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Viyowoyero vya ku South Africa

Kufuma Wikipedia
Languages of South Africa
Viyowoyero vinandi mu South Africa:
  • ██ ChiAfrikaans
  • ██ ChiNgelezi
  • ██ ChiPedi
  • ██ ChiSotho
  • ██ ChiNdebele cha Kumwera
  • ██ ChiSwazi
  • ██ ChiTsonga
  • ██ ChiTswana
  • ██ ChiVenda
  • ██ ChiXhosa
  • ██ ChiZulu
  • ██ None dominant
  • ██ Areas of little or no population
Official
Recognised
MainEnglish
SignedSouth African Sign Language
Keyboard layout
Chizindikiro cha nyumba za boma mu viyowoyero vitatu mu ChiAfrikaans, CiNgelezi, na ChiXhosa
A man speaking Afrikaans
Languages of South Africa (2017)[1]
Languages percent
Zulu
24.7%
Xhosa
15.6%
Afrikaans
12.1%
Sepedi
9.8%
Tswana
8.9%
English
8.4%
Sotho
8%
Tsonga
4%
Swati
2.6%
Venda
2.5%
Ndebele
1.6%
SA Sign Language
0.5%

Pafupifupi viyowoyero 35 vya ku South Africa vikuyowoyeka mu charu ichi, ndipo viyowoyero 11 ivi ni viyowoyero vya boma: ChiNdebele, ChiPedi, ChiSotho, ChiSwati, ChiTsonga, ChiTswana, ChiVenda, ChiXhosa, ChiZulu, ChiAfrikaans, na ChiNgelezi. Nangauli viyowoyero vichoko waka ndivyo vikuzunulika, kweni Dango la South Africa likuvikilira viyowoyero ivi. Chiyowoyero cha Mawoko cha ku South Africa ntchakuzomerezgeka na dango, kweni ni chiyowoyero cha boma yayi nangauli pakaŵa kampeni na fundo za mu nyumba ya malango kuti chiŵe chiyowoyero ichi.[2]

Viyowoyero vyambura kuzomerezgeka na vyambura kuzirwa ni ivi: ChiKhoekhoegowab, Chi!Orakobab, ChiXirikobab, ChiNantonguuki, Chi!Xunthali, na ChiKhwedam; na viyowoyero vinyake vya ku Africa, nga ni ChiPhuthi, ChiHlubi, ChiBhaca, ChiLala, ChiNhlangwini (ChiZansi), ChiNrebele (ChiSumayela), ChiMpondo/ChiMpondro, ChiMpondomise/ChiMpromse/Chimpomse, ChiLobedu, ChiPulana, ChiPai, ChiKutswe, ChiṰokwa, ChiHananwa, ChiThonga, ChiLaNgomane, ChiKgalagari, ChiRhonga, ChiKopa (Chikgaga), na vinyake. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku South Africa ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero vinandi, ndipo kanandi awo ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero ivi ŵakuŵa na mphambano pakati pa viyowoyero vyawo.

Chiyowoyero cha ŵanthu[lemba | kulemba source]

Chiŵelengero cha ŵanthu awo ŵakuyowoya chiyowoyero cha Nguni.

██ 0–20% ██ 20–40% ██ 40–60%

██ 60–80%

██ 80–100%
Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero vya Chiguni.

██ <1 /km2 ██ 1–3 /km2 ██ 3–10 /km2 ██ 10–30 /km2 ██ 30–100 /km2

██ 100–300 /km2 ██ 300–1000 /km2 ██ 1000–3000 /km2

██ >3000 /km2
Chiŵelengero cha ŵanthu awo ŵakuyowoya chiyowoyero cha Chitswana.

██ 0–20% ██ 20–40% ██ 40–60%

██ 60–80%

██ 80–100%
Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero vya Chisotho na Chitswana.

