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Michael Sata
5th President of Zambia
Nyengo:
23 September 2011 – 28 October 2014
Wachiŵili kwa mlongozgi Guy Scott
Kupokela Rupiah Banda
Kuwiska na Guy Scott
Umoyo wamunthu
Kubabika (1937-07-06)6 July 1937
Mpika, Awemba North, Northern Rhodesia
Kufwa 28 October 2014(2014-10-28) (vyaka vikaŵa 77)
London, England, U.K.
Malo ghakuŵikika Embassy Park, Lusaka
15°25′19″S 28°18′34″E / 15.421884°S 28.309314°E / -15.421884; 28.309314
Chikhaze Zambian
Chipani Patriotic Front (2001–2014)
MMD (1991–2001)
UNIP (Before 1991)
Nthengwa Margaret Manda (?–?)
Christine Kaseba (?–2014; his death)
Ŵana 8[1]
Ntchito Police officer and trade unionist
Nickname(s) King Cobra

Michael Charles Chilufya Sata (6 Julayi 1937 - 28 Okutobala 2014) wakaŵa wandale wa ku Zambia uyo wakaŵa purezidenti wachisanu wa Zambia, kwambira pa 23 September 2011 mpaka nyifwa yake pa 28 October 2014. Munthu wa demokalase,[2] Wakalongozga chipani cha Patriotic Front (PF), chipani chikuru mu Zambia. Pa nyengo ya muwuso wa President Frederick Chiluba, Sata wakaŵa nduna mu vyaka vya m'ma 1990 mu boma la Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD). Mu 2001, wakaluta ku chigaŵa chakususkana na boma, ndipo wakambiska chipani cha PF. Monga mtsogoleri wa chipani chotsutsa, Sata, yemwe amadziwika kuti "King Cobra" adawonekera ngati wotsutsa wotsutsa wotsutsa komanso mpikisano wa Purezidenti Levy Mwanawasa pa chisankho cha purezidenti cha 2006, koma adagonjetsa. Pamanyuma pa nyifwa ya Mwanawasa, Sata wakathereskeka na President Rupiah Banda mu 2008.

Pambuyo pa zaka khumi mu chipani chotsutsa, Sata adagonjetsa Banda, wolamulira, kuti apambane chisankho cha pulezidenti cha September 2011 ndi mavoti ambiri. Wakafwira ku London pa 28 Okutobala 2014, ndipo wakaleka Vice President Guy Scott kuŵa acting President mpaka apo mavoti gha president ghakachitikira pa 20 January 2015.

Vyaka vyakwambilira[lemba | kulemba source]

Michael Charles Chilufya Sata wakababika pa 6 July 1937, ndipo wakakulira ku Mpika, Northern Province. Wakagwiranga nchito ya ŵapolisi, wa njanji, ndiposo wa vyamalonda mu nyengo ya muwuso wa ŵakoloni. Wakakhalako nyengo yicoko waka ku London, ndipo wakagwiranga nchito pa njanji. Mwaciyelezgero, wakaŵa wakuyegha katundu pa siteshoni ya sitima ya Victoria.[3] Sata wakamba kunjilirapo pa ndyali ya Northern Rhodesia mu 1963. Pamanyuma pa kujithemba, wakakhira mu chipani cha United National Independence Party (UNIP) icho chikaŵa pa muwuso m'paka ku Lusaka mu 1985. Pakuŵa Kazembe, wakacita vinthu mwamahara. Wakatozga misewu, wakanozga misewu, na kuzenga vipata mu msumba. Pamasinda wakaŵa muphalamenda wa Kabwata ku Lusaka. Nangauli wakaŵa pafupi na pulezidenti Kenneth Kaunda, kweni wakakhuŵara na kawonekero ka Kaunda ndipo wakaleka chipani cha UNIP na kunjira chipani cha Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) mu nyengo ya kampeni ya vyaru vinandi mu 1991.

