ŵaguliske ku British Treasury pera, pa mtengo uwo ukanozgeka na Treasury. Ivi vikawovwira kuti ŵagure vilwero na vyakurya ku United States na vyaru vinyake.[59]

Nkhondo Yachiŵiri ya Caru Cose

Mu nyengo ya Nkhondo Yachiŵiri ya pa Charu Chose, maboti gha ku South Africa, nga ni Cape Town, Durban, na Simon's Town, ghakaŵa ghakuzirwa chomene ku ŵasilikari ŵa ku Britain. Wupu wa South Africa wakuwona vya mlengalenga (Special Signals Service) ukawovwira chomene pakovwira ŵanthu kuti ŵamanye malo agho kuli mawoko gha mlengalenga. Kuzakafika mu Ogasiti 1945, ŵasilikari ŵa South African Air Force pamoza na ŵasilikari ŵa Britain na Dutch awo ŵakaŵa ku South Africa, ŵakakora ngalaŵa za ŵalwani 17, kovwira ŵanthu 437 awo ŵakapona ku maboti agho ghakanjira mu nyanja.[60][61]

Mu nyengo ya Nkhondo Yachiŵiri ya Caru Cose, ŵasilikari ŵa vyaru vyakupambanapambana ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito dowoko la Simon's Town na msasa wa ŵasilikari ŵa ku South Africa.

Ŵanthu pafupifupi 334,000 ŵa ku South Africa ŵakajipeleka kuti ŵateŵetere ŵasilikari nyengo zose. Pa ŵanthu aŵa, pafupifupi 9,000 ŵakafwa. Pa Juni 21, 1942, ŵasilikari pafupifupi 10,000 ŵa ku South Africa, awo ŵakimiranga chigaŵa chimoza pa vigaŵa vitatu vya ŵasilikari wose ŵa ku South Africa, ŵakakoleka na ŵasilikari ŵa German Field Marshal Rommel mu msumba wa Tobruk, ku Libya. Ŵalongozgi ŵanandi ŵa ndege za nkhondo ŵa ku South Africa ŵakateŵeteranga mu Royal Air Force pa Nkhondo ya Britain, kusazgapo Adolph "Sailor" Malan uyo wakalongozga 74 Squadron ndipo wakaparanya ndege 27 za ŵalwani.[62]

Mulara Jan Smuts ndiyo wakaŵa mulara wa ŵasilikari wa ku Britain pera uyo wakapemphanga ulongozgi kwa Winston Churchill, uyo wakaŵa nduna yikuru ya Britain. Smuts wakacemeka ku Imperial War Cabinet mu 1939 pakuŵa munthu mulara comene wa ku South Africa uyo wakatemwanga nkhondo. Pa 28 May 1941, Smuts wakasankhika kuŵa Field Marshal wa British Army, ndipo wakaŵa munthu wakwamba wa ku South Africa kuŵa na udindo uwu. Nkhondo yikati yamara, Smuts wakimilira South Africa ku San Francisco apo ŵakalembanga chikalata cha United Nations Charter mu Meyi 1945. Nga ni umo wakacitira mu 1919, Smuts wakaciska ŵimiliri kuti ŵapange wupu wankhongono wa pa caru cose kuti usungilire mtende. Smuts wakalembaso phangano la mtende la ku Paris, ilo likapeleka mtende mu Europe. Ntheura wakaŵa yekha uyo wakalembeska phangano ili.[61]

Ŵanthu ŵakutemwa Germany na Nazi

Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Caru Cose yikati yamara, mu 1914, ku South Africa kukacitika nkhondo yakususkana na boma la South West Africa. Wakawelera mu 1923, ndipo wakalutilira kugwira nchito ku South Africa nga ni mswiri wa boma la Germany.

Mu 1896, Kaiser Wilhelm wa ku Germany wakakwiyiska Britain mwa kutuma malumbo kwa mulongozgi wa boma la Boer Paul Kruger pamanyuma pakuti ŵasilikari ŵa Kruger ŵakakora gulu la ŵasilikari ŵa British South Africa Company awo ŵakacitanga nkhondo na kuwukira, ndipo ŵakathera. Germany ndiyo yikapelekanga vilwero ku Ŵabowa pa nyengo ya nkhondo ya Anglo-Boer. Boma la Kaiser Wilhelm likanozga vyakuti maboma ghaŵiri gha Boer ghagure futi za Mauser na mabomba ghanandi gha gunpowder. Kampani ya ku Germany yakucemeka Ludwig Loewe, iyo pamasinda yikamanyikwa kuti Deutsche Waffen-und Munitionfabriken, yikapeleka futi 55,000 ku Ŵaburu mu 1896.[63]

Kukwambilira kwa m'ma 1940, gulu la Nazi la Ossewa Brandwag (OB) likaŵa na ŵanthu 500,000, kusazgapo John Vorster, uyo wakaŵa nduna yikuru ya boma, na Hendrik van den Bergh, uyo wakaŵa mulara wa ŵapolisi. Nyengo yichoko waka, gulu la Boerenasie (Boer Nation) na magulu ghanyake agho ghakatinkhanga Ŵayuda, ghakaŵakolerana nawo. Nkhondo yikati yamara, gulu la OB likaŵa limoza mwa magulu ghakwimikana na boma agho ghakaŵa mu chipani cha National Party.

Gulu la South African Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging panji AWB (lakuyowoya kuti Afrikaner Resistance Movement), gulu la nkhondo la Nazi ilo likafuma mu ma 1970, ndipo likaŵa lakugwira ntchito m'paka pakati pa ma 1990, likagwiliskiranga ntchito ndembera iyo yikuyana chomene na swastika.[64][65] Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1990, AWB yikayezga kutimbanizga kusintha kwa chalo ku demokilase. Pamanyuma pa maungano ghakwamba gha vyaru vinandi mu 1994, ŵasilikari ŵanandi ŵakakolerana na AWB. Pa 11 March 1994, mamembala mazana ghanandi gha AWB ghakaŵa chigaŵa cha gulu la ŵasilikari awo ŵakanjira mu chigaŵa cha Bophuthatswana, mu chiyezgo chakutondeka kukhozga mulongozgi wake wambura kutemweka, Chief Lucas Mangope. Mulongozgi wa AWB Eugène Terre'Blanche wakakomeka na ŵantchito ŵa mu famu pa 3 Epulero 2010.

Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa mu Afrika awo ŵakaŵa ŵakujiyuyura ŵakaŵa ŵakugomezgeka ndipo ŵakakolerananga yayi na ivyo AWB yikachitanga.[66]

Buku la Encyclopedia Britannica lakulongosora vya South Africa kufuma mu 1956

Nyengo ya apartheid (1948-1994)

Malango gha katangale

"Kuti ŵazungu ŵagwiliskirenge ntchito" chikhongwani chamu nyengo ya Apartheid

Ndondomeko ya kusankhana mitundu yikafuma ku malango gha vyaru vinyake agho ghakaŵako mu nyengo ya muwuso wa ŵa Dutch mu ma 1700, ndipo ghakalutilira na kusazgikira mu nyengo ya ufumu wa Britain.

Kwambira mu 1948, maboma gha National Party ghakazomerezga na kusazgirako ndondomeko ya kusankhana mitundu na kukana wanangwa wa ŵanthu kuŵa dango la apartheid, ilo likamara mu 1991. Pa nyengo iyi, dango lakuzirwa chomene likaŵa la Homeland Citizens Act la mu 1970. Dango ili likakhozga chomene dango la Native Land Act la mu 1913, ilo likaŵa lakuti "vigaŵa vyakupatulika". Chikazomerezga kuti ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Africa ŵafumiskike mu matawuni gha ku South Africa na South West Africa (lero ni Namibia) na kuluta ku malo agho ŵanthu ŵakughacemanga kuti "Bantustans" panji "makaya ghakwambilira" gha mafuko gha ŵanthu ŵafipa gha ku South Africa. Ndondomeko yeneyiyi yikagwiraso nchito ku South West Africa, uko South Africa yikalutilira kuŵa na mazaza gha League of Nations pamanyuma pa Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Caru Cose. Ŵanthu ŵa ku South Africa awo ŵakakolerana na muwuso wa apartheid ŵakayezga kuzomerezga fundo ya bantustan mwa kuyowoya kuti boma la Britain likagaŵa India mu 1947.[67]

Mapu gha caru ca ŵanthu ŵafipa ku South Africa paumaliro wa muwuso wa apartheid mu 1994

Nangauli vinthu vikuruvikuru vikacitika mu nyengo iyi, kweni apartheid ndiyo yikaŵa yikuru comene pa nkhani za mdauko wa mu nyengo iyi, kusazgapo nkhondo zaciwawa na nkhondo za mu caru ca South Africa. Kuzakafika mu 1987, ndalama zose izo zikagwiliskirika pa nkhondo zikaŵa pafupifupi 28% ya bajeti ya boma.

Pamanyuma pa kuwukira kwa Soweto mu 1976 na kukanizgika kwa wanangwa wa ŵanthu, ma Joint Management Centres (JMCs) agho ghakacitanga milimo yawo mu vigaŵa 34 ivyo boma likati ni vyakofya comene ghakazgoka cinthu cakuzirwa comene pa ndondomeko ya kuvikilira wanangwa wa ŵanthu. Ŵapolisi na ŵasilikari awo ŵakaŵa na mazaza pa JMC pakatikati pa vyaka vya m'ma 1980 ŵakaŵa na mazaza pa vyakucita pa vigaŵa vyose, kwambira ku nduna mpaka ku boma.[68]

UN embargo

Pa Disembala 16, 1966, wupu wa United Nations General Assembly ukadumura kuti apartheid ni "kwananga kwa ŵanthu". Pa Novembala 30, 1973, wupu wakulongozga ukazomerezga fundo ya mtundu wa apartheid. Pulogiramu iyi yikamba kugwira nchito pa Julayi 18, 1976. Pa Okutobala 23, 1984, wupu wa UN Security Council ukazomera fundo iyi. Ungano uwu ukati muwuso wa apartheid ukaŵa wambura kuzomerezgeka na dango kweniso ukaŵa waupusikizgi cifukwa ukaswa Dango la Wupu wa United Nations.[69]Pa Novembala 12, 1974, wupu wa UN ukafumiska kale South Africa mu wupu uwu. Pa Novembala 4, 1977, Wupu wa Wupu Wakulongozga ukaŵika dango lakuti ŵanthu ŵaleke kugura na kuguliska vilwero ku vyaru vinyake. Charu ichi chikazomerezgekaso mu wupu wa UN mu 1994 pamanyuma pakuti cazgoka caru ca demokilase. Boma la Apartheid la South Africa likakolerana na ivyo UN likadumura kuti ŵathereske ŵasilikari ŵa Israyeli. Vipolopolo vyakukwana 400 vya M-113A1 na futi za 106 mm vyambura kuponyamo ŵanthu ivyo vikapangika mu United States vikapelekeka ku South Africa kwizira mu Israyeli.[70]

Kukoma ŵanthu kwambura mulandu

Pakati pa ma 1980, ŵapolisi na ŵasilikari ŵakakomanga ŵanthu awo ŵakususkana na boma. Kuzakafika pakati pa 1987, wupu wakuwona vya wanangwa wa ŵanthu (Human Rights Commission) ukamanya kuti mu caru ici mukaŵa ŵanthu ŵakukwana 140 awo ŵakakomeka cifukwa ca ndyali. Nakuti tingamanya yayi unandi wa awo ŵali kufwa. Ŵapharazgi ŵakazomerezgekanga yayi kulemba, kujambura panji kujambula vinthu ivi, apo boma likaŵa na pulogiramu yake yakubisira ŵanthu uthenga wautesi. Pa nyengo yeneyira, magulu gha ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mu vigaŵa vyawo ghakachitanga nkhaza pa ŵanthu ŵa mu vigaŵa ivi na ŵalongozgi awo ŵakakanizganga apartheid. Boma likati ivi vikacitika cifukwa ca nkhaza za ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake.[71]

Komiti ya Unenesko na Kuphemana (TRC) yikati yasanga kuti gulu lakubisika la ŵasilikari na ŵapolisi awo ŵakaŵa kale panji awo ŵachali kuteŵetera, kanandi ŵakukolerana na ŵanthu ŵakunyoloka, ŵakacitanga vinthu ivyo vingawoneka nga ni kwambiska vivulupi. Pakati pa 1960 na 1994, kuyana na ma statistics gha Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Inkatha Freedom Party yikaŵa na mulandu wa nyifwa za ŵanthu 4,500, ŵapolisi ŵa South African Police 2,700, ndipo ANC pafupifupi 1,300.

Kukwambilira kwa 2002, ŵapolisi ŵa ku South Africa ŵakatondeska gulu la ŵanthu ŵazungu ilo likakhumbanga kuwukira boma. Ŵanthu ŵakukwana makumi ghaŵiri, kusazgapo ŵalaraŵalara ŵa ŵasilikari ŵa South Africa ŵakakakika cifukwa ca mulandu wa upusikizgi na kukoma ŵanthu, pamanyuma pa kuphulika kwa bomba mu Soweto. Ŵapolisi ŵakakanizga boma kuwukira boma, ndipo ŵanthu ŵakamba kughanaghana kuti boma la demokilase ilo likaŵako mu 1994 ndakuzomerezgeka yayi.