██ <1 /km2 ██ 1–3 /km2 ██ 3–10 /km2 ██ 10–30 /km2 ██ 30–100 /km2

██ 100–300 /km2 ██ 300–1000 /km2 ██ 1000–3000 /km2

██ >3000 /km2
Chiŵelengero cha ŵanthu awo ŵakuyowoya chiyowoyero cha ku West German.

██ 0–20% ██ 20–40% ██ 40–60%

██ 60–80%

██ 80–100%
Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero vya ku West German.

██ <1 /km2 ██ 1–3 /km2 ██ 3–10 /km2 ██ 10–30 /km2 ██ 30–100 /km2

██ 100–300 /km2 ██ 300–1000 /km2 ██ 1000–3000 /km2

██ >3000 /km2

Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku South Africa ŵakuyowoya ciyowoyero ca Cizulu (pafupifupi 23 peresenti). Cingelezi ndico ciyowoyero caciŵiri pa viyowoyero vyose mu caru ici (9.6%), kweni cikupulikikwa mu misumba yinandi, ndipo ndico cikuyowoyeka comene mu boma na mu wayilesi.[3]

Chizindikiro cha viyowoyero vitatu mu Roodepoort, mu Chingelezi, Chifrikaans na Chitswana

Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku South Africa ŵakuyowoya chiyowoyero chimoza mwa viyowoyero viŵiri vikuruvikuru vya chiyowoyero cha Bantu: chiyowoyero cha Sotho ʹTswana (chenechicho chikusazgapo viyowoyero vya Southern Sotho, Northern Sotho na Tswana), panji chiyowoyero cha Nguni (chenechicho chikusazgapo viyowoyero vya Zulu, Xhosa, Swati na Ndebele). Pa vigaŵa vyose viŵiri ivi, viyowoyero ivyo vikuyowoyeka mu vigaŵa ivi vikupulikikwa na uyo wakuyowoya chiyowoyero chinyake.[4]

Viyowoyero vya ku South Africa ivyo ni vyakuzomerezgeka, ndipo ntheura ni vyakuzirwa, vingagaŵika mu vigaŵa viŵiri, viyowoyero vya Nguni vikusangika mu chigaŵa chakumafumiro gha dazi kwa charu ichi (m'mphepete mwa nyanja ya Indian Ocean) ndipo viyowoyero vya Chisotho na Chitswana vikusangika mu chigaŵa chakumpoto cha charu ichi. Gauteng ni chigaŵa icho chili na viyowoyero vyakupambanapambana, ndipo ŵanthu awo ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero vya Nguni, Sotho-Tswana, na Indo-European ŵakuyana waka. Ivi vikapangiska kuti chiyowoyero cha ku tawuni, cha Tsotsitaal panji S'Camtho/Ringas, chambe kumanyikwa mu misumba yikuru ya mu chigaŵa ichi.

Chiyowoyero cha Tsotsitaal icho pakwamba chikachemekanga kuti "Flaaitaal" chikafuma ku chiyowoyero cha Afrikaans, icho chili kufuma ku chiyowoyero cha Chidachi. Ŵanthu 61 pa 100 ŵaliwose awo mbatuŵa ndipo 76 pa 100 ŵaliwose awo mbanthu ŵa mtundu unyake ndiwo ŵakuyowoya Cisipanishi.[5] Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakuwona kuti lizgu ili likung'anamura "ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinandi", chifukwa likuyowoya vya ŵanthu ŵa viyowoyero vinyake, ŵanandi awo mbana ŵa ŵazga awo ŵakafuma ku vyaru vinyake ivyo vikaŵa ku chigaŵa cha kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Africa.