Umoyo wa munthu[lemba | kulemba source]

Nthengwa yakwamba ya Sata yikaŵa na Margaret Manda. Pamanyuma wakatora mwanakazi waciŵiri, Christine Kaseba, uyo wakazgoka First Lady wa Zambia mu nyengo iyo wakaŵa pulezidenti. Michael Sata wakaphalirika kuti wakaŵa na ŵana 10 pakati pa nthengwa zake ziŵiri.

Mu 2016, chokoro cha Sata, Christine Kaseba, wakakana ivyo mwanakazi munyake wakayowoya kuti nayo wakatengwa kwa Michael Sata.[4]

Michael Sata wali na digiri ya Political Science kufuma ku Atlantic International University.

Ndyali yakwambilira[lemba | kulemba source]

Frederick Chiluba wakati wathereska Kaunda mu 1991, Sata wakaŵa yumoza wa ŵanthu awo ŵakumanyikwa chomene mu Zambia. Pa nyengo ya MMD, wakaŵa nduna ya boma, ntchito na umoyo apo, wakayowoya kuti "masinthiro ghake ghakawovwira kuti umoyo wa ŵanthu uŵe makora".[5][6]

Mu 1995, wakasankhika kuŵa nduna yambura ntchito, mulembi wa chipani icho nyengo yose iyi ndyali yake yikalongosoreka kuŵa "yakukoma"..[7]

Kupangika kwa Patriotic Front[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu 2001, purezidenti Chiluba wakasankha Levy Mwanawasa kuŵa mulongozgi wa MMD pa mavoti gha 2001. Pakukwenyelera, Sata wakafumamo mu MMD na kupanga chipani chiphya, Patriotic Front (PF). Wakaluta ku mavoti mu 2001, kweni wakachita makora yayi - chipani chake chikapokera mpando umoza pera mu nyumba ya malango. Sata wakazomera kuti wathereskeka ndipo wakalutizga kampeni.

Kusankhika kwa 2006 na pamanyuma pake[lemba | kulemba source]

Sata wakathereska pa mavoti gha president mu September 2006 nga ni munthu uyo wakakhwimiska fundo za ŵakavu pakususkana na ndondomeko za Mwanawasa zakusintha chuma. Apo ŵanyake awo ŵakalindiliranga pa mavoti ŵakamba kumususka, mazgu gha Sata ghakaŵa ghakofya. Pa ungano unyake uwo wakacitapo, wakaphara kuti Sata wakadumurapo mphangwe pamaso pa ŵanthu awo ŵakamukhozganga. Kavuŵa aka kakang'anamuranga kuti Mwanawasa walije kuyowoya makora, cifukwa ca kupwetekeka pa ngozi ya galimoto mu 1992. Wakasoleka Mwanawasa kuti "wakuguliska" Zambia ku vyaru vinyake. Pakuzgora, caru ca China cikawofya kuti cikumazga ubwezi na Zambia usange wasankhika.[8][9] Munthu uyo wakaŵa woko lamalyero la Sata pa kampeni iyi wakaŵa Dr. Guy Scott, mulembi mukuru wa Patriotic Front. Scott ni wandyali wa ku Zambia. Wakateŵeteranga mauteŵeti ghanandi mu boma la Chiluba. Sata nayo wakapokera wovwiri wa ŵanthu ŵa Chiluba.