Pakumalizga mulimo wake mu 2004, Komiti iyi yikapeleka mazina gha ŵanthu 300 ku National Prosecuting Authority (NPA) kuti yikayezge na kuŵeruzga. Ni vigaŵa vichoko waka ivyo vikaŵa na milandu.[72][73]

Ntchito za nkhondo mu vyaru vya ku mphepete

Paumaliro wa muwuso wa apartheid, ŵasilikari ŵa ku South Africa ŵakakanizganga maboma ghapafupi, kovwiranga ŵanthu ŵakususka boma, kunanga vinthu, na kuwukira malo gha ANC. Vyaru ivi, ivyo vikaŵa vyakukolerana na vyaru vya kumwera kwa Africa, vikacemekanga kuti Frontline States: Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, ndipo kwambira mu 1980, Zimbabwe.[74][75]

Ŵabali ŵa gulu la ŵasilikari ŵa parachute la 44 ŵakendeskanga nkhondo ya ku mphaka ya South Africa.

Kukwambilira kwa Novembala, 1975, pamanyuma pakuti Portugal yapeleka wanangwa ku Angola, caru ico kale cikaŵa mu Africa, nkhondo yikamba pakati pa UNITA na MPLA. Kuti UNITA yileke kuparanyika na kukhozga muwuso wa boma laubwezi, South Africa yikanjilirapo pa 23 Okutobala, kutuma ŵasilikari pakati pa 1,500 na 2,000 kufuma ku Namibia kuya kumwera kwa Angola kuti ŵarwe na MPLA. Pakuzgora ku nkhondo ya South Africa, Cuba wakatuma ŵasilikari 18,000 mu ciphalizgano cikuru ico cikacemekanga kuti Operation Carlota. Ku Cuba, pakwamba MPLA yikaŵa na ŵapharazgi ŵa nkhondo ŵakukwana 230. Kuwukira kwa Cuba kukawovwira kuti SADF na UNITA vileke kunjilirapo na kukhozga muwuso wa MPLA mu Angola. Pakati pajumpha vilimika 10, ŵasilikari 36,000 ŵa ku Cuba ŵakatumika mu caru cose kuti ŵawovwire MPLA kulimbana na UNITA. Nkhondo ya mukati mu Angola yikapangiska kuti ŵanthu 550,000 ŵafwe. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakafwa pakati pa 1992 na 1993, pamanyuma pakuti nkhondo ya ku South Africa na Cuba yamara.[76][77][78]

Pakati pa 1975 na 1988, ma SADF ghakalutilira kunjilira mu Angola na Zambia kuti ŵaparanyenge maofesi gha PLAN agho ghakaŵa pa mphaka na Namibia kweniso kuti ŵawovwire UNITA. Nkhondo ya mabomba iyo yikapangika na ŵasilikari 200 ŵa ku South Africa pa 4 May 1978 ku Cassinga kumwera kwa Angola, yikapangiska kuti ŵanthu pafupifupi 700 ŵa ku South West Africa ŵakomeke, kusazgapo ŵasilikari ŵa PLAN na ŵanakazi na ŵana ŵanandi. Mulara wa gulu la ŵasilikari ŵa parachute ku South Africa, Koloneli Jan Breytenbach, wakati "ŵasilikari ŵa ku vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi ŵakuti agha ndigho ghakaŵa ghakuru comene kufuma pa Nkhondo Yachiŵiri ya Caru Cose". Boma la Angola likati ciŵiya ico cikaŵa pa nkhondo iyi cikaŵa msasa wa ŵanthu ŵakuchimbira kwawo. Pa Meyi 6, 1978, wupu wa United Nations Security Council ukadumura kuti caru ca South Africa nchakucita cinthu ciheni. Pa Ogasiti 23, 1981, ŵasilikari ŵa ku South Africa ŵakanjiliraso mu Angola na wovwiri wa CIA. Gulu la ŵasilikari ŵa Angola, apo likagomezganga kuti charu cha South Africa chaŵawukira, likakhozgeka na ŵasilikari ŵa ku Cuba pamoza na ŵasilikari ŵa PLAN na ANC, awo wose ŵakaŵa na vilwero vyakufuma ku Soviet Union. Gulu la ŵasilikari na ŵasilikari ŵa ku South Africa awo ŵakalongozganga vinthu vya ndyali, ŵakagwiranga lumoza nchito na ŵasilikari ŵa ku America, Britain, na West Germany.

Ku South Africa na ku Cuba, wose ŵakatonda nkhondo ya ku Cuito Cuanavale, iyo yikulongosoreka kuti "njakofya comene mu Africa kufuma pa Nkhondo Yachiŵiri ya Caru Cose". Ndipouli, ŵasilikari ŵa ku South Africa ŵakataya mazaza ghawo pa nkhondo kweniso luso lawo. Kuŵapo kwa South Africa mu Angola kukamara pamanyuma pa kusazga phangano la United Nations ilo likamanyikwa kuti New York Accords pakati pa maboma gha Angola, Cuba na South Africa, ilo likapangiska kuti ŵasilikari wose ŵa vyaru vinyake ŵafumemo mu Angola kweniso kuti South Africa nayo wafumemo mu South West Africa (lero ni Namibia), uko UN yikuwona kuti kuli na ŵasilikari ŵambura kuzomerezgeka kwambira mu 1966.[79][80]

Mu ma 1980, chalo cha South Africa chikapelekaso wovwiri ku gulu la Resistência Nacional Moçambicana (RENAMO) mu charu cha Mozambique, apo likarwa nkhondo na boma la FRELIMO.[81][82][83]

Kulimbana na apartheid

Chithuzi cha kuphana kwa ku Sharpeville mu March 1960

Ŵanthu awo ŵakachitanga vinthu mwakukolerana na mtundu wa Afrikaans, ŵakaŵa waka ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wakufipa yayi. Mu ma 1950, gulu linyake la ŵasilikari la Torch Commando likapangika, ndipo ŵakalongozgekanga na ŵasilikari awo ŵakarwa nkhondo na ŵasilikari ŵa Axis mu Europe na North Africa. Pa nyengo iyo gulu ili likaŵa na ŵanthu 250,000, likaŵa gulu likuru comene la ŵanthu ŵatuŵa awo ŵakasuskanga boma. Kufika mu 1952, moto uwo ukaŵa mu gulu la ŵanthu ŵatuŵa ukazimwika, apo gulu la Torch Commando likamara chifukwa cha malango gha boma agho ghakaŵa pasi pa Dango la Kukanizga Chikomyunizimu, 1950. Pamanyuma, ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵa mu gulu la Torch Commando ŵakazgoka ŵalongozgi ŵa gulu la African National Congress.[84]