Ŵanthu awo ŵakafuma ku vyaru vinyake awo ŵakakhalanga ku Batavia, nawo ŵakaluta ku Cape, ndipo ŵakakhwaska chomene chiyowoyero cha Afrikaans, chomenechomene chiyowoyero cha Malaŵi. Uyo wakambiska chisopa cha Cisilamu ku Cape, Sheikh Abadin Tadia Tjoessoep (uyo wakumanyikwa na zina lakuti Sheikh Yusuf) ndiyo wakaŵa wakwamba. Hajji Yusuf wakaŵa munthu wakuzirwa wa ku Indonesia wa fuko la fumu. Wakaŵa muzukuru wa Sultan Alauddin wa ku Gowa, mu charu cha Makassar, Nusantara. Yosefe pamoza na ŵalondezgi ŵake 49 kusazgapo ŵawoli ŵaŵiri, ŵanakazi ŵaŵiri na ŵana 12, ŵakapokelereka ku Cape pa 2 Epulero 1694 na kazembe Simon van der Stel. Ŵakaŵasunga pa famu ya Zandvliet, kuwaro kwa msumba wa Cape Town, kuti ŵaleke kuŵakhwaska ŵazga ŵa VOC. Ndipouli, ivyo Yosefe wakakhumbanga vikenda makora yayi, ndipo malo agho wakakhalanga (ghakachemekanga Macassar) ghakazgoka malo ghakusungirako ŵazga. Kufuma ku malo agha, uthenga wa cisopa ca Cisilamu ukathandazgika ku ŵazga ŵa ku Cape Town. Chinthu chakuzirwa chomene ntchakuti Ŵasilamu ŵa ku Cape ŵakamba kulemba mabuku ghakwambilira mu Chiarabic, agho ghakalembeka mu Chiarabic. Kweniso chikaŵa chiyowoyero cha ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Griqua (Xiri panji Griekwa).

ChiAfrikaans chikayowoyekaso chomene pakati na kumpoto kwa charu ichi, nga chiyowoyero chachiŵiri (panji chachitatu panji chachinayi) na ŵanthu ŵa mu South Africa awo mbanthu ŵa mitundu ya SiNtu.

Pa kalembera wa 2011, ŵanthu awo ŵakayowoyanga chiyowoyero ichi ŵakaŵa nga ni aŵa:[5]

Chiyowoyero cha ŵanthu[lemba | kulemba source]

Language L1 speakers L2 speakers[6] Total speakers[6]
Count Of population Count Of population Count Of population
Zulu 11,587,374 22.7% 15,700,000 27,300,000 46%
Xhosa 8,154,258 16.0% 11,000,000 19,150,000 33%
Afrikaans 6,855,082 13.5% 10,300,000 17,160,000 29%
English 4,892,623 9.6% 14,000,000 19,640,000 33%
Northern Sotho 4,618,576 9.1% 9,100,000 13,720,000 23%
Tswana 4,067,248 8.0% 7,700,000 11,770,000 20%
Sotho 3,849,563 7.6% 7,900,000 11,750,000 20%
Tsonga 2,277,148 4.5% 3,400,000 5,680,000 10%
Swati 1,297,046 2.5% 2,400,000 3,700,000 6%
Venda 1,209,388 2.4% 1,700,000 2,910,000 5%
Ndebele 1,090,223 2.1% 1,400,000 2,490,000 4%
SA Sign Language 234,655 0.5% 500,000
Other languages 828,258 1.6%
Total 50,961,443 100.0%
Language 2011 2001 Change (pp)
Zulu 22.7% 23.8% -1.1%
Xhosa 16.0% 17.6% -1.6%
Afrikaans 13.5% 13.3% +0.2%
English 9.6% 8.2% +1.4%
Sepedi 9.1% 9.4% -0.3%
Tswana 8.0% 8.2% -0.2%
Sesotho 7.6% 7.9% -0.3%
Tsonga 4.5% 4.4% +0.1%
Swati 2.5% 2.7% -0.2%
Venda 2.4% 2.3% +0.1%
Ndebele 2.1% 1.6% +0.5%
SA Sign Language 0.5%
Other languages 1.6% 0.5% +1.1%
Total 100.0% 100.0%

Viyowoyero vinyake vyakuzirwa mu South Africa[lemba | kulemba source]

Viyowoyero vinyake ivyo vikuyowoyeka mu charu cha South Africa, ivyo vindazunulike mu Dango, ni KheLobedu, SiNrebele, SiPhuthi, kweniso viyowoyero vinyake nga ni Fanakalo (chiyowoyero icho chikuyowoyeka mu migodi), na Tsotsitaal panji S'Camtho.