Vinthu vyakwambilira ivyo vikawoneka pa mavoti vikapangiska kuti Sata ndiyo walongozge, kweni vinthu vinyake ivyo vikawoneka vikapangiska kuti Mwanawasa ndiyo waŵe pa malo ghakwamba ndipo Satana ndiyo wakaŵa wachitatu. Mavoti gha pakati pa nyengo agho ghakafumiskika pamanyuma pakuti mavoti gha 120 pa 150 ghawerengeka ghakaŵika Mwanawasa pa 42% ya mavoti; Hakainde Hichilema wakaŵa na 28%; ndipo Michael Sata wakaŵa na 27%. Apo ŵanthu ŵakususka boma ŵakapulika kuti Sata wafuma pa malo ghakwamba na kukhilira pa ghacitatu, mu Lusaka mukawuka vivulupi. Pa 2 Okutobala, wupu wa Zambia Electoral Commission ukati Mwanawasa ndiyo watonda pa chisankho ichi.[10][11]

Sata wakakakika kukwambilira kwa mwezi wa Disembala, 2006, chifukwa cha kunanga katundu wake apo wakakhumbanga kuŵa pulezidenti mu Ogasiti, pamoza na milandu yinyake. Ŵapolisi ŵakamufumba mafumbo ndipo ŵakamufumiska pa bani. Usange wangasangika na mulandu, mphanyi wakakhala mu jele vyaka viŵiri. Pakuti wakaŵa wakukakika, wakatondekangaso kugwira nchito za boma. Sata wakati mulandu uwu ukaŵa wa ndyali, ndipo ku khoti wakazomera kuti walije mulandu. Pa Disembala 14, mulandu uwu ukalekeka cifukwa cakuti ndalama izo ŵakasanganga zikaŵa zaunenesko yayi.

Pa 15 March 2007, Sata wakafumiskika ku Malawi mwaluŵiro wati wafika. Sata wakati wakaluta ku Malawi kuti wakakumane na ŵamalonda pera, ndipo wakati boma la Zambia ndilo likapangiska kuti munthu uyu wafumiskike mu charu ichi. Boma la Zambia likakana, apo boma la Malawi likapeleka yayi cifukwa ico Sata wakacimbizgikira. Pa 6 Epulero, loya wa Sata wakayowoya kuti watolera boma la Malawi mulandu chifukwa cha kuswa wanangwa wake.

Pambuyo pa kutaya pasipoti yake ku London kumapeto kwa chaka cha 2007, Sata adapatsidwa ina; Komabe, pa 10 November 2007, Minister of Home Affairs Ronnie Shikapwasha adalengeza kuti pasipoti ya Sata idachotsedwa kwakanthawi chifukwa adapeza pasipoti yatsopano popanda kutsatira njira zofunikira ndikuwonetsa kuti amafunikira pasipoti yatsopano. Shikapwasha wakayowoya kuti ŵapolisi ŵalutilirenge na kufumiska mulandu uwu, kweniso kuti Sata wali kufumbika, ndipo wangakakika.

Sata wakasuzgika na nthenda ya mtima pa 25 Epulero 2008 ndipo wakatolekera ku chipatala cha Milpark ku Johannesburg, South Africa, uko ŵakayowoya kuti wali makora pa 26 Epulero. Wakakolerana na Pulezidenti Mwanawasa mu mwezi wa Meyi 2008.[12]

Nyifwa ya Mwanawasa na mavoti gha 2008[lemba | kulemba source]

Pambuyo pa Mwanawasa kudwala sitiroko ndipo adagonekedwa mchipatala ku France, Sata adakayikira zonena zaumoyo wa Mwanawasa pa 15 Julayi 2008, ndipo adapempha kuti gulu la madokotala litumizidwe ndi nduna kuti liwone Mwanawasa; gulu ili lidzaulula momwe Mwanawasa aliri. Mwanawasa wakafwa apo wakaŵa pa udindo wake mu Ogasiti 2008. Pa 25 Ogasiti, Sata wakayezga kuluta ku nyifwa ya Mwanawasa ku Chipata mu chigaŵa cha Eastern; kweni, Maureen Mwanawasa, chokoro cha Mwanawasa, wakalangura Sata kuti wafumeko, wakati wakapangiska ndyali pa chiphikiro ichi ndipo kuti wandaphemaniskanepo na mbumba ya Mwanawasa. Sata, uyo wakafumiskika pa malo agha na ŵavikiliri, wakati wakaŵa kwenekura kuti wakalilire Mwanawasa ndipo wakakhumbanga kuti walute na thupi la Mwanawasa apo likalutanga ku vigaŵa vikuruvikuru mu Zambia. Wakayowoyaso kuti Maureen Mwanawasa wakacita mwambura kwenelera.

