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Kampani ya British South Africa

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British South Africa Company
TypePublic company
IndustryMining, colonial enterprises
PredecessorCentral Search Association and the Exploring Company Ltd
FoundedLondon, United Kingdom (1889 (1889))
FounderCecil Rhodes
Defunct1965 (1965)
FateAcquired
SuccessorCharter Consolidated Ltd
Headquarters
London
,
United Kingdom
Area served
Southern Africa
South Africa
Botswana
Rhodesia
Zambia
and their predecessor entities
ParentCharterland and General Exploration and Finance Edit this on Wikidata

Kampani ya British South Africa Company (BSAC panji BSACo) yikalembeka mu 1889 pamanyuma pa kuwungana kwa Central Search Association ya Cecil Rhodes na Exploring Company Ltd ya ku London, iyo pakwamba yikakwesananga kuti yisangirepo ndalama pa usambazi wa mashonaland kweni yikakolerana cifukwa ca kukhumba vinthu vyakuthupi. Kampani iyi yikapokera chikalata chakuzomerezgeka na boma chakuyana na cha British East India Company. Ŵalongozgi ŵake ŵakwamba ŵakaŵa The 2nd Duke of Abercorn, Rhodes mweneco, na Alfred Beit wa ku South Africa. Rhodes wakagomezganga kuti BSAC yingawovwira kuti ŵanthu ŵa mu vigaŵa vinandi vya kumwera na pakati pa Africa ŵakhalenge mwakufwasa. Ndipouli, wakadodoliskanga comene kumwera kwa Mlonga wa Zambezi, ku Mashonaland na vigaŵa vya mumphepete mwa nyanja kumafumiro gha dazi, uko wakagomezganga kuti Ŵapwitikizi ŵangaŵafumiskamo na ndalama panji nkhongono, kweniso ku Transvaal, uko wakagomezganga kuti kuwelerenge ku Britain.[1]

Ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakuti Rhodes wakakhumbanga kuti ŵanthu ŵa ku Britain ŵambe kuchita malonda kufuma ku Cape m'paka ku Cairo, kweni ivi vikaŵa vyambura machitiko. Bungwe la BSAC likaghanaghananga kuti malo gha golide gha ku Mashonaland ghapelekenge ndalama zakwendeskera vinthu mu vigaŵa vinyake vya ku Central Africa, kusazgapo malo gha Katanga. Apo chuma icho ŵakakhazganga cha Mashonaland chikamara yayi ndipo charu cha Katanga chikagura na boma la Congo Free State, kampani iyi yikaŵa na ndalama zichoko chomene zakwendeskera ntchito yakuzenga njanji, chomenechomene kumpoto kwa mlonga wa Zambezi. BSAC yikawonanga kuti malo agho ghakaŵa kumpoto kwa Mlonga wa Zambezi ghakaŵa ghapachoko chomene kuti ghazakaŵeko kunthazi.[2]

Pakuŵa chigaŵa cha boma la Southern Rhodesia m'paka mu 1923 na Northern Rhodesia m'paka mu 1924, BSAC yikapangiska ma paramilitary forces, kweni pamasinda ghakaŵa na ma police. Padera pa boma la Southern na Northern Rhodesia, BSAC yikayowoya kuti yili na malo ghanandi na malango gha migodi mu vyaru vyose viŵiri vya Rhodesia ndipo, nangauli ivyo yikayowoya vya migodi mu Southern Rhodesia vikamara mu 1918, migodi yake mu Northern Rhodesia na migodi yake mu Southern Rhodesia yikagulika mu 1924 na 1933, ndipo migodi yake mu Northern Rhodesia yikamara mu 1964. Wupu wa BSAC ukapangaso njanji za ku Rhodesia ndipo ukaŵa na njanji izi m'paka mu 1947.

Mbiri ya kampani[lemba | kulemba source]

Royal charter[lemba | kulemba source]

Chikalata cha Royal Charter of the British South Africa Company (BSAC) chikamba kugwira ntchito pa Disembala 20, 1889. Pakwamba chikaŵa cha vilimika 25, ndipo pamanyuma chikasazgikirako vyaka vinyake 10, ntheura chikaleka kugwira ntchito mu 1924.[3]

Kampani iyi yikalembeka mu Okutobala 1888, ndipo nyengo yinandi yikati yajumphapo kufuma apo Rhodes wakafikira ku London mu Malichi 1889 (pambere ŵandapeleke chikalata chake) ŵakadumbiskanapo fundo zake. Mu kudumbiskana uku, Rhodes ndiyo wakalongozganga awo ŵakadumbiskananga vya BSAC. Nangauli boma la Britain likakolerana comene na ndondomeko iyi, kweni likakhumbanga kuti iwo na mwimiliri wa ku Southern Africa uyo likamusora ndiwo ŵaŵe na mazaza pa malo ghose agho BSAC yingasanga ndiposo pa kuzomerezga panji kukana vyakucita vya BSAC. Nangauli chikalata ichi chikaŵa na fundo yakuti BSAC ndiyo yikwenera kulamulira chigaŵa chikuru cha Central Africa, kweni chikaŵa chakukhumbikwa kuti boma la Britain liŵe na wanangwa uwu. Kuyana na fundo 4 na 9, boma la Britain likenerangaso kuzomera mapangano agha na kuzomera kuti liŵe na mazaza gha kuwusa agho ŵamazaza ŵakapeleka pambere ŵandazomerezge kuti BSAC yichitenge milimo iyi.[4]

Board divisions[lemba | kulemba source]

The first board of directors of the British South Africa Company, 1889. Top Row: Horace Farquhar; Albert Grey; Alfred Beit. Middle Row: the Duke of Fife; C. J. Rhodes (Founder and managing director in South Africa); the Duke of Abercorn. Bottom Row: Lord Gifford, V.C.; Herbert Canning(Secretary); George Cawston.

Bungwe la BSAC likapangika na gulu ilo likaŵa ku London, ilo likalongozgekanga na Lord Gifford na George Cawston, ndipo likaŵa na wovwiri wa Baron Nathan de Rothschild, kweniso Rhodes na ŵantchito ŵake ŵa ku South Africa, kusazgapo Alfred Beit. Pakwamba magulu ghaŵiri agha ghakakolerananga, kweni ghakakolerana cifukwa ca kukhumba vinthu vyakuyana. Gifford na Cawston ŵakimiranga kampani yakuchemeka Bechuanaland Exploration Company. Rhodes na ŵabwezi ŵake ŵakapoka Rudd Concession kufuma kwa themba la Ndebele, Lobengula, ndipo ŵakaluta nayo ku Central Search Association (iyo pamasinda ŵakayithya United Concession Company). Kampani ya British South Africa Company yikachita lenti ku Central Search Association, ndipo yikalipanga hafu ya ndalama izo yikasanganga.[2][5]

Kufuma waka pakwamba, Gifford wakatinkhanga Rhodes, uyo wakaghanaghananga kuti wali na nkhongono zinandi mu BSAC ndipo wakamususka. Cawston wakawovwiranga Rhodes pa vinthu vya malonda pera ivyo vikaŵa vyakovwira. Ŵabali ŵanyake ŵanayi awo ŵakaŵa mu wupu wakulongozga ŵakimikika kuti ŵimilire ŵanyawo. Ŵakaronga ŵa ku Abercorn na Fife, awo ŵakaŵa pulezidenti na wachiŵiri wake, ŵakimikika kuti ŵapeleke ntchindi ku kampani iyi, kweni ŵakachitako viŵi yayi. Waliyose wa iwo wakaŵa kuti wandasambirepo vya ku Africa ndipo Fife nayo wakaŵavya ntchito. Albert Grey, uyo pamasinda wakachemeka Earl Grey, wakacitanga milimo yinonono ya kukolerana pakati pa Rhodes mu South Africa na ŵalara ŵa boma mu London. Iyo na Horace Farquhar, uyo wakaŵa banki mu London, ndiwo ŵakambiska gulu lakwamba.[6]

The Jameson Raid and after[lemba | kulemba source]

Sir Henry Loch, uyo wakaŵa mulara wa boma la kumwera kwa Africa, wakanozga vyakuti boma la Transvaal limare usange ŵanthu ŵa ku Britain ŵakwamba kuwukira boma la Johannesburg. Pakulondezga Loch kuŵa mulara wa boma kufuma mu 1895, Sir Hercules Robinson wakatora ndondomeko iyi, kweni pakaŵavya munthu wa ku Loch, Robinson, panji Ripon uyo wakacitapo kanthu kuti wawovwirepo. Joseph Chamberlain, uyo wakanjira mu malo gha Ripon mu 1895, wakamanyanga kuti Rhodes wakakhumbanga kuwukira boma, kweni wakamanyanga vinandi yayi. Rhodes na Jameson ŵakanozga vyakuti ŵawovwirepo pa kuwukira kwa Johannesburg. Earl Grey wakaŵa yekha mulongozgi wa boma wa ku London uyo wakamanyanga ivyo ŵakaghanaghananga kuchita pa nkhondo ya Jameson. Grey wakaphalira Joseph Chamberlain ivyo wakakhumbanga kucita, kweni iyo wakakana kuzomerezga.