Kwamba mu 1940 m'paka mu 1960, ŵanthu ŵakamba kulimbana na apartheid. Pamanyuma pa kukomeka kwa ŵanthu 69 mu Sharpeville mu Malichi 1960, na kukhazikiska boma la vyakofya, na kukanizga maboma gha anti-apartheid nga ni African National Congress (ANC), Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC), na Communist Party of South Africa. Wupu wa ANC, Umkhonto weSizwe (MK, kung'anamura Mkondo wa Mtundu) ukayowoya kuti nkhaza ni zaurunji chifukwa cha kujivikilira na nkhondo yaurunji. Kwambira mu ma 1960 m'paka mu 1989, MK wakacitanga viheni vinandi na kuwukira ŵasilikari na ŵapolisi. Komiti ya Unenesko na Kuphemana yikati mu 2003, nangauli ANC yikayowoya kuti yikurwa waka nkhondo na ŵapolisi, "ŵanandi awo ŵakafwa pa nkhondo iyi ŵakaŵa ŵanthu bweka".

Gulu lakufwatuka ku vyaru likapambana mu vyaka vya m'ma 1960 apo gulu la "Africanist" mukati mwa ANC likakananga kuti pakaŵe mgwirizano pakati pa ANC na Communist Party of South Africa. Ŵalongozgi ŵa chipani cha Communist mu South Africa ŵakaŵa ŵazungu.[85] Ŵa Africanists ŵakafumako ku ANC na kupanga Pan-Africanist Congress na gulu lake la ŵasilikari lakucemeka Poqo, ilo likamba kugwira nchito comene mu vigaŵa vya Cape. Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1990, Poqo wakachemeka kuti Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA). Gulu ili likachitanga ukhuluku kuti lisange ndalama na vilwero. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakafwa panji kupwetekeka na mabandi agha. Mu 1993, ciŵelengero ca ŵanthu ŵambura mulandu awo ŵakacitiranga nkhaza ŵazungu cikakwera. APLA yikakana kuti ivyo ŵakacita vikaŵa vyakusankhana mitundu, ndipo yikati vikacitikanga kwimikana na boma la apartheid cifukwa ŵatuŵa wose, kuyana na PAC, ŵakacitanga nawo ndyali ya apartheid. Ŵanthu 11 ŵakafwa ndipo 58 ŵakapwetekeka pa ngozi iyo yikacitikira tchalitchi la Cikhristu ku Cape Town mu 1993.[86]

Ŵasambiri ŵanandi na ŵanthu ŵanyake awo ŵakachimbilira ku vyaru vyapafupi, comenecomene ku Botswana, kuti ŵaleke kukakika pamanyuma pa kuwukira kwa Soweto pa Juni 16, 1976, ŵakapanga malo ghakutowa ghakusankhira ŵasilikari ŵa ANC na PAC. Kuwukira uku kukacitika cifukwa ca malango gha boma agho ghakakanizga ŵana ŵa sukulu ŵa ku Africa kuti ŵaŵazgenge mu ciyowoyero ca ciAfrikaans. Chigaluka ichi chikafika mu charu chose. Apo nkhondo iyi yikamara, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakakomeka na kupwetekeka.

Mu 1983, gulu la United Democratic Front (UDF) likapangika na ŵanthu pafupifupi 400. Pa nyengo iyo UDF yikaŵa na ŵanthu ŵanandi comene mu 1987, yikaŵa na mawupu pafupifupi 700 na ŵanthu pafupifupi 3,000,000. Ŵakachita nkhaza zinandi izo zikamanyikwanga kuti "kuleka kuwusa". Ŵakakoma ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa chipani cha opposition, comenecomene ŵa Inkatha Freedom Party, ndipo nyengo zinyake ŵakaŵawotcha ŵamoyo. Pakati pa African National Congress (ANC) na UDF pakaŵa ubwezi wakukhora, wakuthemba pa fundo yakuyana ya Freedom Charter. Pamanyuma pa kukanizgika kwa milimo yake, mu 1988 UDF yikasinthika na Mass Democratic Movement, wupu uwo ukaŵa na magulu ghakwimikana na apartheid.

Ŵakayidi 130 ŵa ndyali ŵakakomeka pa khuni la mphinjika mu jele la Pretoria Central pakati pa 1960 na 1990. Ŵanthu awo ŵakakakika ŵakaŵa ŵa Pan Africanist Congress na United Democratic Front.[87]

Nyengo ya apartheid (1994~pano)

Frederik W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela, two of the driving forces in ending apartheid

Nkhondo ya Soviet Union mu ma 1980 yikati yamara, African National Congress (ANC) yikakolerana na South African Communist Party, ndipo yikaleka kugomezga Soviet Union kuti yipelekenge vilwero na wovwiri wa ndyali. Kweniso cikang'anamuranga kuti boma la apartheid lingalekaso yayi kukolerana na apartheid na kuzomerezgeka kwake na kuvikilira visambizgo vya Cikristu na civilisation cifukwa ca rooi gevaar, kung'anamura "soka liswesi" panji kofya kwa cikomyunizimu. Vigaŵa vyose viŵiri vikakanizgika kukhala pa thebulu la kudumbiskirana, ndipo mu Juni 1991, malango ghose gha katangale ghakalekeka.[88] Pakuwona umo ŵanthu ŵa mu vyaru vinyake na vyaru vinyake ŵakasuskira apartheid mu ma 1980, kusazgapo nkhondo, vivulupi vya ŵanthu, ndyali na visambizgo vyautesi vya caru cose, kweniso kuyuzgika na gulu lakususka apartheid pa caru cose, Pulezidenti F. W. de Klerk wakapharazga vya kuwuskapo dango lakukanizga African National Congress, Pan Africanist Congress na South African Communist Party, kweniso kufwatura Nelson Mandela uyo wakaŵa mu jele pa Febuluwale 2, 1990, pamanyuma pa kukhala mu jele vyaka 27. Pa ungano wa ŵanthu wose uwo ukacitika pa 17 Malici 1992, ŵanthu ŵacenje ŵakavota 68% kuti ŵaŵe na demokilase. Pamanyuma pa kudumbiskana kwa nyengo yitali mu wupu wa Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA), pa Julayi 26, 1993, ŵakalemba dango ilo likapeleka wanangwa ku vyaru vyose.

