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Mlongozgi wa Zambia

Kufuma Wikipedia
Mlongozgi wa wa
Charu cha Zambia
Presidential Flag
Mpando wasono
Hakainde Hichilema
since 24 August 2021
PasonoHead of state
Head of government
Malo ghakukhalaState House
Utali wa udindo5 years, renewable once
Chivundikiro chakwambaKenneth Kaunda
Kupangika24 October 1964
WachiŵiliVice-President of Zambia
Malipilo1,280,299 Zambian kwacha
/63,100 USD annually[1]
Webusaitihttps://www.sh.gov.zm/

Mlongozgi wa Zambia pani kuti Pulezidenti wa Zambia ni mulongozgi wa chalo na boma la Zambia. Kenneth Kaunda ndiyo wakaŵa na udindo uwu mu 1964. Kwambira mu 1991, apo Kaunda wakafumapo pa udindo uwu, ŵanthu ŵanyake 7 ndiwo ŵamba kuwusa. Frederick Chiluba, Levy Mwanawasa, Rupiah Banda, Michael Sata, Edgar Lungu na pulezidenti wa sono Hakainde Hichilema, uyo wawina chisankho cha pulezidenti cha 2021. Kweniso, Guy Scott uyo wakacitanga mulimo wa pulezidenti wakagwira nchito ya nyengo yicoko apo Pulezidenti Michael Sata wakafwa.

Kwambira pa 31 Ogasiti 1991, pulezidenti ni mulongozgi wa boma, pakuti udindo wa nduna yikuru ukalekeka mu myezi yaumaliro ya Kaunda, pamanyuma pa kudumbiskana na vipani vya chipani.

Utali wa kulamulila[lemba | kulemba source]

Pulezidenti wakusankhika kwa vilimika vinkhondi. Kuyambira mu 1991, pali malire a nyengo ziŵiri kwa pulezidenti mu Constitution of Zambia. Mu 2001, boma la Chiluba likayezga kusintha nyengo iyo ŵeruzgi ŵakeneranga kulamulira, kweni vikacitika yayi.[2]

Mbili[lemba | kulemba source]

Northern Rhodesia[lemba | kulemba source]

Apo boma la Britain la kumpoto kwa Rhodesia likapatukana na boma la Southern Rhodesia na British South Africa Company, mulongozgi wa boma wakaŵa British Monarch uyo wakimiranga boma la kumpoto kwa Rhodesia uyo wakaŵa mulongozgi wa boma na boma. Mu 1964 ku Northern Rhodesia kukachitika chisankho, ndipo ofesi ya Prime Minister of Northern Rhodesia yikaŵikika kuti yiŵe mutu wa boma pambere charu chindipoke wanangwa. Pa 19 Meyi 1964, nduna ya vyaru vya Commonwealth, Duncan Sandys, yikapharazga kuti Northern Rhodesia yiŵenge yakujiyimira payekha. Wupu wakulongozga ukeneranga kusora mwakubisilizga ŵanthu awo ŵakeneranga kuŵa mu wupu uwu.[3]

Zambia[lemba | kulemba source]

Boma ili likati lafumiskika, ndipo likasintha zina lake kuŵa Zambia, nduna yikuru Kenneth Kaunda ndiyo wakasoleka kuŵa pulezidenti wakwamba. Ofesi ya nduna yikamara, ndipo mulara wa boma wakazgoka nduna ya boma. Pakwamba, caru ici cikeneranga kuŵa na vipani vinandi. Ndipouli, pamanyuma pakuti wupu wa African National Congress ukakolane na United National Independence Party (UNIP), pulezidenti Kaunda wakapharazga kuti dango la chalo cha Zambia lisinthikenge na kuzgoka wupu wa chipani chimoza mu chaka cha 1973 na UNIP kuŵa chipani chimoza chekha icho chili na wanangwa wose. Kaunda wakati ici cikacitikanga kuti ŵanthu ŵaleke kutemwana. Ndipouli, dango ili likaŵaso na udindo wa nduna yikuru. Mu 1973, ku Zambia, ŵanthu ŵakazomerezgekanga kuvota kwa Kaunda uyo wakawovwirikanga na UNIP. Ŵakazomerezgekanga kuvota kwa Kaunda usange ŵakukhumba panji ŵakukana.