Ŵalara ŵa BSAC ŵakazizwa comene na ivyo vikacitika. Pakwamba, Rhodes wakakana ivyo Jameson wakacita, kweni wati wapulika vinandi, wakazomera. Wupu wa BSAC ukamanya kuti kampani iyi yizamuwukirika, ndipo ukapempha Rhodes kuti wize ku London kuti wakakumane nawo. Pa ungano uwo ukacitika pa Febuluwale 5, 1896, Rhodes wakayowoya kuti wakapeleka wanangwa kwa Jameson kuti wawovwire waka kuwukira boma, kuti wambiske yayi kuwukira boma. Wakakhumbanga kufumapo pa udindo wake, kweni Cawston na Gifford ŵakakhumbanga kuti waleke. Ndipouli, pamanyuma pa mulandu wa Jameson Raiders, Rhodes wakakhwaskika comene ndipo pamanyuma pa kukakamizgika na Chamberlain, Rhodes na Beit ŵakafumiskika pa udindo wawo mu Juni 1896.

Pamanyuma pa kufumiskika kwake, Rhodes wakalutilira kuŵa na masheya ghanandi mu BSAC ndipo wakalutilira kunjilirapo mu vinthu vya kampani iyi. Mu 1898, Duke wa ku Fife na Lord Farquhar wose ŵakaleka milimo yawo; Rhodes na Beit ŵakaŵanjira m'malo ndipo munthu munyake uyo wakakolerana na Rhodes nayo wakanjira. Apo Rhodes wakambaso kuwusa kampani iyi, Cawston wakaleka. Ndipouli, Fumu Gifford yikalutilira kuŵa mu Komiti, ndipo Rhodes ndiyo wakalamuliranga m'paka apo wakafwira.[7]

After Rhodes[lemba | kulemba source]

Rhodes wakalutilira kuwusa BSAC m'paka apo wakafwira mu 1902, kweni pamanyuma pa nkhondo ya Jameson, ubwezi wa kampani iyi na ofesi ya Colonial Office ku Rhodesia ukaŵa wakusuzga, cifukwa ofesi ya Colonial Office yikakhumba yayi kuzomerezga kuti kampani iyi yikwenera kuŵika pakwamba vyakukhumba vyawo vya malonda kuluska vya boma. Rhodes wakati wafwa, ŵalara ŵa BSAC ŵakayezgayezga kuti kampani iyi yiŵe na phindu, kweni m'paka mu 1924, yikaŵa yambura phindu chifukwa chakuti ndalama izo yikagwiliskiranga ntchito zikaluskanga ndalama izo yikasanganga. Pamanyuma pa suzgo la ndalama ku Britain mu 1908, mtengo wa masheya ghake ukakhira comene: pakati pa 1908 na 1912, likati lakhala na ndalama zakukwana mapaundi 6 miliyoni, likakhumbikwiranga ndalama zakukwana mapaundi 12 miliyoni. Pakuti ndalama izo ŵakaguliskanga zikakuranga, mtengo wa masheya ukakhiranga m'paka m'ma 1920.[8]

Kwambira mu 1920, kampani iyi yikakhumbanga kuti charu cha Southern na Northern Rhodesia chiŵe mu umoza, ndipo pamanyuma ŵakamba kudumbiskana na ŵalongozgi ŵa ku South Africa. Boma la South Africa likapeleka ulongozgi uwemi kuti likagure katundu wa BSAC, ndipo likapeleka mwaŵi wakuti kampani iyi yileke kulipira ndalama zakwendeskera vinthu. Bungwe la BSAC likakhumba yayi kuti liŵe na udindo wa kwendeska vyaru vya kumpoto kwa Rhodesia para vyaru vya kumwera kwa Rhodesia vyamba kulamulira makora. Kuti ivi vicitike, boma la Britain likapangana kuti lipeleke malo ghaŵiri agha. Vyaru viŵiri ivi vikamba kudumbiskana paumaliro wa 1922, kweni pa Seputembala 29, 1923, vikazomerezgana kuti vifumiskengepo mafumbo ghose ghakukhwaskana na Southern na Northern Rhodesia.[9]

Kufuma mu 1925 m'paka apo wakafwira mu 1937, Sir Henry Birchenough, uyo wakaŵa mulara wa kampani iyi, wakaŵa pulezidenti.

Pamasinda pa 1924, BSAC yikapokera ndalama zinandi chomene kufuma ku Northern Rhodesian Copperbelt, kwamba m'ma 1920 m'paka apo boma la Zambia likamalizgira kupanga migodi. Mu m'ma 1930, BSAC yikapokanga ndalama pa mkuwa wose uwo ŵakagumanga ndipo yikaŵa na masheya ghanandi mu makampani ghakuru gha migodi. Ntheura, m'paka apo boma likamazgira kukoloneska caru, kampani iyi yikaŵa yakovwira comene pakugwiliskira nchito ndalama.[10]

Kupanga vigaŵa[lemba | kulemba source]

Rhodesia[lemba | kulemba source]

Cinthu cakwamba ico ŵakeneranga kucita pakugura caru cikaŵa kucita mapangano na mafumu gha mu caru ico. Nangauli themba la Ndebele, Lobengula, likazomera kuti lileke kukolerana na ufumu unyake kwambura kuzomerezgeka na Britain, ndipo likapeleka mwaŵi ku kampani ya BSAC kuti yivikilire migodi. Kweni likakana kupeleka mazaza ghose ku kampani ya British South Africa Company. Ndipouli, BSAC yikakhorweska ofesi ya Colonial Office kuti yikhazikiske boma ilo likulongozgeka na Louis Adendorff. Pa Meyi 9, 1891, dango la mu wupu likapharazga kuti charu ichi chiŵenge chivikiliro. Gulu la Adendorff likayezga kwambuka mlonga wa Limpopo mu Juni 1891, kweni ŵasilikari ŵa BSAC ŵakaŵachimbizga.

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Lozi ku Barotseland ŵakaŵa ufumu uwo themba lawo, Lewanika, likamba kuwusa mu 1876, kweni likathereskeka mu 1884. Wakati wawelera ku charu chake mu 1885, wakafipa mtima na nkhondo iyo yikaŵa mukati mwa charu kweniso kuti ŵanthu ŵa Ndebele ŵangamuwukira. Wakapempha François Coillard wa ku Paris Evangelical Missionary Society, uyo wakaŵa kuti wazenga ofesi ku Lozi, kuti wamovwire kulemba kalata yakupempha boma la Britain kuti limovwire. Mu Ogasiti 1889, kalata iyi yikafika ku ofesi ya Colonial Office, kweni pakaŵavya uyo wakazomera. Pambere ivi vindachitike, apo Cecil Rhodes wakayezganga kusanga chikalata cha Royal Charter cha BSAC, wakawonanga kuti Barotseland yikaŵa malo ghakwenelera kuti kampani iyi yichitirenge milimo yake kweniso yikaŵa nthowa yakunjilira ku malo gha mkuŵa gha ku Katanga. Rhodes wakatuma Frank Lochner ku Barotseland kuti wakapoke malo gha boma ndipo wakapempha boma la Britain kuti lilipire ndalama zakwendeskera malo agha. Lochner wakazomerezga fundo yakuti BSAC yikimiranga boma la Britain, ndipo pa Juni 27, 1890, Lewanika wakazomerezga kuti ŵapoke malo ghakupatulika. Ici (Lochner Concession) cikapeleka wanangwa wa kuguliska migodi ku kampani iyi mu cigaŵa cose ico Lewanika wakaŵa muwusi mu malo mwa wovwiri wa cilimika cilicose na cilayizgo ca kuvikilirika na ŵa ku Britain. Ndipouli, BSAC yikaphalira ofesi ya vyaru vinyake kuti ŵa Lozi ŵapulikira wovwiri wa Britain.[11]

Sitampu ya British South Africa Company iyo yikagwiliskirika nchito pakukhozgera ndalama izo zikafuma mwaluŵiro mu Bulawayo, ndipo yikapelekeka na Hugh Marshall Hole.