Viyowoyero vinandi vyambura kuzomerezgeka vikayowoyeka kuti ni viyowoyero vya boma, ivyo vikukolerana na ivyo ŵanthu ŵa mu bantustan ŵakachitanga.

Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakufuma ku vyaru vya ku Europe, Africa, China, na ku India (chifukwa cha ndyali za ku Britain) ŵakamba kuyowoya viyowoyero vinandi mu vyaru vinyake vya ku South Africa. Mu vyaru vyakale ivyo ŵanthu ŵakufuma ku vyaru vinyake ŵakukhala, muli ŵanthu ŵa viyowoyero ivi: Chigiriki, Chigujarati, Chihindi, Chiputukezi, Chitamili, ChiTelugu, Chibhojpuri, Chiawadhi, Chiurdu, Chiyidish, Chiitaliya, kweniso ŵanthu ŵachoko waka awo ŵakuyowoya Chiholandi, Chifurenchi, na Chijeremani. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakuyowoya Chitchayinizi, kweni awo ŵiza sono mu charu ichi ŵakuyowoya Chitchayinizi.

Viyowoyero ivi vingagwiliskirika ntchito mu viyowoyero vinyake para ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero ivi. Cakuzirwa comene nchakuti viyowoyero ivi vikucita milimo yikuru comene mu vigaŵa vinyake ivyo vikukolerana comene na ciyowoyero na kakhaliro ka ŵanthu awo ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero ivi.

Chiphwitikizi ndicho chikuyowoyeka na ŵanthu ŵakufuma ku Portugal, comenecomene ku Madeira, ndipo pamasinda ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake ŵakufuma ku Angola na Mozambique ŵakati ŵafumako ku Portugal.

Sonosono apa, ŵanthu awo ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero vya ku North, Central na West Africa ŵafika mu South Africa, chomenechomene mu misumba yikuruyikuru, chomenechomene mu Johannesburg na Pretoria, kweniso mu Cape Town na Durban.

Chiyowoyero ichi chikuyowoyeka na ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Roma ku South Africa.

Ndondomeko za mu Dango[lemba | kulemba source]

Chaputara 1 (Vinthu vyakwendeskera Dango), chigaŵa 6 (Mazgu) cha Dango la Charu cha South Africa ndicho chikupangiska kuti boma liŵe na ndondomeko ya viyowoyero.

Pa 16 Disembala, 1996, pulezidenti Nelson Mandela wakalemba buku lakwamba ilo lili na mazina gha viyowoyero. Chisotho chikung'anamura Southern Sotho, ndipo isiNdebele chikung'anamura Southern Ndebele. Dango lakwamba la mu 1993 likayowoya vya Chisotho sa Leboa, apo Dango la mu 1996 likati "Sepedi" ndilo lizamuŵa lizgu la chiyowoyero cha Northern Sotho.[7]

Dango ili likuyowoya za chiyowoyero cha mawoko cha ku South Africa.

  1. The official languages of the Republic are Sepedi, Sesotho, Setswana, siSwati, Tshivenda, Xitsonga, Afrikaans, English, isiNdebele, isiXhosa and isiZulu.
  2. Recognising the historically diminished use and status of the indigenous languages of our people, the state must take practical and positive measures to elevate the status and advance the use of these languages.
  3. (a) The national government and provincial governments may use any particular official languages for the purposes of government, taking into account usage, practicality, expense, regional circumstances and the balance of the needs and preferences of the population as a whole or in the province concerned; but the national government and each provincial government must use at least two official languages.
    (b) Municipalities must take into account the language usage and preferences of their residents.
  4. The national government and provincial governments, by legislative and other measures, must regulate and monitor their use of official languages. Without detracting from the provisions of subsection (2), all official languages must enjoy parity of esteem and must be treated equitably.
  5. A Pan South African Language Board established by national legislation must
    (a) promote, and create conditions for, the development and use of -
      (i) all official languages;
      (ii) the Khoi, Nama and San languages; and
      (iii) sign language; and
    (b) promote and ensure respect for -
      (i) all languages commonly used by communities in South Africa, including German, Greek, Gujarati, Hindi, Portuguese, Telugu, Tamil and Urdu; and
      (ii) Arabic, Hebrew, Sanskrit and other languages used for religious purposes in South Africa.
    — Constitution of the Republic of South Africa[8]