Kufuma pa 26 m'paka pa 29 Epulero, 1994, ŵanthu ŵa ku South Africa ŵakavota pa mavoti ghakwamba. Gulu la African National Congress ndilo likathereska, ndipo likaluska chomene gulu la National Party na la Inkatha Freedom Party. Chipani cha Democratic Party na Pan Africanist Congress, pamoza na ŵanyake, vikaŵa vyakwimikana na boma mu nyumba ya malango yakwamba ya caru ici. Nelson Mandela wakasankhika kuŵa purezidenti pa 9 Meyi 1994 ndipo wakapangiska boma la wupu wa National Unity, ilo lili na ANC, National Party na Inkatha. Pa 10 Meyi 1994 Mandela wakasankhika kuŵa purezidenti muphya wa South Africa mu Pretoria pamoza na Thabo Mbeki na F. W. De Klerk kuŵa vice-president wake. Boma la National Unity likamara paumaliro wa pharalamende yakwamba mu 1999, apo ANC yikaŵa chipani pera pa mazaza uku yikukolerana na Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) na South African Communist Party. Pamanyuma pa kudumbiskana comene, kweniso pamanyuma pa maungano gha mawupu ghakuvikilira wanangwa wa ŵanthu, ŵanthu ŵekhaŵekha na ŵanthu bweka, Nyumba ya Malamulo yikapanga dango liphya la malango mu 1996. Ŵakalekeska chilango cha nyifwa, ŵakamba kunozga malo na kugaŵira ŵanthu malo, ndipo ŵakaŵika malango ghakwendeskera ntchito.

Gulu la ANC likaŵa na mazaza chifukwa cha fundo za Socialist izo zikalembeka mu chikalata cha wanangwa. Chikalata ichi chikati "usambazi wa caru cithu, uwo mbusambazi wa ŵanthu ŵa ku South Africa, uzamuwezgeka ku ŵanthu. Mubali Nelson Mandela, uyo wakaŵa mulara wa ANC, wakayowoya mu mazgu ghake pa 25 January 1990 kuti: "Ndondomeko ya ANC njakuti migodi, mabanki, na vyamaseŵero viŵe vya boma, ndipo tingakwaniska yayi kusintha maghanoghano ghithu pa nkhani iyi".

Pamanyuma pa kutonda kwa ANC mu 1994, suzgo la ukavu likamara yayi. Boma la ANC, likasintha fundo zake ndipo likamba kulondezga fundo za ŵanthu awo ŵakutemwa vinthu viphya. Msonkho wa usambazi wa ŵanthu ŵasambazi comene ukaseŵeka kuti uŵawovwire kusanga ndalama zakwendeskera vinthu vyawo. Makampani ghakurughakuru ghakazomerezgekanga kusamukira ku vyaru vinyake. Kuyana na Solomon Johannes Terreblanche, nkhwantha ya vya cuma ya ku South Africa, boma likapeleka mwaŵi ku ŵamalonda ŵaheni cifukwa ca "masuzgo agho ghazamuŵapo mu miwiro yakunthazi".[89]

Kusama

Nyengo ya apartheid yikati yajumphapo, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku South Africa ŵakafumamo mu charu ichi chifukwa cha masuzgo gha vigeŵenga. Mu 2008, wupu unyake (South African Institute of Race Relations) ukati kufuma mu 1995, pa ŵanthu pafupifupi 4,000,000 awo ŵakaŵa mu charu cha South Africa apo muwuso wa katangale ukamalira, pakaŵa ŵanthu ŵatuŵa 800,000 panji kujumpha. Ŵazungu ŵanandi ŵa ku South Africa awo ŵakayowoyanga Chingelezi na Cifurikansi ŵakamba kukhala mu Australia, New Zealand, North America, na ku UK uko ŵanthu pafupifupi 550,000 ŵa ku South Africa ŵakasamukira.[90] Mu 2021, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku South Africa ŵakuluta ku vyaru vinyake chaka chilichose. Kufika mu 2019, chiŵelengero cha ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake awo ŵakafumanga mu charu ichi chikaluska cha ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake.[91][92]

Ngongole za boma

Boma la apartheid likapharazga kuti lilekenge kuwezga ngongoli za caru cinyake pakati pa vyaka vya m'ma 1980, apo likapharazga kuti kuli suzgo likuru cifukwa ca vivulupi. Apo muwuso wa apartheid ukamara mu 1994, boma liphya la demokilase likaŵa na ngongoli yikuru ya R86.7 B (US$14 B pa mtengo wa ndalama) iyo boma la apartheid likaŵa nayo. Boma ilo likaŵa na suzgo la ndalama likakhumbikwiranga kuwezga ngongoli iyi panji kuchepeskeka ngongoli ku vyaru vinyake. Paumaliro, ngongoli yikamara mu Seputembala 2001.[93]

Boma liphya ilo likaŵako pamanyuma pa muwuso wa apartheid likaŵaso na suzgo la ndalama chifukwa likakhumbikwiranga kupeleka munkhwala ku ŵanthu ŵakavu awo ŵakasuzgika na HIV/AIDS. Ku South Africa ndiko kuli ŵanthu ŵanandi chomene awo ŵali na HIV/AIDS kuluska charu chilichose pa charu chapasi. Mu 2011, ŵanthu 5,600,000 ŵakaŵa na nthenda iyi ndipo ŵanthu 270,000 ŵakafwa na HIV. Pa nyengo iyi, ŵana ŵakujumpha 2,000,000 ŵakaŵa ŵalanda cifukwa ca nthenda iyi. Mu 2011, ŵanthu 100,000 ŵakafwa na nthenda ya AIDS kuluska mu 2005.[94]

Labour relations

Church on Greenmarket Square in Cape Town, South Africa with a banner memorialising the Marikana massacre

Ŵalendo ŵakagwiranga nchito mu migodi ya ku South Africa, ndipo ŵakagwiranga nchito ŵanthu pafupifupi hafu ya miliyoni. Mu Ogasiti 2012, apo ŵapolisi ŵakakomanga ŵanthu 34 awo ŵakagwiranga ntchito mu migodi, ŵanandi ŵakakomeka. Ŵanthu ŵanandi, mawupu gha wupu wakulongozga, na ŵalongozgi ŵa visopa ŵakasuska ivyo vikacitika. Ŵakawona kuti suzgo likuru ndakuti ŵanthu ŵakugwira nchito mu vyaru vinyake. Makampani gha migodi gha vyaru vinandi, kusazgapo Anglo-American Corporation, Lonmin, na Anglo Platinum, ŵakasuskika kuti ŵakatondeka kumazga suzgo la apartheid.[95]