Ofesi ya vyaru vya kuwaro yikaŵa na maghanoghano ghakususkana na umo boma la Britain likaghanaghaniranga ndipo yikatondeka kuzomerezga fundo ya ku Lochner, cifukwa yikaŵapa wanangwa yayi ŵa BSAC. Ndipouli, apo ŵakadumbiskananga na boma la Portugal, ŵakayowoya kuti Barotseland yikaŵa mu cigaŵa ca Britain ndipo mu 1891 pakaŵa phangano la Anglo-Portuguese ilo likapeleka caru ca Barotse ku Britain. Lewanika wakadandawura kuti ŵakamuphalira makora yayi umo phangano ili likaŵira. Pakaŵavya Mulaŵiliri wa BSAC uyo wakatumika ku Barotseland m'paka mu 1895, ndipo Mulaŵiliri wakwamba, Forbes, uyo wakakhalapo m'paka mu 1897, wakachita vinandi yayi pakukhazikiska boma. Pakuti ofesi ya vyaru vya kuwaro yikaŵa yakusimikizga yayi kuti Lochner Concession yikapangiska kuti Barotseland yiŵe pasi pa boma la Britain panji kuti BSAC yiŵe na wanangwa wa kuwusa chigaŵa ichi, yikati ntchakukhumbikwa kuti ŵapeleke malo ghanyake. Mu 1896, ŵakazomerezga kuti munthu munyake wa BSAC wasankhike kuŵa mulara wa boma kuti waŵe na udindo uwu. Munthu wakwamba uyo wakasankhika wakafwa pambere wandambe uteŵeti wake, kweni mu Okutobala 1897, Robert Coryndon wakafika ku Barotseland nga ni Commissioner. Coryndon, uyo wakaŵa mulembi wa Cecil Rhodes kweniso wakaŵa mu gulu la ŵapayiniya, wakimikika na BSAC, ndipo wakimikika na mulara wa boma la South Africa. Pakuŵa Mulara wa boma, Coryndon wakapharazga kuti Barotseland ni malo ghakulongozgeka na Britain. Kweniso Coryndon wakasimikizgira kuti BSAC yikaŵavya wanangwa wa kupeleka malo ku boma. Mu 1897, Lewanika wakalemba phangano liphya (Coryndon Concession) ilo likapeleka wanangwa ku BSAC wa kupeleka malo na kukhazikiska malango pamoza na makhoti gha themba. Pamanyuma, mu 1900, Lewanika wakalemba phangano linyake, (Barotse Concession), ilo likamazga nkhani zinyake izo zikaŵa zakususkana na ivyo ŵakayowoya kale.

Kufika mu 1899, Northern Rhodesia iyo yikaŵa kuwaro kwa Barotseland yikalongozgekanga mwakuyana na dango ilo likapelekeka pa Meyi 9, 1891. Pambere chaka cha 1911 chindafike, charu cha Northern Rhodesia chikaŵa na vigaŵa viŵiri, North-Western Rhodesia na North-Eastern Rhodesia. Chigaŵa chakwambilira chikazomerezgeka kuŵa chigaŵa cha Britain na Barotseland na North-Western Rhodesia Order-in-Council mu 1899 ndipo chigaŵa chakumafumiro gha dazi cha Rhodesia Order-in-Council mu 1900. Malango ghaŵiri agha ghakaŵa ghakovwira kuti ŵalaŵiliri ŵa BSAC ŵalutilire kuŵa ŵamahara. Mu North-Western Rhodesia Mulara wakwamba wakasankhika ku Barotseland mu 1897, ndipo wakazgoka Mulara wa North-Western Rhodesia yose mu 1900.[12][13]

Other areas[lemba | kulemba source]

IMu 1890, Alfred Sharpe wakaluta ku caru ca Katanga. Wakacita waka mapangano na ŵalongozgi ŵa ku North-Eastern Rhodesia, ndipo ŵanji ŵakati ivyo vikaŵa mu mapangano agha vikaŵa vyautesi. Katanga wakazgoka chigaŵa cha Congo Free State. Mphaka pakati pa charu cha Congo na Britain yikakhazikiskika mu 1894. Pamasinda pa phangano ili ndipo mu 1895, boma la Rhodesia likimika Mulara wa kumpoto na kumafumiro gha dazi.

Bungwe la British South Africa Company likaghanaghanirangaso vya kupoka malo gha Bechuanaland Protectorate na Nyasaland, agho pakwamba ghakachemekanga British Central Africa Protectorate. Mu 1889, kampani iyi yikadumbiskana umo yingachitira kuti yikore boma la Bechuanaland, ilo likaŵa kale pasi pa Britain, kweniso kuti yikateŵetere lumoza na African Lakes Company iyo yikachitanga ntchito mu Nyasaland. Pa Okutobala 29, 1889, dango la ufumu likapeleka wanangwa wakuti ŵapolisi ŵa British South Africa Company ŵakhazikike. Mu nyengo iyi, BSAC yikapoka yayi boma la Bechuanaland, kweni mu 1892 yikapoka ndalama za Bechuanaland Border Police, iyo mu 1896 yikasazgikana na British South Africa Police. Pa 1 Apr 1896 Bechuanaland Border Police yikasintha zina kuŵa Bechuanaland Mounted Police (BMP).

Mu 1880, kampani ya African Lakes Company yikayezga kuti yiŵe ya Chartered Company, ndipo mu 1889, Rhodes wakadumbiskana umo yingachitira kuti yikoleranenge na BSAC. Ndipouli, ofesi ya vyaru vinyake yikati kampani ya African Lakes Company njambura kwenelera kuwusa chigaŵa chilichose, ndipo mu 1890, BSAC yikakhumba kuwusa kampani iyi m'malo mwa kuwungana nayo. Ŵalara ŵa Lakes Company ŵakakana, kweni mu 1893 ŵakaŵafumiskapo. Mu 1891, boma la Britain la ku Central Africa likapharazga kuti boma la Britain lipelekenge ndalama zakwendeskera ntchito ya boma ili. Ndipouli, mulara wake, Harry Johnson, wakakana kuŵa mulara wa BSAC, comenecomene apo Rhodes wakakhumbanga kuti malo ghose gha Ufumu ghapelekeke ku BSAC na kuti Johnson wawovwire kuti malo gha mu Africa ghapelekekeso kwa iyo.[14]

Dispute with Portugal[lemba | kulemba source]

Kukwambilira kwa vyaka vya m'ma 1800, boma la Portugal likaŵa na vipata viŵiri, cha Mozambique Island, Ibo, Quelimane, Sofala, Inhambane, na Lourenço Marques. Nangauli charu cha Portugal chikayowoya kuti chili na mazaza pa Angoche na matawuni ghanyake ghacibisibisi gha Ŵasilamu agho ghakaŵa mumphepete mwa nyanja. Ku chigaŵa cha Zambezi, Portugal nayo wakambiska ndondomeko ya Prazo ya malo ghakurughakuru agho ghakaŵa pasi pa boma la Portugal. Kuumaliro wa vyaka vya m'ma 1800, malo agha ghakaŵa mu madambo gha Mlonga wa Zambezi na Shire, ndipo ghakaŵa pasi pa mawoko gha mbumba zichoko waka izo zikayowoyanga kuti ni ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal. Mu vigaŵa ivyo sono vili kumwera na pakati pa Mozambique, Ŵapwitikizi ŵakaŵavya mazaza. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal ŵakamba kuŵa na ndalama zinandi comene mu ma 1830 na 1840, apo Lourenço Marques wakacimbizgika mu 1833 na Sofala mu 1835; Zumbo wakalekeka mu 1836; ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal awo ŵakakhalanga kufupi na Vila de Sena ŵakacicizgika kupeleka msonkho ku ufumu wa Gaza, ndipo Angoche wakathereska ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal awo ŵakakhumbanga kumukanizga kuguliska ŵazga mu 1847. Ndipouli, mu 1840, boma la Portugal likambiska nkhondo zinandi kuti liwuske ŵanthu ŵa ku Prazos na matawuni ghanyake gha ku Muslim agho ghakaŵa mumphepete mwa nyanja.