Dango la Charu cha South Africa mu Viyowoyero Vyakupambanapambana[lemba | kulemba source]

Mazgu agha ghali mu ndime yakwamba ya Dango la ku South Africa:

English[9] Afrikaans[10] isiNdebele[11] isiXhosa[12] isiZulu[13] siSwati[14] Sepedi[15] Sesotho[16] Setswana[17] Tshivenda[18] Xitsonga[19]
Preamble Aanhef Isendlalelo Intshayelelo Isendlalelo Sendlalelo Ketapele Ketapele Pulamadibogo Mvulatswinga Manghenelo
We, the people of South Africa, Ons, die mense van Suid-Afrika, Thina, abantu beSewula Afrika, Thina, bantu baseMzantsi-Afrika, Thina, bantu baseNingizimu Afrika, Tsine, bantfu baseNingizimu Afrika, Rena, batho ba Afrika Borwa, Rona, batho ba Afrika Borwa, Rona, batho ba Aforika Borwa, Riṋe, vhathu vha Afrika Tshipembe, Hina, vanhu va Afrika Dzonga,
Recognise the injustices of our past; Erken die ongeregtighede van ons verlede; Siyakwazi ukungakaphatheki kwethu ngokomthetho kwesikhathi sakade; Siyaziqonda iintswela-bulungisa zexesha elidlulileyo; Siyazamukela izenzo ezingalungile zesikhathi esadlula; Siyakubona kungabi khona kwebulungiswa esikhatsini lesengcile; Re lemoga ditlhokatoka tša rena tša bogologolo; Re elellwa ho ba le leeme ha rona nakong e fetileng; Re itse ditshiamololo tsa rona tse di fetileng; Ri dzhiela nṱha u shaea ha vhulamukanyi kha tshifhinga tsho fhelaho; Hi lemuka ku pfumaleka ka vululami ka nkarhi lowu nga hundza;
Honour those who suffered for justice and freedom in our land; Huldig diegene wat vir geregtigheid en vryheid in ons land gely het; Sihlonipha labo abatlhoriswako ngerhuluphelo lokobana kube khona ubulungiswa netjhaphuluko enarheni yekhethu; Sibothulel’ umnqwazi abo baye bev’ ubunzima ukuze kubekho ubulungisa nenkululeko elizweni lethu; Siphakamisa labo abahluphekela ubulungiswa nenkululeko emhlabeni wethu; Setfulela sigcoko labo labahlushwa kuze sitfole bulungiswa nenkhululeko eveni lakitsi; Re tlotla bao ba ilego ba hlokofaletšwa toka le tokologo nageng ya gaborena; Re tlotla ba hlokofaditsweng ka lebaka la toka le tokoloho naheng ya rona; Re tlotla ba ba bogileng ka ntlha ya tshiamo le kgololosego mo lefatsheng la rona; Ri ṱhonifha havho vhe vha tambulela vhulamukanyi na mbofholowo kha shango ḽashu; Hi xixima lava xanisekeke hikwalaho ko hisekela vululami na ntshunxeko etikweni ra hina;
Respect those who have worked to build and develop our country; and Respekteer diegene wat hul beywer het om ons land op te bou en te ontwikkel; en Sihlonipha labo abasebenzileko ekwakhiweni nekuthuthukisweni kwephasi lekhethu; begodu Siyabahlonela abo baye basebenzela ukwakha nokuphucula ilizwe lethu; kwaye Sihlonipha labo abasebenzele ukwakha nokuthuthukisa izwe lethu; futhi Sihlonipha labo labaye basebentela kwakha nekutfutfukisa live lakitsi; futsi Re hlompha bao ba ilego ba katanela go aga le go hlabolla naga ya gaborena; mme Re tlotla ba ileng ba sebeletsa ho aha le ho ntshetsa pele naha ya rona; mme Re tlotla ba ba diretseng go aga le go tlhabolola naga ya rona; mme Ri ṱhonifha havho vhe vha shuma vha tshi itela u fhaṱa na u bveledzisa shango ḽashu; na Hi hlonipha lava tirheke ku aka no hluvukisa tiko ra hina; no
Believe that South Africa belongs to all who live in it, united in our diversity. Glo dat Suid-Afrika behoort aan almal wat daarin woon, verenig in ons verskeidenheid. Sikholwa bonyana iSewula Afrika ingeyabo boke abandzindze kiyo, sibambisane ngokwahlukahlukana kwethu. Sikholelwa kwelokuba uMzantsi-Afrika ngowabo bonke abahlala kuwo, bemanyene nangona bengafani. Sikholelwa ukuthi iNingizimu Afrika ingeyabo bonke abahlala kuyo, sibumbene nakuba singafani. Sikholelwa ekutseni iNingizimu Afrika yabo bonkhe labahlala kuyo, sihlangene ngekwehlukahlukana kwetfu; Re dumela gore Afrika-Borwa ke ya batho bohle ba ba dulago go yona, re le ngata e tee e nago le pharologano Re dumela hore Afrika Borwa ke naha ya bohle ba phelang ho yona, re kopane le ha re fapane. Re dumela fa Aforika Borwa e le ya botlhe ba ba tshelang mo go yona, re le ngata e le nngwe ka go farologana U tenda uri Afrika Tshipembe ndi ḽa vhoṱhe vhane vha dzula khaḽo, vho vhofhekanywaho vha vha huthihi naho vha sa fani. Tshembha leswaku Afrika Dzonga i ya vanhu hinkwavo lava tshamaka eka rona, hi hlanganile hi ku hambana-hambana ka hina.