Poverty

Mu 2014, pafupifupi 47% ya ŵanthu ŵa ku South Africa (ŵanandi ŵakaŵa ŵa fuko lakuda) ŵakakhalanga mu ukavu, ndipo ichi chikupangiska kuti charu ichi chiŵe chimoza mwa vyaru vyambura mtende chomene pa charu chose.[96] Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakakondwa yayi na kusintha kwa vinthu pa umoyo wa ŵanthu, boma likaŵa lambura mahara, kweniso ŵanthu ŵakakwiya chomene. Mu 2007, ŵanthu ŵambura kukwana hafu ya awo ŵakachitanga viwawa ŵakaŵa na nkhaza, pakuyaniska na awo ŵakachitanga mu 2014, apo pafupifupi 80% ŵakachitanga nkhaza na ŵamazaza. Kuchedwa kwa kusintha kwa vinthu kukapangiska kuti paŵe mphindano mu wupu wa ANC, Communist Party na Congress of South African Trade Unions.[97]

Corruption

Mu nyengo ya muwuso wa Pulezidenti Jacob Zuma, vimbundi vikakura comene mu South Africa. Mu nyengo iyi pakaŵa vigeŵenga vinandi ivyo vikachitikanga chifukwa cha vigeŵenga. Vinthu ivi vikakhwaskanga na masuzgo gha ndalama agho ghakaŵapo chifukwa cha vimbundi mu makampani ghanyake gha boma nga ni Eskom na South African Airways. Vinthu vinyake vya vimbundi ivyo vikachitika mu nyengo iyi ni VBS Mutual Bank na Bosasa.[98] Khoti la Zondo la Kupenjerezga likimikika pa nyengo iyo Cyril Ramaphosa wakaŵa purezidenti kuti lipenjepo pa milandu ya vimbundi.

Energy crisis

Kwambira mu 2007, ku South Africa kuli suzgo la magesi ilo lakhwaska chomene chuma cha charu ichi. Chifukwa chakwamba cha suzgo ili chikaŵa chakuti pakaŵavya vyakugwilirapo pa kupanga magesi ghaphya kweniso magesi ghakale chomene. Wupu wakupeleka magesi wa Eskom wa boma ukusuzgika na vimbundi na vinthu viheni, chomenechomene pa nyengo iyo Jacob Zuma wakaŵa pulezidenti.[99][100]

Xenophobia

Nyengo ya apartheid yikati yajumphapo, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakamba kuwukira ŵalendo awo ŵakafumanga ku vyaru vinyake na ŵanthu awo ŵakakhumbanga kupenja malo ghakubisamamo. Kafukufuku munyake uyo wakachitika mu 2006, wakalongora kuti ŵanthu ŵa ku South Africa ŵakutinkha ŵalendo chomene. Wupu wa United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) ukasanga kuti kuphalizgana pa nkhani ya nchito, bizinesi, mauteŵeti gha boma, na nyumba kukapangiska kuti paŵe mphindano pakati pa ŵanthu ŵakuchimbira kwawo, awo ŵakupenja ciphokwero, ŵanthu ŵakusamukira kunyake, na ŵanthu awo ŵakukhala mu vyaru vinyake. Mu 2008, ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 207,000 ŵakapempha malo ghakuponerako ku South Africa, ndipo mu 2009, 222,300 ŵakapempha malo ghakuponerako. Ŵanthu aŵa ŵakafuma ku Zimbabwe, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Eritrea, Ethiopia, na Somalia.[101]

2021 civil unrest

Nkhondo za ŵanthu mu vigaŵa vya KwaZulu-Natal na Gauteng ku South Africa zikacitika mu Julayi 2021, chifukwa cha kukakika kwa President wakale Jacob Zuma chifukwa cha kuswa malango, pamanyuma pakuti wakana kupeleka ukaboni ku Zondo Commission, kafukufuku wa milandu ya vimbundi apo wakaŵa president kufuma mu 2009 mpaka 2018. Chiwonetsero chotsutsana ndi kusungidwa m'ndende chinayambitsa chipolowe chachikulu ndi kuba, zomwe zinawonjezereka chifukwa cha kuchotsedwa ntchito ndi mavuto azachuma omwe akuwonjezeka chifukwa cha mliri wa COVID-19.[102][103] Magazini ya The Economist yikati nkhaza izi zikaŵa ziheni comene kuluska zose izo zacitikapo mu caru ca South Africa kufuma apo muwuso wa apartheid ukamalira.

Ŵapolisi na ŵasilikari ŵakaŵawovwira kuti ŵamazge vivulupi.[104][105]Kuzakafika pakati pa mwezi wa Julayi, ŵasilikari pafupifupi 25,000 ŵa South African National Defence Forces ŵakaŵa kuti ŵatumika. Pa Julayi 18, ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 3,400 ŵakakakika, ndipo pa Julayi 22, ŵanthu 337 ŵakafwa chifukwa cha vivulupi.

Chiwawa cha mu Julayi 2021 chikukolerana na chiwawa cha taxi ku Cape Town na chiwawa cha Transnet ransomware icho chikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵayowoye kuti vinthu ivi vikukolerana.

Post-apartheid heads of state

Kuyana na dango ilo likaŵako pamanyuma pa apartheid, pulezidenti ndiyo ni mulara wa boma. Pulezidenti wakusankhika na wupu wa National Assembly ndipo nyengo yake yikumalira pa chisankho. Pulezidenti wangateŵetera nyengo ziŵiri. Para malo ghaŵavya, wachiŵiri wa pulezidenti ndiyo wakuteŵetera nga ni pulezidenti.

President Term of office Political party
# Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
1 Nelson Mandela
(1918–2013)
10 May 1994 16 June 1999 5 years, 37 days African National Congress
2 Thabo Mbeki
(1942–)
16 June 1999 24 September 2008
(resigned)
9 years, 100 days African National Congress
3 Kgalema Motlanthe
(1949–)
25 September 2008 9 May 2009 226 days African National Congress
4 Jacob Zuma
(1942–)
9 May 2009 14 February 2018
(resigned)
8 years, 264 days African National Congress
5 Cyril Ramaphosa
(1952–)
15 February 2018 Present 6 years, 36 days African National Congress