Sata wakasankhika mwakukolerana nga ni phangano la PF pa mavoti gha purezidenti pa ungano wa Central Committee pa 30 August 2008. Apo wakazomera kunyamuka, wakalongosora kuti nchiwemi "kusisita na kugeza caru ici"; wakayowoyaso kuti walekenge kucita kampeni mpaka para Mwanawasa wafwa. Nangauli wakaŵa na nthenda ya mtima mu Epulero 2008, kweni Sata wakati wakaŵa na umoyo uwemi.

Sata wakayowoya kuti wazomerezgenge yayi kuti Banda watonde chifukwa "palije nthowa yakuti MMD yingatonde", ndipo wakati komiti ya vyakusankha na ŵapolisi ŵakukolerana kuti ŵanozge vyakusankha. Nangauli wakadangiliranga pakuwona mavoti ghakwambilira, ivyo vikulongora kuti wakaŵa na ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakamovwiranga mu matawuni, kweni apo mavoti ghakawerengekanga ku mizi, wakang'anamukiranga. Paumaliro, Banda wakawuskapo Sata, ndipo pa Novembala 2 mavoti ghakwambilira ghakalongora kuti Banda wakaŵa na mavoti 40 peresenti. Sata wakayowoya kuti wathereskeka yayi ndipo wakamunena Banda kuti ngwakupusika.[13]

Wupu Wakulongozga[lemba | kulemba source]

Sata wakathemba kukhala purezidenti kachinayi pa chisankho icho chikachitika pa 20 September 2011. Mu nyengo yakwambilira ya kampeni iyi, wakayowoyanga mazgu ghakwimikana na ŵanthu ŵa ku China, kweni pamasinda wakachepeska mazgu ghake. Pa mavoti agho ghakawoneka, wakapokera mavoti pafupifupi 43% pa mavoti 36% gha Banda, ndipo Chief Justice Ernest Sakala wakapharazga kuti watonda pa mavoti agha mu maora ghakwambilira pa 23 September. Pa zuŵa ili, wakalapa.[14] Ŵanthu ŵakatenge watonda cifukwa ca kuvota kwa ŵanthu ŵa mu tawuni iyi. Nangauli wakayowoya mwakuzika, kweni vinthu vikaŵa makora yayi ku Zambia chifukwa cha kutonda kwake.

Ndondomeko[lemba | kulemba source]

Pa Seputembala 8, 2008, Sata wakayowoya kuti wavikilirenge ndalama za ku China usange wasankhika, ndipo wakaleka kutinkha ndalama za ku China izo wakayowoyapo pa nyengo ya kampeni ya 2006 ya ku mavoti.

Pa nyengo ya kampeni ya 2006 iyo wakaphalirika kuti wakayowoyapo vya pulezidenti wa Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe kuti "Mugabe wandachitepo kanthu kaheni. Awo ŵakumuwona kuti ni muheni ni ŵamazaza ŵa caru, ŵeneawo ŵakughanaghana kuti ni munthu muheni".

Mu 2008, wakayowoya kuti walekeskenge ŵamalonda ŵa ku vyaru vinyake para ŵakana kupulikira ulongozgi wake wakuti ŵapeleke viŵelengero vya 25% vya makampani ghawo ku ŵanthu ŵa ku Zambia.