Pa ungano wa ku Berlin uwo ukacitika pa Febuluwale 26, 1885, dango lakuti ŵanthu ŵaŵikenge vinthu mu mawoko ghawo likapweteka comene Ŵapwitikizi. Ndime 34 yikayowoya kuti boma ilo likukhumba kutora malo agho ghakaŵa kutali na mphaka zake, likwenera kuphalira ŵanyawo kuti ŵaleke kugomezga. Ndime 35 ya Dango ili yikati wanangwa ungapelekeka pa malo agho ghakaŵa ghambura kukoloneskeka usange boma ilo likukhumba wanangwa uwu lili na mazaza ghakukwana kuvikilira wanangwa uwo ulipo na wanangwa wa malonda. Kanandi ici cikang'anamuranga kucita mapangano na ŵalongozgi ŵa cigaŵa, kupanga maboma, na kupoka mazaza gha ŵapolisi. Pakwamba, Portugal yikati phangano la Berlin likugwira nchito yayi, ndipo yikeneranga yayi kupeleka vyeruzgo panji kukanizga kuti caru ici ciŵe mu mawoko gha ŵasilikari ŵa Mozambique. Ndipouli, ŵalara ŵa boma la Britain ŵakakolerana nayo yayi fundo iyi.

"Pali malo agho iye (England) wangacitako milimo yake mu South Africa, ndipo pali cijaro cilicose ico cikumukanizga. Nakuti tikunena za cigaŵa ico cikaŵa pasi pa muwuso wa Portugal. Mbunenesko kuti pa nyengo yasono fundo iyi njambura kupulikikwa. Charu cha Portugal chikaŵa na mazaza pa vyaru vinyake. Kuyowoya za vyaru ivyo vikaŵa na Ŵapwitikizi mu vyaru vya kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Africa, nkhung'anamura waka vinthu vyautesi ivyo vikuwoneka kuti ni vyautesi.

Mu 1884, Joaquim Carlos Paiva de Andrada wakapika mulimo wakuti wakhazikiske charu cha Mozambique, ndipo wakacitanga milimo yinandi mu vigaŵa vinayi. Chakwamba, mu 1884 wakambiska tawuni ya Beira na kupoka chigaŵa chikuru cha Sofala. Caciŵiri, mu 1884, wakapoka malo agho ghakaŵa pa mtunda wa makilomita 180 kufuma ku Zumbo, agho ghakaŵa kuti ghazengekaso ndipo kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa malo agha, mbumba za ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal zikaguliskanga na kukhazikika kwambira mu ma 1860. Nangauli Andrada wakambiska yayi boma nyengo yeneyiyo, kweni mu 1889, ŵakakhazikiska malo ghanyake uko mlonga wa Zambezi na wa Kafue ukukumana. Cacitatu, mu 1889, Andrada wakapika malo ghanyake pa malo gha Manica, agho ghakaŵa mu vigaŵa vyose viŵiri vya chigaŵa ca Manica ku Mozambique na Manicaland ku Zimbabwe. Andrada wakawoneseska kuti malo ghanandi gha mu charu ichi ghaŵe pa mtende ndipo wakambiska boma, kweni mu Novembala 1890 ŵasilikari ŵa British South Africa Company ŵakamukora na kumuchimbizga. Paumaliro, mu 1889, Andrada wakajumpha kumpoto kwa Mashonaland, pafupifupi chigaŵa cha Mashonaland Central Province ku Zimbabwe, ndipo wakachita mapangano. Wakaleka kuphalira boma la Portugal za phangano ili, ntheura ivyo likayowoya vikamanyikwa yayi ku maboma ghanyake, nga umo phangano la Berlin likayowoyera. Boma la Britain likakana kupeleka milandu yose iyo yikususkana na ivyo boma la Britain likukhumba, ndipo pa Janyuwale 11, 1890, Fumu Salisbury yikatuma Ultimatum ku boma la Portugal.[15]

Fixing boundaries[lemba | kulemba source]

Cigaŵa caumaliro ca kupoka caru cikaŵa ca kupanga mapangano na maufumu ghanyake gha ku Europe. Phangano la Britain na Portugal la mu 1891 likaŵa phangano ilo likalembeka mu Lisbon pa Juni 11, 1891 pakati pa United Kingdom na Portugal. Chikaŵa na mphaka pakati pa vigaŵa ivyo vikalongozgekanga na kampani ya British South Africa Company ku Mashonaland na Matabeleland, ivyo sono ni vigaŵa vya Zimbabwe, na North-Eastern Rhodesia (iyo sono ni vigaŵa vya Zambia) na Mozambique. Chikagaŵa chigaŵa cha kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa charu cha Manica na kupeleka ku British South Africa Company. Chikaŵaso mphaka pakati pa chigaŵa cha kumpoto cha Rhodesia (sono ni Zambia) icho chikaŵa pasi pa boma la BSAC na Angola. Mphaka ya kumpoto ya vigaŵa vya Britain yikakolerana mu 1890. Mphaka pakati pa British Central Africa Protectorate na British South Africa Company mu malo agho sono ni Zambia yikakhazikiskika mu 1891 pa malo agho pakaŵa nyanja ya Malawi na mlonga wa Luangwa.[16]

Early administration[lemba | kulemba source]

Fundo za mapangano agho ghakapangiska vyaru vyakupambanapambana kumpoto panji kumwera kwa Mlonga wa Zambezi, zikapeleka mazaza ghakuru ku ŵanthu awo ŵakavilembanga. Nangauli vikaŵa nthena, kweni kampani ya British South Africa Company yikamazga mazaza gha ŵamazaza ŵa ku South Africa kwizira mu nkhondo, panji yikaŵawovwira kuti ŵaleke kulamulira. Kuumaliro wa vyaka 10 vyakwambilira vya m'ma 1900, mafumu agho ghakaŵa kuti ghacalipo ghakaŵa ghacilendo.

Bungwe la BSAC likimika Mulara wa Mashonaland, uyo wakaŵa na mulimo wakuyana na wa kazembe wa vigaŵa, ndipo pamasinda wakaŵika ŵantchito ŵakulongozga vigaŵa. Mulara wakwamba, A. R. Colquhoun, wakasankhika mu Okutobala 1890, pamanyuma pakuti ŵapayiniya ŵafika ku Fort Salisbury. Pakwamba, boma la Britain likakana kuzomerezga Colquhoun, ndipo likaŵika kazembe wa ku Bechuanaland kuti ndiyo walaŵilirenge malo agha. Mu Julayi 1891, kazembe wakapa mazaza Mulara wa Boma mwa kumwimika kuŵa Mulara wa Khoti. Mulara wa boma, pakuŵa mulara wa boma, wakasora ŵantchito awo ŵakalongozganga vinthu mu vigaŵa vyakupambanapambana vya Mashonaland. Ndipouli, mu nyengo ya Colquhoun na Leander Starr Jameson uyo wakamusankhira mu Ogasiti 1891, pakaŵa ŵantchito ŵambura kukwana 20, ŵanandi ŵakaŵa ŵambura kumanya vinandi. Pakuti kanandi mulara uyu wakakhalanga ku Cape Town, mulara munyake wakimikika kuti wamuyimire ku Rhodesia. Ŵalara ŵa BSAC ŵakwambilira ŵakaŵa na maudindo ghaŵiri. Mu 1894, boma la Britain likimika kampani ya British South Africa Company kuti ndiyo yilongozgenge caru ico pa nyengo iyi cikacemekanga Rhodesia. Mu 1898, ku Southern Rhodesia kukaŵaso wupu wakuwona vya malango uwo ukalongozganga ŵalara ŵa boma na ŵalara ŵa boma pa nkhani za malango.