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Vyakulemba vinyake

General

  • Beinart, William. Twentieth-Century South Africa. Oxford University Press. 2001.
  • Beck, Roger S. History of South Africa, Greenwood Press, Westport CT: 2000
  • Blignaut, Charl. "Untold History with a Historiography: A Review of Scholarship on Afrikaner Women in South African History." South African Historical Journal 65.4 (2013): 596–617.
  • Bunting, Brian. Rise of the South African Reich First published by Penguin Africa Library 1964, revised 1969.
  • Christopher, A. J. The Atlas of Changing South Africa. 2000. 216 pages. ISBN 0-415-21178-6.
  • Deegan, Heather. The Politics of the New South Africa. 2000. 256 pages. ISBN 0-582-38227-0.
  • Elbourne, Elizabeth. Blood Ground: Colonialism, Missions, and the Contest for Christianity in the Cape Colony and Britain, 1799–1853. McGill-Queen's University Press. December 2002. 560 pages. ISBN 0-7735-2229-8.
  • Hamilton, Carolyn and Bernard K. Mbenga, eds. The Cambridge History of South Africa: Volume 1: From Early Times to 1885 (2009) excerpt
  • Hetherington, Penelope. "Women in South Africa: the historiography in English." The International Journal of African Historical Studies 26#2 (1993): 241–269.
  • Hrbek, Ivan [in Czech] (1981). "Written sources from the fifteenth century onwards". In J. Ki-Zerbo (ed.). Methodology and African Prehistory. General History of Africa. Vol. 1. UNESCO. pp. 121–124. ISBN 0435948075. Republic of South Africa
  • Johnson, R.W. South Africa's Brave New World: The Beloved Country Since the End of Apartheid (Overlook Press; 2011) 702 pages; a history since 1994
  • Joyce, Peter. The Making of a Nation South Africa's Road to Freedom, Zebra Press, 2004, ISBN 978-1-77007-312-8
  • Le Cordeur, Basil Alexander. The War of the Axe, 1847: Correspondence between the governor of the Cape Colony, Sir Henry Pottinger, and the commander of the British forces at the Cape, Sir George Berkeley, and others. Brenthurst Press. 1981. 287 pages. ISBN 0-909079-14-5.
  • Mabin, Alan. Recession and its aftermath: The Cape Colony in the eighteen eighties. University of the Witwatersrand, African Studies Institute. 1983. 27 pages.
  • Meiring, Hannes. Early Johannesburg, Its Buildings and People, Human & Rousseau, 1986, 143 pages, ISBN 0-7981-1456-8
  • Mitchell, Laura. Belongings: Property, Family, and Identity in Colonial South Africa: An Exploration of Frontiers, 1725-c. 1830. Columbia University Press, 2008. Gutenberg-e.org
  • Pakenham, Thomas. The Boer War, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London 1979, ISBN 9780349104669
  • Rosenthal, Eric. Gold! Gold! Gold! The Johannesburg Gold Rush, AD. Donker, 1970, ISBN 0-949937-64-9
  • Ross, Robert, and David Anderson. Status and Respectability in the Cape Colony, 1750–1870 : A Tragedy of Manners. Cambridge University Press. 1999. 220 pages. ISBN 0-521-62122-4.
  • Ross, Robert, Anne Kelk Mager and Bill Nasson, eds. The Cambridge History of South Africa: Volume 2 since 1885 (2011) excerpt
  • Thompson, Leonard. A History of South Africa, Third Edition. Yale University Press. 2001. 384 pages. ISBN 0-300-08776-4.
  • Tomlinson, Richard, et al. Emerging Johannesburg: Perspectives on the Postapartheid City. 2003. 336 pages. ISBN 0-415-93559-8.
  • Welsh, Frank. South Africa: A Narrative History. Kodansha America. 1 February 1999. 606 pages. ISBN 1-56836-258-7.
  • Worden, Nigel. Making of Modern South Africa: Conquest, Segregation and Apartheid. 2000. 194 pages. ISBN 0-631-21661-8.