Pa nyengo iyo wakapika mazaza gha purezidenti wa Zambia, Sata wakasimikizgira ŵamalonda ŵakufumila ku vyaru vinyake kuti mbakukondwa mu chalo chake, icho ni chalo cikuru chomene mu Africa cakupanga mkuwa, kweni wakati ŵakwenera kunozga vinthu ku ŵantchito ŵawo ŵa ku Zambia.[15]

Ulwari na nyifwa[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu 2014, ŵanthu ŵakamba kufipa mtima chomene na umoyo wa Sata ndipo ŵanyake ŵakayowoya kuti waleka nadi kuwusa boma chifukwa cha ulwari wake. Kweni boma likakana fundo iyi. Wakaleka kuwonekera pa wumba, ico cikaŵa cambura kuzirwa kwa pulezidenti uyu. Ŵanthu awo ŵakamuwonanga ŵakaghanaghananga kuti wakawonekanga makora yayi apo wakajuranga Nyumba ya Ufumu pa Seputembala 19, ndipo mu mwezi wakulondezgapo wakawonekeraso yayi pa wumba. Mulongozgi wa MMD Nevers Mumba wakati boma likuteta pa vya umoyo wa Sata. Wakasoŵaso kuyowoya pa ungano wa ungano wa United Nations General Assembly wa cigaŵa ca 69 cifukwa ca mphindano izo zikayowoyeka kuti wakalwara mu hotelo yinyake mu msumba wa New York.

Pa Okutobala 19, wakafumamo mu charu ichi kuti wakawone umo waliri, ndipo wakasiyira Edgar Lungu, Minisita wa vya Vyankhondo, kuti ndiyo walongozgenge charu ichi.[16][17] Pakughanaghanira umo vinthu vikaŵira, kusazgapo kuti ulendo uwu ukacitika mwamabuci, umo Sata wakawonekera yayi pa wumba, kweniso kuti zuŵa lakwamba la 50 la wanangwa wa Zambia likaŵa pafupi kukwana, ŵanandi ŵakagomezga kuti Sata wakalwara comene.

Sata wakafwa pa 28 Okutobala mu London.[18][19] Wakalwaranga nthenda yinyake iyo yikumanyikwa yayi. Mulara wa boma Roland Msiska wakayowoya kuti wakafwa usiku. Nga ni umo mukumanyira, pulezidenti wakapokera wovwiri wa munkhwala ku London. Mulara wa boma wakafwa pa Okutobala 28. Tikudandawura comene na nyifwa ya Pulezidenti Sata. Ŵanthu wose ŵazamupokera ulongozgi pa nkhani ya kusungika". Apo wakafwira pa 23:00 mu King Edward VII Hospital, muwoli wake, Christine Kaseba, mwana wake Mulenga, na ŵabali ŵanyake ŵakaŵa nayo panyengo iyi. Iyo ni purezidenti waciŵiri wa Zambia uyo wafwa pa udindo wake, pamanyuma pa nyifwa ya Levy Mwanawasa vyaka vinkhondi na cimoza kumasinda mu 2008. Mubali Guy Scott, uyo wakaŵa wachiŵiri kwa pulezidenti, ndiyo wakaŵa mulongozgi wakudumura m'paka pa nyengo ya mavoti. W. de Klerk mu caru ca Apartheid ku South Africa.

Ivyo Ŵanthu Ŵakuyowoya[lemba | kulemba source]

Vinthu vya mu charu[lemba | kulemba source]

Rupiah Banda, uyo wakaŵako pambere Sata wandaŵepo, wakati: "Sata wakaŵa waka muteŵeti wa boma yayi. Wakaŵa munthu wakutemwa kuphalizgana, wakugomezgeka, ndiposo wakughanaghana makora. Kweniso wakaŵa mwana wane wacitemwa, mfumu wane, dada wane, ndiposo mubwezi wane, nangauli tikaŵa na masuzgo ghanandi. Kweni chakuzirwa comene nchakuti Michael Sata wakaŵa wa ku Zambia, mu thupi, mzimu, na maghanoghano. Tili kujumphapo kale mu suzgo ili, ndipo tili kujumpha cifukwa cakuti tili ŵakukolerana. Mphanyi iyi yaŵa nyengo yakuti tileke maghanoghano agho ghakutipatura, na kuzomera ŵanthu na kuzirwa uko kukutikolerana nga ni caru ndiposo uko kukutipanga ŵanthu".