Pambere chaka cha 1901 chindafike, boma la kumpoto kwa Mlonga wa Zambezi likaŵa lakwamba waka. Mu Northern-Eastern Rhodesia, Abercorn na Fife vikaŵa vyalo vyakukhora ndipo Mulara wa Northern-Eastern Rhodesia wakakhalanga mu Blantyre mu British Central Africa Protectorate mpaka apo Fort Jameson yikakhazikiskikira mu 1899 nga ni likuru lake. Ku Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia, kukaŵavya ofesi ya munthavi m'paka mu 1901.[17]

Ndondomeko za vyaru[lemba | kulemba source]

Southern Rhodesia[lemba | kulemba source]

Ŵapayiniya ŵakati ŵanjira mu Southern Rhodesia, kampani ya British South Africa Company ndiyo yikamba kupenja malo gha ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe. Boma la Matabele likamara, ndipo ŵanthu ŵakamba kuŵa na malo ghawo na ghawo. Jameson, uyo wakazgoka Mulara wa Mashonaland mu 1891, ndiyo wakimikika na Rhodes ndipo wakafiska ivyo wakaghanaghananga kuti ni mapulani gha Rhodes kwambura kulaŵilirika na Rhodes kweniso na BSAC Board ku London. Jameson wakapeleka malo ghanandi comene pakati pa 1891 na 1893 kweni wakaweleramo viŵi yayi. Ndondomeko iyi yikakhuŵazga ŵanthu awo ŵakakhalanga mu malo agha, awo ŵakaguranga malo gha mtengo wapatali.

Pakuti malango gha ku England ghakaŵanga ku Southern na Northern Rhodesia, malo ghose agho ghakaŵa kuti ghandapelekeke ku ŵanji ghakeneranga kuŵa gha Ufumu. Ndipouli, mu vigaŵa vyose viŵiri ivi, BSAC yikayowoya kuti yikaŵa na malo agho ghakaŵa ghekha yayi, panji chifukwa chakuti yikaŵa iyo yayi, panji chifukwa cha ivyo yikachita. Kweniso likati lili na wanangwa wa kupoka malo agha. Mu 1890 na 1891, ofesi ya Colonial Office na High Commissioner ŵakazomera kuti BSAC yili kupokera malo mu Mashonaland. Pamanyuma pa nkhondo za ku Matebele, mu 1894 kampani iyi yikayowoya kuti yili na wanangwa wa kusora malo ghose gha ku Matebeleland, chifukwa Themba la Ndebele, Lobengula ndilo likaŵa na malo agha. Ofesi ya Colonial Office yikasuska, kweni yikati yikukhumba kuti BSAC yipeleke malo ghakukwana ku ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa.

Mu 1894, ŵakapanga komiti ya vyaru kuti yikweruzge umo ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ŵakakhalanga mu charu ichi. Komiti iyi yikati malo ghaŵiri ghakuru ghaŵikeko ŵanthu ŵa ku Matabeleland, agho ni malo gha Shangani na Gwaai. Pambere Ŵaciyurope ŵandafike, ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ŵakaŵa na malo pafupifupi maekala 100,000,000 mu caru ico sono cikucemeka Southern Rhodesia. Ndondomeko ya Komiti ya Vyaru yikaŵa yiheni comene, ndipo ŵanthu ŵakamanyanga makora yayi umo ŵangapelekera malo agha. Cifukwa cimoza ico cikacitiska kuti ŵanthu ŵa ku Matabele na Mashona ŵagaluke mu 1896 nchakuti ŵakatondeka kupeleka malo ghakwenelera ku ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa. Pamanyuma pa kugaluka uku, BSAC yikakhumbikwiranga kupeleka malo ghakukwana ku ŵanthu ŵa ku Southern Rhodesia ku Africa kuti ŵakondweske vyakurya na viŵeto vyawo, kusazgapo maji. Mu 1902, malo agha ghakaŵa na ŵanthu 530,000. Nangauli pamasinda vinthu vikasintha, kweni ndondomeko ya kugaŵa malo yikalutilira m'paka apo charu chikapokera wanangwa. Ŵalaraŵalara ŵa ku Europe awo ŵakaŵa na mulimo wa kunozga malo agha ŵakaphalirika kuti mbumba yiliyose yiŵe na malo ghakukwana 9 m'paka 15 ekala gha malo gha kulima, kweniso malo ghakukwana ghakuliskako viŵeto. Mu 1910, Komiti Yakusanda Nkhani za Ŵanthu Ŵakufuma ku Vyaru Vinyake yikapangika, ndipo yikasintha vinthu vicoko comene. Komiti iyi yikapeleka malo ghakukwana maekalamu 19 miliyoni ku ŵa ku Europe na maekalamu 21.4 miliyoni ku malo ghakusungirako ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa. Malo ghanyake ghakukwana makilomita ghakujumpha 500,000 ghakaŵa ghambura kupelekeka ku ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe.[18]

Mu 1918, Komiti ya vya Malango ya ku Britain yikadumura kuti nangauli kampani ya British South Africa Company yikapoka charu cha Mashonaland na Matabeleland, kweni yikaŵa thenga la ufumu wa Britain. Khoti likamanya kuti ŵanthu ŵakwambilira ŵa ku Southern Rhodesia ndiwo ŵakaŵa na malo agha, kweni ŵakaleka kughaŵa chifukwa cha kuwukira kwa BSAC. Ndipouli, nanga ni apo khoti likadumura kuti boma la Britain lileke kugwiliskira ntchito malo agha, boma la Britain likazomerezga kuti BSAC yilutilire kulamulira malo agha. Mu 1923, boma la Britain likakolerana kuti lipeleke ndalama zinyake pa ndalama izi, kweni ilo likapeleka ndalama zinyake ku Southern Rhodesia.

Mu 1920, malo ghanyake ghakaŵa ghacoko comene ndipo ghakaŵa na malo ghakukhala ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ghakukwana 83. Pa malo agha, pafupifupi maekala 3 miliyoni ghakaŵa ghambura kunozgekera kulima. Mu 1925, boma la BSAC likati lamara kuwusa, likazomerezga kuti ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe na ŵa ku Africa ŵapatukeko ku vyaru vinyake.[19]

Northern Rhodesia[lemba | kulemba source]

Ku Northern Rhodesia, gulu la BSAC likayowoya kuti ndilo lili na malo ghose agho ghakaŵa mu chigaŵa ichi. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakakhalanga mu vigaŵa vya mumphepete mwa njanji na kufupi na matawuni, kweni ŵakasoŵanga malo yayi chifukwa ŵanthu ŵakakhalanga pachoko kuluska ku Southern Rhodesia. Mu 1913, BSAC yikanozga vyakuti mu Southern Rhodesia muŵe malo ghakusungirako ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha.

