Mdauko wa chalo cha Malaŵi

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Mdauko wa chalo cha Malaŵi[edit | edit source]

Viwangwa vya banthu awo bakafwa kale chomene vyaka million yimoza (1 million) na viyabiro vyawo vya malibwe vili kusangikako mu Malaŵi. Ndipo m’mphepete mwa nyanja ya Malaŵi mukuwoneka kuti mukakhalanga banthu vyaka pakati pa vikhwi makhumi yankhonde na vikhwi makhumi yankhondi na chimoza (50,000 to 60,000). Ndiposo viwangwa vya pamalo ghanyakhe vikuwoneska makhaliro gha banthu ngati banthu bakumafumiro ghazuba kwa Africa. Malo ghanyakheso ghakuwoneska viwangwa ivyo vikuwoneska banthu bakukozgana na banthu bamazuba ghano na bakukhala muthondo ivyo vikulongola kuti bakakhalanga malo agho mu vyaka vya muma 1500 Yesu wandaweko.

BaPwitikizi ndiwo bakaba bakwamba kufika ku Malaŵi muvyaka vwa mu vikhwi makhumi ghankhondi na chimoza (16th century). Kweni Bazungu bakwamba bakaba wati wiza sing’anga Dr. David Livingstone m’mphepete mwa nyanja ya Malaŵi mu chaka cha 1859. Kufuma apo, bazungu abo bakaba batebeti ba Chiuta baku Scotland bakayamba mipingo ku Malaŵi. Banthu aba chinthu chimoza icho bakatemwa chomene kukaba kumalizga malonda gha buzga ku Malaŵi. Ndipo m'chaka cha 1879 bazungu banandi, banandi ba iwo bakufuma ku Glasgow ku Scotland bakapanga bungwe la African Lakes kuti liguliskenge malonda ku batebeti ba Chiuta abo. Ndipo batebeti banyakhe, pamo na vibinda na balimi nawo bakayamba kuluta ku Malaŵi.

Mu chaka cha 1883 myimiliri wa boma la baNgerezi wakasoleka kuba yumoza wa balongozgi ba Nyasaland ndipo mu chaka cha 1891 Malaŵi, nyengo iyo wali kuchemeka Nyasaland, wakavumbatirika na baNgelezi kuba pa muwuso wawo (British Protectorate). Mu chaka cha 1915 John Chilembwe uyo wakatoleka kuluta ku Amerika na mliska Joseph Booth wakayezga kulimbana nawo baNgerezi aba awo bakachemekanga basamunda (colonialists) kweni chivundungwere chake chikachitapo chilichose yayi, ndipo bakamkoma.

Mu chaka cha 1944 banthu ngati ba Levi Ziliro Mumba bakayamba kabungwe ako bakakachema Nyasaland African Congress na fundo yakususka ivyo baNgelezi bakachitiranga banthu ba mu Nyasaland. Mu 1953 basamunda bakati basazga vyalo vya Nyasaland, Northern Rhodesia (sono Zambia) na Southern Rhodesia (sono Zimbabwe), Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, banthu bakachikana chisazga ichi, ndipo bakalutizga chomene kugalukira. Dr. Hastings Kamuzu Banda wakati wafika ku Nyasaland pa 6 July mu chaka cha 1958, wakakwezga nkhongono za chigaluka ndipo mu 1959 bakamukaka nakumtuma ku Gweru, ku Rhodesia wa ku mwera. Mu 1960 bakamfumiska ku ukayidi kuti wakabepo pa ungano wakudumbiskana malango ku London.

Mu mwezi wachinayi pa dazi la chikhumi na chinkhondi mu 1961 chipani cha Malaŵi Congress (MCP) chikawina mu visankho vya Nyumba ya Malango (Legislative Council) ndipo chikaba na nkhongono mu bumba wakulamulira (Executive Council) ndipo chikayamba kunozgekera mubusu wa Nyasaland. Pa ungano wachibiri wakudumbiskana malango mu mwezi wachikhumi na chimoza (November) mu 1962 baNgerezi bakazomela kuti banthu ba ku Nyasaland babe wakujiwusa bekha chaka chikwiza chake ndipo pa dazi lakwamba la mwezi wachibiri (1 February) wa 1963 Kamuzu wakaba nduna yikulu ya Nyasaland. Mu mwezi wachinkhondi (May) malango ghaphya ghakayamba kugwira ntchito nakupa banthu ba ku Nyasaland kujiwusa bekha ndipo mu mwezi waumaliro wa 1963 pa dazi lawumaliro (31 December) Chisazga cha ma Rhodesia na Nyasaland chikamala. Mbwenu pa dazi la chinkhondi na chimoza la mwezi wa chinkhondi na chibiri (6 July) mu chaka cha 1964 Nyasaland wakapokera wanangwa wakujiwusa yekha ndipo pakati pajumpha vyaka vibiri (6 July 1966) bakaba malango gha ulongozgi wa iyo payekha-yekha (republican constitution) ndipo Kamuzu wakaba mulongozgi wake. Mu 1966 mukaba chivundungwere (cabinet crisis) mu mphala ya mlongozgi (cabinet) chifukwa banyakhe ngati bina Kanyama Chiume, Yatuta Chisiza, Henry Chipembere na banyakhe bakatemwa umo Kamuzu wakawusilanga yayi. Banyakhe bakakomekapo ndipo, banyakheso ngati Kanyama Chiume bakachimbira.