Kaunda wakasankhikaso mu vipharazgo vyose mpaka mu 1991. Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1980, ŵanthu ŵakamba kukhumba kuti boma lilekerethu kukanizga vyaru vinandi kuti vileke kwendera ndyali. Pamanyuma pa kudumbiskana na gulu la Movement for Multi-Party Democracy (MMD) mu 1990, pulezidenti Kaunda wakasaina dango lakukanizga vyaru vinyake kuti viŵe na vipani vinyake padera pa UNIP. Ŵakatondekaso kuŵa na udindo wa nduna yikuru ndipo ŵakapeleka mazaza ghose kwa pulezidenti. Mu 1991, Kaunda wakathereskeka na Frederick Chiluba wa MMD. Kaunda wakazomera kuti wapelekenge maudindo ghake mwa mtende, ndipo wakaŵa mulongozgi wachiŵiri wa ku Africa kuchita nthena pamanyuma pa Mathieu Kérékou wa ku Benin.[4]

Mu chaka cha 1996, pulezidenti Chiluba wakasangika na chipani cha UNIP icho chikakhumbanga kupoka boma ndipo wakapharazga kuti boma lili mu suzgo kuti likakike ŵantchito ŵa UNIP. Kweni khoti likuru ku Zambia likati dango ili ndawaka, ndipo likawuskapo dango ili na kufwatura awo ŵakakakika.[5] Pamasinda, Chiluba wakasintha dango la boma lakuti ŵanthu awo mupapi yumoza wali kubabikira ku Zambia panji ku Northern Rhodesia ndiwo ŵekha ŵangaŵapo pa mpando wa pulezidenti. Cakusinthika ici cikaŵa na cilato cakuti Kaunda waleke kunjira mu nchito ya kuwusa cifukwa ŵapapi ŵake ŵakababikira ku Nyasaland (mazuŵa ghano Malawi).[6]

Chifukwa cha malango agho ghakupanga mazaza gha ŵanthu ŵaŵiri, Chiluba wakasankha Levy Mwanawasa kuti ndiyo walondezgenge pa maudindo. Mwanawasa ndiyo wakawina visankho vya mu 2001 ku Zambia, kweni chipani chakususka chikamupusikizgira kuti wakasuzga pa visankho. Mu 2005, Khoti Likuru Chomene likadumura kuti nangauli vikaŵa vyambura kupulikikwa, kweni vikaŵa vyambura kupulikikwa. Mwanawasa wakathereskeka mu 2006. Wakafwa mu 2008 ndipo wakawuskika na Rupiah Banda. Mu 2011, Rupiah wakathereskeka na Michael Sata wa Patriotic Front (PF).[7]

Sata wakafwa mu 2014. Wachiŵiri kwa Pulezidenti Guy Scott ndiyo wakaŵa pulezidenti. Ici cikapangiska kuti Scott waŵe munthu wakwamba muzungu kuŵa mulongozgi wa caru ca mu Africa kufuma apo F. W. de Klerk uyo wakaleka nchito mu 1994 pamanyuma pakuti boma la apartheid lamara.[7][8] Ndipouli, cifukwa cakuti ŵapapi ŵake ŵakababikira ku Zambia yayi, cifukwa ca dango la chalo, iyo wakazomerezgekanga kuŵa pulezidenti kwa mazuŵa 90 pera, ndipo wakatondekanga kuvota. Mu 2015, Edgar Lungu wa chipani cha PF ndiyo wakathereska chipharazgo cha pulezidenti ndipo chaka chimoza pamanyuma pake mu 2016 wakathereska chipharazgo cha pulezidenti.

Pali vinthu vinayi ivyo vikusintha mu ndondomeko iyi, ivyo Edgar Lungu wakazomera mu Janyuwale 2016, ndipo vinandi mwa vinthu ivi vikusangika mu chigaŵa cha VII cha dango la chalo cha Malawi. Cakwamba, dango la 100 ndime 1 a) likuwuskapo dango la ŵapapi ilo likukhumba kuti munthu uyo wakwiza kuzakatora udindo wa pulezidenti panji wachiŵiri kwa pulezidenti waŵe na mupapi yumoza uyo wakababikira ku Zambia. Ndipo dango la 110 ndime 2 likukolerana na malango agho ghakovwira kuti munthu waŵe wakwenelera kuŵa pulezidenti panji wachiŵiri kwa pulezidenti. Chachiwiri, Article 101 Sections 1, 2 3 (a & b) and 8 signaled the shift from a First-Past the Post system to a Two-round system in which over 50% of valid votes cast are required for a president to win. Usange ivi vingacitika yayi, mu mazuŵa 37 kuzamucitikaso ciphalizgano caciŵiri pakati pa ŵanthu ŵaŵiri awo ŵakulongozga, ndipo pa ciphalizgano caciŵiri ici, uyo wazamuthereska wazamuŵa uyo wazamulongozgeka na dango la 50% + 1. Cinthu cacitatu ico cikupambana comene na ici nchakuti mu cipaturo 110, cipaturo 1, 2 na 3, muli fundo yakuti mubali uyo wakwiza na munthu uyo wakwiza na iyo, ndiyo waŵenge na udindo. Ivi vikapangiska kuti pulezidenti na vice president ŵasankhike mwadango waka pa thikiti limoza, mwakupambana na umo vikaŵira kumanyuma apo pulezidenti uyo wakasankhika wakimikanga na kuwuskapo vice president mwadango wa executive. Paumaliro, kusintha kwachinayi kukaŵa mu Article 100 Section 1 (j) uko kukukhumba kuti munthu uyo wakukhumba kuŵa pulezidenti walongore kuti wali na ŵanthu ŵakukwana 100 mu vigaŵa vyose 10 kuti wapokere mavoti ku Electoral Commission of Zambia. Mu chaka cha 2020, Lungu wakayezga kusintha dango la chalo kuti lizomerezge pulezidenti kusintha malango gha visankho na kuwusa ndalama za Zambia. Ndipouli, Bill 10 wakakanika cifukwa Wupu wa Malamulo wa ku Zambia wakatondeka kuvotera na mavoti gha vigaŵa viŵiri pa viŵiri.[9]