Ivyo khoti likadumura pa nkhani ya Southern Rhodesia vikawuska mafumbo ghakukhwaskana na ivyo BSAC yikayowoya vya malo agho ghakaŵa kumpoto kwa Mlonga wa Zambezi. Ndipouli, ivyo kampani iyi yikakhumbanga ku Northern Rhodesia vikajintha pa vinthu ivyo yikapika m'malo mwa kuwina, ndipo nangauli komiti ya ku parliament mu 1921 yikayowoya kuti ivyo yikakhumbanga vipelekekeso ku Privy Council, boma la Britain likakhumbanga kuti ŵadumbiskane umo ŵangamazgira suzgo ili. Ivi vikalongora kuti fundo ya kampani iyi njaunenesko. Kuyana na phangano ilo likachitika pa Seputembala 29, 1923, boma la Northern Rhodesia likamba kulamulira malo ghose agho ghakaŵa pasi pa BSAC kwambira pa Epulero 1, 1924, ndipo likapelekanga hafu ya ndalama izo kampani iyi yikaguliskanga.[20]

Railways[lemba | kulemba source]

Railway policies[lemba | kulemba source]

Kampani ya British South Africa Company ndiyo yikazenga njanji ya ku Rhodesia mu nyengo ya kuzenga iyo yikamara mu 1911, apo msewu ukuru uwo ukajumphanga ku Northern Rhodesia ukafika ku mphaka ya Congo na migodi ya mkuwa ya Katanga. Pakwamba, Rhodes wakakhumbanga kupanga njanji iyo yikendenge kufuma ku Zambesi m'paka ku Nyanja ya Tanganyika. Rhodes wakaŵa munthu wa mtima wakuwona patali, ndipo wakati wasanga golide mucoko comene mu Mashonaland, wakazomera kuti nanga ni ndondomeko yakufika ku Nyanja ya Tanganyika yikaŵa ya cuma cara. Masitima agho ghakazengeka na makampani gha ŵekha kwambura wovwiri wa boma ghakukhumbikwira magalimoto ghanandi kuti ghapelekenge ndalama zinandi. Vyakumera ivyo vikawovwira kuti chuma cha Rhodesia chikure makora vikatondeka kupeleka ndalama izi. Masitima ghanandi ghakwambilira gha mu Africa ghakazengeka na boma la Britain m'malo mwa makampani gha Chartered. Chifukwa cha kukhumba kusanga ndalama na kupeleka njombe, makampani ghanandi ghakaleka kugwiliskira ntchito vinthu ivi. Ndipouli, mu nyengo yakwambilira ya kuzenga njanji, BSAC yikapokera ndalama kufuma ku makampani gha ku South Africa, kusazgapo Consolidated Gold Fields na De Beers. Kweniso BSAC yikapokerapo candulo na vinthu vinandi ivyo Rhodes na Beit ŵakaŵa navyo pambere ŵandafwe.[21][22]

Development of routes[lemba | kulemba source]

Fumu Gifford na kampani yake ya Bechuanaland Exploring Company ŵakasanga wanangwa wa kuzenga njanji yapadera kumpoto kufuma ku chipata cha Cape Government Railways ku Kimberley kuya ku Bechuanaland mu 1888. Pakwamba, Rhodes wakakananga, cifukwa cakuti Gifford wakaŵa wakususka, kweniso cifukwa ca ndyali za ku Cape. Ndipouli, apo boma la Rhodes na la Gifford likakolerana, BSAC yikeneranga kuchita mulimo uwu kuti yiŵe na chikalata. Rhodes wakalayizga kuti BSAC yizamupeleka ndalama zakukwana £500,000 pakuzenga njanji kujumpha mu Bechuanaland. Sitima iyi yikafika ku Vryburg mu 1890, ndipo yikakhala kwenekura m'paka mu 1893 chifukwa cha suzgo la ndalama ilo BSAC yikaŵa nalo. BSAC yikalutilira kuŵa maso pakuzenga njanji m'paka mu 1896, apo ŵanthu ŵa ku Africa ŵakamba kuwukira boma la Rhodesia.

Mu 1897, msewu uwu ukafika ku Bulawayo kufuma ku Kimberley, ndipo mu 1902 ukafika ku Salisbury. Pa nyengo iyi, ku Southern Rhodesia kukaŵa kale njanji iyo yikalutanga ku dowoko la Beira ku Mozambique. Iyi yikamara kuzengeka na Beira Railway Company, kampani ya BSAC, nga ni njanji yakufika ku Umtali mu 1898. Mu caka cakulondezgapo, ŵakamalizga kupanga msewu kufuma ku Salisbury kuya ku Umtali uwo, nga ni msewu wa Kimberley kuya ku Bulawayo, ukaŵa na mtunda wa mamita 3.6. Chigaŵa cha Umtali na Beira chikasazgikira mu 1899 na 1900. Ŵakapeleka ulongozgi uwu pambere ŵanthu ŵandamanye umo vyaru vya Rhodesia vingaŵira na ndalama zinandi. Vinthu vya golide ivyo vikaŵa ku Rhodesia vikaŵa vyakukhuŵazga yayi, ndipo malasha gha ku Wankie ndigho ghakamba kupeleka ndalama zakwendeskera njanji kumpoto. Ŵakati ŵamanya kuti ku Wankie kuli malasha ghanandi, mu 1903, ŵakazenga munthavi unyake uwo ukafumanga ku Bulawayo na kuluta ku Wankie.[22][23]

Kufuma apo, ŵakafika ku Broken Hill, uko ŵakafika mu 1906. Wupu wa BSAC ukaŵasimikizgira kuti mu migodi yawo muzamwenda ŵanthu ŵanandi, kweni ivi vikachitika yayi chifukwa cha suzgo la migodi. Njanji iyi yikatondekanga kulipira ngongoli izo ŵakagulira, ndipo kampani iyi yikaŵa na masuzgo ghakuru gha ndalama. Malo ghekha agho ghangaŵa na migodi yinandi kuti ghapeleke ngongoli iyi ni Katanga. Pakwamba, boma la Congo likawona kuti mkuŵa uwo ukaŵa ku Katanga ukaŵa wambura kukhumbikwa pakuzenga njanji. Kweni pakati pa 1899 na 1901, ŵanthu ŵakaluta ku malo ghanyake kukawona kuti mkuŵa uwu ngwakuzirwa. Vinthu vya mkuwa ivyo vikasangika ku Northern Rhodesia pambere Nkhondo Yakwamba ya Caru Cose yindize vikaŵa vyambura kovwira.

Mu 1906, ŵakazenga wupu wakuchemeka Union Minière du Haut Katanga. Themba Leopold likakhumbanga kuti njanji yijumphe mu vigaŵa vyose vya Congo. Kweniso ŵakakhumbanga kuti paŵe njanji ya ku Angola kufuma ku Lobito Bay kuluta ku Katanga, kweni mu 1908, BSAC yikakolerana na Leopold kuti njanji ya ku Rhodesia yilutilire kuluta ku Elizabethville na migodi. Pakati pa 1912, apo mulimo wa kupanga mkuŵa ukambira, na 1928 apo mulimo wa ku Congo ukamara, pafupifupi mkuŵa wose wa ku Katanga ukatolekera ku Beira. Nanga ni apo nthowa ya ku Congo yikaŵa kuti yajulika, mkuwa wa Katanga pafupifupi chigaŵa chimoza pa vigaŵa vitatu ukafikanga ku Beira, ndipo malasha na coke ivyo vikaŵa mu mgodi uwu vikafumanga ku Wankie, uko kukaŵa kwakudura comene. Njanji iyi yikapokeranga ndalama zinandi kufuma ku Katanga, ndipo yikaŵa yakwenelera kwendeska vyakurya pa mtengo wapasi. Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1920, charu cha Copperbelt chikamba kukura chomene. Nthowa iyi yikaŵa yakusuzga yayi cifukwa cakuti ŵakeneranga kuzenga tumaji tuchokotuchoko waka kuti ŵakumane na msewu ukuru. Msewu wa ku Beira ukaŵa wakukhora ndipo BSAC yikakhumbanga kuti yikanizge makampani gha Copperbelt kugwiliskira ntchito nthowa zinyake izo yikaleka kuzilamulira. Njanji ya Benguela kuya ku Angola, iyo yikamara kuzengeka mu 1931, yikaŵa nthowa yifupi comene yakuyegha mkuŵa kufuma ku Katanga na Northern Rhodesia, kweni yikaŵa kuti yindagwiliskike nchito cifukwa cakuti vyaru vya ku Congo na Rhodesia vikaŵa na nthowa zawo.