VOC period

  • Barend-van Haeften, Marijke; Paasman, Bert: De Kaap: Goede Hoop halverwege Indië. Bloemlezing van Kaapteksten uit de Compagnietijd. (Hilversum: Verloren, 2003)
  • Biewenga, A.: De Kaap de Goede Hoop: Een Nederlandse Vestigingskolonie, 1680–1730. (Amsterdam: Promotheus and Bert Bakker, 1999)
  • Botha, Colin Graham: The French Refugees at the Cape. (1919; reprint, Cape Town: C. Struik, 1970)
  • Bryer, Lynne; Theron, Francois: The Huguenot Heritage: The Story of the Huguenots at the Cape. (Diep River, Chameleon Press, 1987)
  • Coertzen, Pieter: Die Hugenote van Suid Afrika, 1688–1988. (Cape Town: Tafelberg Publishers Limited, 1988)
  • Delmas, Adrien, 'The Role of Writing in the First Steps of the Colony: A Short Enquiry in the Journal of Jan van Riebeeck, 1652–1662', in Contingent Lives: Social Identity and Material Culture in the VOC World, ed. Nigel Worden (Cape Town: Royal Netherlands Embassy, 2007)
  • Elphick, Richard; Giliomee, Hermann (eds.): The Shaping of South African Society, 1652–1840. (Wesleyan University Press, 1989, ISBN 978-0819562111)
  • Fourie, J.; Boshoff, W. (2008). 'Explaining the Ship Traffic Fluctuations in the Early Cape Settlement: 1652–1793', South African Journal of Economic History, 23 (2008), pp. 1–27.
  • Fourie, J.; Boshoff, W. (2010). 'The significance of the Cape trade route to economic activity in the Cape Colony: a medium-term business cycle analysis', European Review of Economic History, 14 (2010), pp. 469–503.
  • Fourie, J. (2014). 'The quantitative Cape: A review of the new historiography of the Dutch Cape Colony', South African Historical Journal 66.1, 2014, pp. 142–168.
  • Franken, J. L. N.: Die Hugenote aan die Kaap. (Pretoria: Die Staatsdrukker, 1978)
  • Gerstner, Jonathan Neil: The Thousand Generation Covenant: Dutch Reformed Covenant Theology and Group Identity in Colonial South Africa, 1652–1814. (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1991)
  • Godée Molsbergen, E.C.: Reizen in Zuid-Afrika in de Hollandse tijd: eerste deel, Tochten naar het noorden, 1652–1686. ('s-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff, 1976)
  • Godée Molsbergen, E.C.: Reizen in Zuid-Afrika in de Hollandse tijd: tweede deel, Tochten naar het noorden, 1686–1806. ('s-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff, 1976)
  • Godée Molsbergen, E.C.: Jan van Riebeeck en zijn tijd. Een stuk zeventiende-eeuws Oost-Indië [Jan van Riebeeck and his times: A piece of seventeenth-century East Indies]. (Amsterdam: P. N. Van Kampen en Zoon, 1937)
  • Groenewald, Gerald: Een Dienstig Inwoonder: Entrepreneurs, Social Capital and Identity in Cape Town, c. 1720–1750. South African Historical Journal, 59, 1(2007), pp. 126–152
  • Guelke, Leonard (1976). "Frontier Settlement in Early Dutch South Africa,". (Annals of the Association of American Geographers 66, no. 1 (March 1976): 25–42)
  • Huigen, Siegfried: Knowledge and Colonialism: Eighteenth-Century Travellers in South Africa. (Leiden: Brill, 2009, pp. xii + 273 pp)
  • Hunt, John: Dutch South Africa: Early Settlers at the Cape, 1652–1708. (Leicester, UK: Matador, 2005, ISBN 978-1904744955)
  • Johnson, David: Imagining the Cape Colony: History, Literature and the South African Nation. (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012)
  • Lucas, Gavin: An Archaeology of Colonial Identity: Power and Material Culture in the Dwars Valley, South Africa. (New York: Springer, 2006)
  • Marais, J.S.: The Cape Coloured People, 1652–1937. (1939; reprint, Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, 1968)
  • Mitchell, L.J.: Belongings: Property and Identity in Colonial South Africa, an Exploration of Frontiers, 1725–c. 1830. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2009, pp. xv + 232)
  • Newton-King, Susan: Masters and Servants on the Cape Eastern Frontier, 1760–1803. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999)
  • Raven-Hart, Rowland (ed.): Cape Good Hope, 1652–1702: The First Fifty Years of Dutch Colonisation as Seen by Callers [2 vols]. (Cape Town: A.A.Balkema, 1971)
  • Schoeman, Karel: Early Slavery at the Cape of Good Hope, 1652–1717. (Pretoria: Protea Book House, 2007)
  • Schoeman, Karel: Portrait of a Slave Society: The Cape of Good Hope, 1717–1795. (Pretoria: Protea Boekhuis, 2012)
  • Shell, Robert: Children of Bondage: A Social History of the Slave Society at the Cape of Good Hope, 1652–1838. (Hanover, Conn.; Wesleya University Press, 1994)
  • Singh, Daleep: From Dutch South Africa to Republic of South Africa, 1652–1994. The Story of Three and a Half Centuries of Imperialism. (New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 2010)
  • Sleigh, Dan: Die Buiteposte: VOC-buiteposte onder Kaapse Bestuur, 1652–1795. (Pretoria: HAUM, 1993)
  • Stapleton, Timothy J.: A Military History of South Africa: From the Dutch-Khoi Wars to the End of Apartheid. (Santa Barbara, CA.: Praeger, 2010)
  • Terreblanche, Sampie: A History of Inequality in South Africa, 1652–2002. (Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 2002)
  • Theal, George McCall: History of South Africa under the Administration of the Dutch East India Company, 1652 to 1795. Nabu Press, 2010, 474pp
  • Theal, George McCall: History of the Boers in South Africa; Or, the Wanderings and Wars of the Emigrant Farmers from Their Leaving the Cape Colony to the Acknowledgment of Their Independence by Great Britain. (Greenwood Press, 1970, ISBN 0-8371-1661-9)
  • Twidle, Hedley (2013). Writing the Company: From VOC Daghregister to Sleigh's Eilande, South African Historical Journal 65(1) (2013): 125–52.
  • Valentijn, Francois: Description of the Cape of Good Hope with Matters Concerning It. (Amsterdam, 1726). [Edited and annotated by Prof. P. Serton, Maj. B. Raven-Hart, Dr. W. J. de Kock.]
  • Van der Merwe, P. J. : The Migrant Farmer in the History of the Cape Colony, 1657–1842. Translated from the Dutch by Roger B. Beck. (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1995)
  • Van Duin, Pieter; Ross, Robert: The Economy of the Cape Colony in the Eighteenth Century. (Leiden: Centre for the History of European Expansion, 1987, pp. viii + 166)
  • Van Riebeeck, Jan: 1652–1662, Daghregister gehouden by den oppercoopman Jan Anthonisz van Riebeeck. In Bosman, D.B. & B. Thorn (eds). Daghregister Gehouden by den Oppercoopman Jan Anthonisz van Riebeeck, 3 vols. [Treated as a sequence of eleven manuscripts]. (Cape Town: Balkema, 1952–1957)
  • Verstegen, M.: De Indische Zeeherberg, De stichting van Zuid-Afrika door de VOC. (Zaltbommel, 2001)
  • Viljoen, Russel: Jan Paerl: A Khoikhoi in Cape Colonial Society, 1761–1851. (Boston, MA: Brill, 2006, pp. xviii + 213)
  • Viljoen, Russel S. (1995). "Disease and Society: VOC Cape Town, Its People, and the Smallpox Epidemics of 1713, 1755, and 1767," Kleio 27
  • Welch, Sidney: Portuguese and Dutch in South Africa, 1641–1806. (Cape Town: Juta Press, 1951)
  • Worden, Nigel (1985). Slavery in Dutch South Africa. pp. xiii, 207. ISBN 9780521258753.
  • Worden, Nigel; van Heyningen, Elizabeth; Bickford-Smith, Vivian (1998). Cape Town: The Making of a City. ISBN 9780864866561.
  • Worden, Nigel; Groenewald, G., eds. (2005). Trials of Slavery: Selected Documents Concerning Slaves from the Criminal Records of the Council of Justice at the Cape of Good Hope, 1705–1794. Cape Town: Van Riebeeck Society for the Publication of South African Historical Documents.
  • Worden, Nigel (2007). Contingent Lives: Social Identity and Material Culture in the VOC World. p. vi, 612. ISBN 9780620385091.
  • Worden, Nigel (2007). Ray, Himanshu Prabha; Alpers, Edward A. (eds.). VOC Cape Town as an Indian Ocean Port. pp. 142–162. ISBN 9780195677058. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  • Worden, Nigel (2007). "New Approaches to VOC History in South Africa". South African Historical Journal. 59 (1): 3–18. doi:10.1080/02582470709464770. S2CID 145747452.
  • Worden, Nigel (2010). "After Race and Class: Recent Trends in the Historiography of Early Colonial Cape Society". South African Historical Journal. 62 (3): 589–602. doi:10.1080/02582473.2010.519904. hdl:11427/28195. S2CID 161070564.
  • Worden, Nigel, ed. (2012). Cape Town between East and West: Social Identities in a Dutch Colonial Town. p. xxii, 264. ISBN 9781431402922.
  • Worden, Nigel (2014). "Cape Slaves in the Paper Empire of the VOC". Kronos. 40 (1): 23–44.
  • Worden, Nigel (2016). "Indian Ocean Slaves in Cape Town, 1695–1807". Journal of Southern African Studies. 42 (3): 389–408. doi:10.1080/03057070.2016.1171554. S2CID 147980814.

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