Mndandanda wa awo ŵakugwira ntchito mu ofesi[lemba | kulemba source]

Vipani va ndale

██ United National Independence Party (UNIP) ██ Movement for Multi-Party Democracy (MMD) ██ Patriotic Front (PF) ██ United Party for National Development (UPND)

Vimanyikwiro

██ Denotes vice president acting as president § Elected unopposed

† Died in office

No. Nkhope Zina
(Birth–Death)
Kusankhika Nyengo ya kulamulila Chipani
Kutola udindo Kuuthula udindo Utali wa kulamulila

pa mpando

1 Kenneth Kaunda
(1924–2021)
1968
1973[§]
1978[§]
1983[§]
1988[§]
24 October 1964 2 November 1991 27 years, 9 days UNIP
2 Frederick Chiluba
(1943–2011)
1991
1996
2 November 1991 2 January 2002 10 years, 61 days MMD
3 Levy Mwanawasa
(1948–2008)
2001
2006
2 January 2002 19 August 2008[†] 6 years, 230 days MMD
4 Rupiah Banda
(1937–2022)
2008 19 August 2008 23 September 2011 3 years, 35 days MMD
5 Michael Sata
(1937–2014)
2011 23 September 2011 28 October 2014[†] 3 years, 35 days PF
Guy Scott
(born 1944)
28 October 2014 25 January 2015 89 days PF
6 Edgar Lungu
(born 1956)
2015
2016
25 January 2015 24 August 2021 6 years, 211 days PF
7 Hakainde Hichilema
(born 1962)
2021 24 August 2021 Incumbent 2 years, 278 days UPND

Nyengo[lemba | kulemba source]

Hakainde HichilemaEdgar LunguGuy ScottMichael SataRupiah BandaLevy MwanawasaFrederick ChilubaKenneth Kaunda

Ulamuliro wake[lemba | kulemba source]

Mndandanda Mlongozgi Nyengo ya Kulamulila
1 Kenneth Kaunda 27 years, 9 days
2 Frederick Chiluba 10 years, 61 days
3 Levy Mwanawasa 6 years, 230 days
4 Edgar Lungu 6 years, 211 days
5 Rupiah Banda 2 years, 325 days 3 years, 86 days
Rupiah Banda 126 days (Acting)
6 Michael Sata 3 years, 35 days
7 Hakainde Hichilema 2 years, 278 days
Template:Endash Guy Scott 89 days (Acting)

Wonaniso[lemba | kulemba source]

Ukaboni[lemba | kulemba source]

  1. "Presidential Emoluments (Amendment) Regulations, 2012 | Zambia Legal Information Institute". zambialii.org.
  2. Cook, Candace; Siegle, Joseph. "Circumvention of Term Limits Weakens Governance in Africa". Africa Center for Strategic Studies.
  3. "Free Rhodesia Set". The Philadelphia Inquirer. 1964-05-20. Retrieved 2021-07-27 – via Newspapers.com.
  4. Matiashe, Farai Shawn (2021-06-17). "Obituary: Zambia's Kenneth Kaunda helped liberate Southern African countries". The Africa Report.com. Retrieved 2021-07-27.
  5. "ZAMBIA". Human Rights Watch. 1996-11-18. Retrieved 2021-07-27.
  6. Chawe, Michael (2021-06-17). "Zambia's former president Kenneth Kaunda dies aged 97". The East African. Retrieved 2021-07-27.
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Guy Scott's rise to Zambia's presidency". BBC News. 2014-10-29. Retrieved 2021-07-27.
  8. Mfula, Chris (2014-10-29). "Zambia's Scott becomes Africa's first white leader in 20 years". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-07-27.
  9. Asala, Kizzi (2020-10-30). "Zambian President's Bid to Amend Constitution Fails". Africa News. Retrieved 2021-07-27.

Vigaŵa vya kuwalo[lemba | kulemba source]