Mark Chona, uyo wakaŵa movwiri wapadera wa Kenneth Kaunda, pulezidenti wakwamba wa Zambia, wakati: "Tili na citima comene cifukwa wakaŵa pulezidenti na mulongozgi uyo wakalimbikiranga nchito. Wakaŵa wakunweka comene na cilicose ico wakakhumbanga kucita".

Charu chose[lemba | kulemba source]

Boma la South Africa (ilo Mulara wa boma Scott wakaŵa kuti walichitira nkhaza pakumuchema kuti "wakulopwa") likayowoyapo kuti: "Purezidenti Sata wali mu gulu la ŵalongozgi awo ŵakafuma ku Zambia mu nyengo ya ukoloni ndipo wakalutilira kulimbana na ukoloni. Nyifwa yake yikukumbuska ŵanthu ŵa ku South Africa za kujipeleka kwa Zambia ndiposo mulimo wake wa kuwusa caru ca Africa".

Pulezidenti wa ku Kenya, Uhuru Kenyatta, wakati Sata ni "mwana wakuzirwa comene wa ku Africa".

Philip Hammond, mulembi wa vyaru vinyake wa Britain, uyo kale wakaŵa muwusi wa Zambia, wakati: "[Sata] wakaŵa na udindo ukuru comene mu caru cake kwa vilimika 30...ndipo paumaliro wakaŵa pulezidenti".[20]

Ukaboni[lemba | kulemba source]

  1. Bariyo, Nicholas (29 Okutobala 2014). "Zambia President Michael Sata Dies". WSJ. Retrieved 29 Okutobala 2014.
  2. "We are social democrats".
  3. "The World This Week". Economist. 1 Okutobala 2011.
  4. "Michael Sata - obituary". Zambia Daily Nation. 12 Meyi 2016. Retrieved 21 Ogasiti 2016.
  5. "A Turmoiled History of Zambian Elections | One Young World". www.oneyoungworld.com. Retrieved 20 Meyi 2021.
  6. "Michael Sata: Zambia's 'King Cobra' finally strikes". BBC News (in British English). 23 Sekutembala 2011. Retrieved 20 Meyi 2021.
  7. "Zambia's action man: Michael Sata" (in British English). 18 Disembala 2001. Retrieved 20 Meyi 2021.
  8. "Tough election race in Zambia", Al Jazeera, 30 September 2006.
  9. "Profile: Zambia's 'King Cobra'", BBC News, 29 September 2006.
  10. "Poll victory for Zambia president", BBC News, 2 October 2006.
  11. Zambia elections Archived 13 Malichi 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Angus Reid.
  12. "Zambian opposition leader, first lady clash", AFP (IOL), 25 August 2008.
  13. "Sata: I have not lost this election", Sapa-DPA (IOL), 4 November 2008.
  14. "Zambia's Sata sworn in as new president". Archived from the original on 25 Julayi 2012.
  15. "Zambia Swears in Opposition Leader as New President", VOA News, 25 September 2011.
  16. "Zambian President Michael Sata goes for medical check-up", BBC News, 20 October 2014.
  17. "Party rivalries grow as Sata ails", Africa Confidential, volume 55, number 21, 24 October 2014.
  18. Clement Malambo (29 Okutobala 2014). "President Michael Sata Has Died". Zambia Reports.
  19. "Zambian President Michael Sata dies in London", BBC News – Africa, 29 October 2014.
  20. "Guy Scott takes interim role after Zambian president Sata's death". 29 Okutobala 2014.

Vigaŵa vya kuwalo[lemba | kulemba source]

Mphala za ndale
Kujumphika na President of Zambia
2011–2014
Kupokela 
Guy Scott
Acting