Apo boma la BSAC likamalizganga ntchito yake ku Rhodesia, ofesi ya Colonial Secretary na kampani iyi ŵakakolerana pa Seputembala 29, 1923, kuti BSAC yikwenera kuvikilirika chifukwa cha ndalama izo yikagwiliskiranga ntchito pa njanji ku Northern na Southern Rhodesia. Phangano ili likati maboma gha vigaŵa vyose ghapeleke ku Secretary of the Colonies malango ghose agho ghangazomerezga kuzenga misewu yiphya panji kusintha mitengo iyo misewu iyo yikaŵapo kale yikapelekanga. Ici cikapangiska kuti ŵamazaza ŵa kumpoto panji kumwera kwa Rhodesia ŵaleke kwambiska mpikisano panji kuyuzga njanji izo zikendeskeka na BSAC kuti zichepeske mitengo kwambura kuzomerezgeka na boma la Britain.[24]

Railways and the settlers[lemba | kulemba source]

Ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe ŵakasuskanga chomene fundo ziŵiri za kampani ya British South Africa. Chakwamba, fundo izo ŵakagwiliskiranga ntchito pakovwira kampani iyi na ŵeneko ŵa masheya, ndipo chachiŵiri, awo ŵakakhalanga mu malo agha ŵakagwiliskiranga ntchito masheya ghakurughakuru. Nangauli ivyo ŵakayowoya vikaŵa vyambura kupulikikwa, kweni vikapangiska kuti paŵe mphindano pakati pa ŵakukhazikika na BSAC. Pa msewu wakufupi wa kumafumiro gha dazi kufuma ku Beira, ndalama izo ŵakagwiliskiranga nchito zikaŵa zinandi cifukwa ca ngongoli izo ŵakaŵa nazo pakuzenga na cifukwa cakuti kampani ya Mozambique, iyo yikapokera wanangwa wakwamba wa kuzenga njanji iyi mu 1891, yikakhomeska. Kwambira mu 1914, ŵanthu ŵa ku Europe awo ŵakakhalanga ku malo agha ndiwo ŵakaŵa na mazaza ghanandi mu wupu uwu, ndipo ŵakakhumbanga kuti maboma gha boma gha BSAC ghaleke kulamulira njanji. Mu 1923, boma likaŵa na mazaza pa vinthu, kweni likati laŵikamo boma, boma likagwiliskira ntchito dango la Railways Act la 1926. Ivi vikapangiska kuti BSAC ndiyo waŵe mweneko wa masitima agha, agho ghakachemekanga Beira and Mashonaland and Rhodesia Railways m'paka mu 1927, ndipo pamanyuma pake Rhodesia Railways Limited. Ivi ndivyo vikachitika m'paka mu 1947, apo boma la Southern Rhodesia likagura katundu wa Rhodesia Railways Limited.[25]

Commercial activities[lemba | kulemba source]

Early trading[lemba | kulemba source]

The company was empowered to trade with African rulers such as King Lobengula; to form banks; to own, manage and grant or distribute land, and to raise a police force (the British South Africa Police). In return, the company agreed to develop the territory it controlled, to respect existing African laws, to allow free trade within its territory and to respect all religions. Rhodes and the white settlers attracted to the company's territory set their sights for ever more mineral rights and more territorial concessions from the African peoples, establishing their own governments, and introducing laws with little concern or respect for African laws. The BSAC was not able to generate enough profit to pay its shareholders dividends until after it lost direct administrative control over Rhodesia in 1923.

Africa from Cairo to the Cape (according to Cecil Rhodes)

Mining[lemba | kulemba source]

BSAC claims[lemba | kulemba source]

Initially, the British South Africa Company claimed mineral rights in both Northern and Southern Rhodesia. During the period of its Charter, the BSAC was not involved in mining directly, but received mineral royalties and held shares in mining companies. Often the main source of income of these companies was not in mining itself but in speculation markets.[26] In Moshanaland, complaints arose at the delay of development of mines in order to fuel speculation profits further.[27]

In 1923, the British government agreed that it would take over the administration of both Southern and Northern Rhodesia from BSAC. The Agreement for Southern Rhodesia provided that the company's mineral rights there should be granted protection, and any Bill under which the Southern Rhodesian legislature proposed to alter arrangements for collecting mining revenues or imposing any new tax or duty on minerals would require British government. The same condition applied to any Northern Rhodesian legislation.[28] In 1933, the company sold its mineral exploration rights south of the Zambezi to the Southern Rhodesian government, but retained its rights in Northern Rhodesian mineral rights, as well as its interests in mining, railways, real estate and agriculture across southern Africa.[29]

BSAC claimed to own mineral rights over the whole of Northern Rhodesia under one series of concessions granted between 1890 and 1910 by Lewanika covering a poorly defined area of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia, and under a second series negotiated by Joseph Thomson and Alfred Sharpe in 1890 and 1891 with local chiefs covering a disputed area of North-Eastern Rhodesia. This claim was accepted by the British Government.[30] After the Charter ended, BSAC joined a group of nine South African and British companies which financed the development of Nchanga Mines, to prevent them falling under US control. However, its main concern was to receive royalties.[31]

Ancient surface copper workings were known at Kansanshi (near Solwezi), Bwana Mkubwa and Luanshya, all on what later became known as the Copperbelt, and BSAC exploration in the 1890s indicated there were significant deposits in the area. However, they could not be commercially exploited until a railway had been built. A railway bridge across the Zambezi was constructed in 1903 and the line was continued northward, reaching Broken Hill in 1906, where the lead and zinc vanadium mine was opened, and reaching the Belgian Congo border in 1909. At that time, mining had started in Katanga, where rich copper oxide ores occurred near the surface. In Northern Rhodesia, the surface ores were of poorer quality, and copper was only worked intermittently at Bwana Mkubwa, until in 1924 rich copper sulphide ores were discovered about 100 feet below the surface.[32]

In 1922, the Southern Rhodesian voters rejected the option of inclusion in the Union of South Africa and opted for responsible government: the Northern Rhodesian settlers were not consulted. The BSAC wanted to give up responsibility for administering Northern Rhodesia, but to preserve its mining and land rights by negotiating a settlement with the British government for both parts of Rhodesia. For Northern Rhodesia, the most important provision of that agreement was that the Crown would recognise that BSAC was the owner of the mineral rights acquired under the concessions obtained from Lewanika in North Western Rhodesia Certificates of Claim issued by Harry Johnston in North Eastern Rhodesia.[33]

Under the Northern Rhodesian settlement, the company dropped its claim for reimbursement of a £l.6 million administrative deficit: in return the British Government agreed to give the BSAC half the net revenue from certain rents and land sales and recognised (or appeared to recognise) the company as the owner of Northern Rhodesia's mineral rights in perpetuity. The British Government could have bought out these rights by paying BSAC £l.6 million to meet its reimbursement claim, but declined to make the money available. This agreement was criticised then and later time by both African and European inhabitants of the territory. The elected unofficial members of the Legislative Council pressed for the royalties issue to be referred to the Privy Council, as the BSAC's title to unalienated land in Southern Rhodesia had been. Instead, for forty years up to Zambian independence, successive British Governments recognised the BSAC as owner of all underground minerals in Northern Rhodesia, and compelled anyone mining them to pay royalties to the company.[34]

In 1923, the Northern Rhodesian copper industry was little developed, and the British government did not anticipate the future value of these mineral rights. It regarded them as a not very important part of the overall deal with the company. The lack of any challenge to the BSAC's claims and the decision not to refer them to the Privy Council led to suspicion that the company received favoured treatment. There were family links between a junior Colonial Office minister and the BSAC director leading its negotiations, but no evidence to suggest this led to any bias. The most probable explanation is that the importance of the minerals was overlooked in the haste to achieve a settlement. Because of lack of time, the agreement was not approved by the Attorney-General.[35]

The 1923 Agreement stated that the Crown recognised British South Africa Company mineral rights acquired under the concessions either from Lewanika in Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia or under Certificates of Claim in North-Eastern Rhodesia. These concessions did not cover all of Northern Rhodesia. In particular, they could not have conveyed mineral rights in the area of the Copperbelt from which most of the BSAC's royalties came, as the Copperbelt was outside these areas. However, the British Government had legal advice that the Colonial Office's recognition of the BSAC's rights in practice over a long period, and specific recognition of those rights in Rhodesia mining legislation, prevented it from challenging the rights.[36]

Claims disputed[lemba | kulemba source]

The first attempts to challenge BSAC royalty claims were made by the Governor of Northern Rhodesia between 1935 and 1937. The Governor, Sir Hubert Young, attempted to convince the Colonial Office that BSAC only owned mineral rights in the areas of the concessions from Lewanika and the Certificates of Claim from Johnston. This excluded most of the Copperbelt, as the area east of the Kafue River had never been ruled by Lewanika. The Colonial Office response was that BSAC ownership of mineral rights throughout Northern Rhodesia had been accepted in practice, and the references to the Lewanika concessions and Certificates of Claim should not be interpreted in a narrow sense.[37]