See also[lemba | kulemba source]

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References[lemba | kulemba source]

  1. "Africa :: SOUTH AFRICA". CIA The World Factbook. 8 March 2022.
  2. "South Africa could make signing official language". bbc.com. 28 July 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  3. The Economist, "Tongues under threat", 22 January 2011, p. 58.
  4. Mesthrie, Rajend; Rajend, Mesthrie (2002-10-17). Language in South Africa (in English). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-79105-2.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Census 2011: Census in brief (PDF). Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2012. pp. 23–25. ISBN 9780621413885.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "South Africa". Ethnologue (in English). Retrieved 2022-09-04.
  7. "Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act 200 of 1993". www.gov.za. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  8. "Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 - Chapter 1: Founding Provisions". www.gov.za. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  9. "The SA Constitution".
  10. https://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/constitution/translations/0/SAConstitution-web-afr-0.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  11. https://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/constitution/translations/0/SAConstitution-web-nde-0.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  12. https://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/constitution/translations/0/SAConstitution-web-xho-0.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  13. https://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/constitution/translations/0/SAConstitution-web-zul-0.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  14. https://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/constitution/translations/0/SAConstitution-web-swa-0.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  15. https://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/constitution/translations/0/SAConstitution-web-sep-0.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  16. https://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/constitution/translations/0/SAConstitution-web-sot-0.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  17. https://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/constitution/translations/0/SAConstitution-web-set-0.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  18. https://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/constitution/translations/0/SAConstitution-web-ven-0.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  19. https://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/constitution/translations/0/SAConstitution-web-tso-0.pdf [bare URL PDF]

External links[lemba | kulemba source]