Mu 1970 Kamuzu wakakhala mlongozgi wa umoyo wake wose wa chipani cha Malaŵi Congress (MCP) ndipo mu 1971 bakamupanga kuti wabe mulongozgi wa Malaŵi umoyo wake wose.

BaMalaŵi bakatemwa chomene ulongozgi wa Kamuzu, chomene-chomene kuleka kuzomela kususkika kwake ndipo kuyambiliro ya vyaka vya mu ma 1990 balongozgi ba mpingo wa baRoma Roman Catholic bakalemba kalata yakususka ulongozgi wa nthena ndipo banthu bakayamba kuyowoya. Munthu m’moza uyo wakayowoyapo chomene wakaba Chakufwa Chihana uyo wakayowoyapo chomene apo wakaba kuwalo kwa Malaŵi ndipo wati wawelera ku Malaŵi bakamkaka.

Vyalo ivo vikuvwira Malaŵi na ndalama navyo vukakondwa yayi na ulongozgi wa Kamuzu ndipo vikamchichimizga kuti waleke banthu bayowoyenge. Mu 1992 Kamuzu wakazomelezga kuti banthu bayambe kuyowoya vyakusingo kwawo ndipo banthu bakapanga tumagulu twakudumba na boma (Pressure Groups) tubiri; kakwamba ka Alliance for Democracy (AFORD) ndipo kanyakhe ka United Democratic Front (UDF) nako kakapangika. Tumagulu utu tukachichizga Kamuzu kuti wazomele kuti banthu basankhe bekha naumo balongozgekerenge (referendum) pakati pa chipani chimoza na vipani vinandi ndipo Kamuzu wakazomela kuti vibe nthena. Pa chisankho ichi mu mwezi wachikhondi na chimoza pa dazi la chikhumi na chinayi banthu bakasankha kuti mu Malaŵi mube vipani vinandi ndipo tumagulu uto tukazgoka vipani.

Mu mwezi wachinkhondi mu 1994 chisankho chikachitika ndipo chipani cha UDF na mlongozgi wake bakawina. Bakili Muluzi bakaba mlongozgi wachibiri wa Malaŵi. Muluzi wakasintha malango yanandi, yanyakhe yake kuti pabe muvwiri-mlongozgi wachibiri (second vice-president) nakuzomelezgaso kuti banthu awo balikukakikapo bazomelezgeke kuba balongozgi (kwakuyana na malango ayo yakayamba kugwira ntchito pa 17 May 1994 munthu wanthena uyo wakazomelezgakanga yayi ndipo pakuti Muluzi wakakakikapo chifukwa cha kwiba mapaundi yankhondi na yimoza (£6) nthena wakatondeka kuzakayezgaposo kuti banthu bamsanke ulongozgi).

Pa chisankho cha mu 1999 Muluzi wakawinaso nanga uli banyakhe bakuti wakawina mwakwiba.

Pa nyengo iyi chalo mu cha Malaŵi ukavu wukakula chifukwa chakwiba ndalama za boma na kuleka kwendeska makola ndalama. Kukabaso kutemwerana na kupokela vimbundi (kuhonga).

Wati watondeka kuti bimiliri ba m’mphala ya malango basazgirepo vyaka vyakuti Muluzi wabe mulongozgi wakasankha Bingu wa Mutharika kuti wabe myimiliri wa chipani cha UDF ndipo pa chisankho cha mu 2004 wa Mutharika wakawina nanga uli wunenesko wa chisankho ichi wukumanyikwa makola yayi chifukwa kwiba kukaba kunandi ndipo vipani vyose, kupatulako cha UDF, vikati bendeski ba chisankho (electoral commission) bakendeska makola yayi chisankho ichi. Batumiki ba wupu wa European Union nawo bakayowoya nthena.

Bingu wa Mutharika wati waba mlongozgi banthu wanandi wakakondwera nayo – banandi bakuti wakuwusa makola ndiposo wayezga kumazga vimbundi, kwiba ndalama za boma nakuti banthu awo bakughanaghanika kuti bakibanga bayamba kubatolera ku khoti.