Northern Rhodesian settler politicians were not convinced by the Colonial Office arguments, in particular the suggestion that, since the British government had previously recognised the BSAC claims, it could not challenge them now on the basis of a reinterpretation of terms of the 1923 agreement. Settler representatives proposed either that the BSAC mineral rights should be bought out or that punitive levels of tax should be imposed on BSAC royalties. After years of BSAC obstruction, the company was forced to agree in 1950 that it would surrender their mineral rights in 1986 without compensation, and meanwhile give 20% of its royalties to the Northern Rhodesian government.[38]

The 1950 agreement continued through the period of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, but at the end of Federation in 1963 the African leaders of what became Zambia sought its revision, proposing to buy out the British South Africa Company's mineral rights for a lump sum. The BSAC refused, and the Northern Rhodesian government of Kenneth Kaunda commissioned a full legal enquiry into the validity of the company's claims. The results were published as a White Paper which considered the validity of commercial rights held and exercised under the colonial legislative and administrative system.[39]

The Northern Rhodesian government argued that many of the treaties on which BSAC relied were of doubtful validity and probably could not have effectively transferred mineral rights. Even if the treaties were valid, none if them covered the Copperbelt, and any subsequent agreements merely confirmed the company's rights if they were originally valid: they did not give the treaties retrospective validity. It further argued that, as the British government had wrongly allowed the BSAC to claim royalties it was not entitled to, the British government should pay any compensation it thought the company was due, and not place this burden on an independent Zambia. Shortly before the planned date for independence of 24 October 1964, Kaunda threatened to expropriate the BSAC immediately afterwards if no agreement were reached. On 23 October, BSAC agreed to give up any mineral rights it might have in return for compensation of £4 million, the British and Zambian governments paying half each.[40]

Financial returns[lemba | kulemba source]

Traders of B.S.A.C stock profited handsomely from the speculative trading of the stock which was trading for multiple times higher that its nominal book value on the LSE and the Rhodesian Stock Exchange which was initiated in the Masonic Assembly Room on 20 June 1894.[41]A History of the Zimbabwean Stock Exchange An investor who invested in the original one million shares at £1 each and participated in each rights issue up to 1904, would have paid an average of £1.66 for each share. No dividends were received before 1924, but from then the average annual dividend for the next 26 years was 7.5 pence, a poor rate of return. However, from 1950, dividend rates increased sharply, reaching 75 pence a share in 1960, largely from Northern Rhodesian copper royalties. Each share was split two-for-one in 1955 and each of the new shares was exchanged for three Charter Consolidated shares at the beginning of 1965.[42]

Security[lemba | kulemba source]

Clause 3 of the BSAC Charter allowed the company to obtain powers necessary for the preservation of public order in, or for the protection of, the territories comprised in its concessions, and Clause 10 allowed the company to establish and maintain a police force.[3] This did not permit the formation of an army but BSAC created a paramilitary force of mounted infantrymen in 1889 which was virtually its army and which allowed it to defeat and replace the Matabele kingdom and then overcome resistance of the Shona north of the Limpopo river in the First Matabele War and Second Matabele War. It was the first British use of the Maxim gun in combat (causing five thousand Ndebele casualties). The company carved out and administered a territory which it named Zambezia, and later, Rhodesia, which now covers the area occupied by the republics of Zambia and Zimbabwe.

Southern Rhodesia[lemba | kulemba source]

At first, the BSAC force was named the British South Africa Company's Police, but from 1896 it was called the British South Africa Police. The Colonial Office initially authorised a force of 100 men, but Rhodes increased this to 480 before the Pioneer Column entered Mashonaland.[43] Its numbers had risen to 650 men by the end of 1890, an unsustainable burden on the BSAC resources. Rhodes ordered a reduction in its manpower to 100 at the end of 1891, and later to only 40 men. This was supplemented by the Mashonaland Horse, an unpaid volunteer force of up to 500 men. The police force was greatly increased in size at the time of the First Matabele War, although much if this increase was in the form of volunteer police reservists.[44]

Although the police force had been created by the BSAC and was at first under the command of a company official, after the Jameson Raid it was renamed the British South Africa Police and ceased to be a company force. From then, it reported to the British High Commissioner for South Africa, not the BSAC, and was commanded by a British-appointed officer. This British South Africa Police had four divisions: two policed the countryside (but not the towns) of Matabeleland and of Mashonaland, another covered "North Zambesia" until the creation of the Barotse Native Police in 1899 and the fourth dealt with Bechuanaland until its own police force was formed in 1903. Also in 1903, the previously separate urban police forces were combined as the Southern Rhodesia Constabulary and handed over to BSAC control. In 1909, the Matabeleland and Mashonaland divisions were handed back to BSAC control and the separate urban police force was amalgamated with the British South Africa Police. Only in 1909 did the British South Africa Police constitute a police force for the whole of Southern Rhodesia and for Southern Rhodesia only. The British South Africa Police was initially formed as a wholly European force, but in 1903 an African unit was organised as the British South African Native Police. In 1909, this was merged into the British South Africa Police, which thereafter had an increasing number of African police officers. The volunteer forces raised for the Matabele wars and Mashona rebellion were disbanded soon after, but the Southern Rhodesia Volunteers, raised for service in the Boer War, remained in being and in 1914 formed the basis of the 1st and 2nd Rhodesia Regiments. Although these were severely reduced in size after the First World War, they formed the basis of the Rhodesian Territorial Force, set up in 1926 after the end of BSAC administration.[45]

Northern Rhodesia[lemba | kulemba source]

The BSAC considered that its territory north of the Zambezi was more suitable for a largely African police force than a European one. However, at first the British South Africa Police patrolled the north of the Zambezi in North Western Rhodesia, although its European troops were expensive and prone to diseases. This force and its replacements were paramilitaries, although there was a small force of European civil police in the towns. The British South Africa Police were replaced by the Barotse Native Police force, which was formed in 1902 (other sources date this as 1899 or 1901). This had a high proportion of European NCOs as well as all European officers and was merged into the Northern Rhodesia Police in 1911. Initially, Harry Johnson in the British Central Africa Protectorate had responsibility for North Eastern Rhodesia and Central Africa forces, including Sikh and African troops, were used there until 1899. Until 1903, local magistrates recruited their own local police, but in that year a North Eastern Rhodesia Constabulary was formed, which had only a few white officers, all its NCOs and troopers being African. This was also merged into the Northern Rhodesia Police in 1912, which then numbered only 18 European and 775 African in six companies, divided between the headquarters of the various districts. The Northern Rhodesia Police remained after the end of BSAC administration.[46][47]

Medal[lemba | kulemba source]

In 1896, Queen Victoria sanctioned the issue by the British South Africa Company of a medal to troops who had been engaged in the First Matabele War. In 1897, the Queen sanctioned another medal for those engaged in the two campaigns of the Second Matabele War: Rhodesia (1896) and Mashonaland (1897). The government of Southern Rhodesia re-issued the medal to commemorate the earlier 1890 Pioneer Column, in 1927.

The arms of the British South Africa Company

Politics[lemba | kulemba source]

Legislature and administration[lemba | kulemba source]

A legislative council for Southern Rhodesia was created in 1898 to advise the BSAC Administrator and the High Commissioner for South Africa on legal matters. Initially, this had a minority of elected seats, and the electorate was formed almost exclusively of those better-off white settlers who held BSAC shares. Over time as more settlers arrived, disputes between settlers and BSAC grew, and the company attempted to keep these in check by extending the franchise to some non-shareholders. However, in 1914, the Royal Charter was renewed on condition that settlers in Southern Rhodesia were given increased political rights, and from 1914, there was an elected majority on the Southern Rhodesian Legislative Council.[48][49]

In Northern Rhodesia, there was neither an Executive Council nor a legislative council, but only an Advisory Council, which until 1917 consisted entirely of officials. After 1917 and a few nominees were added to represent the small European minority: Northern Rhodesia had no elected representation while under BSAC rule.[50] Provision for elected unofficial members was only made after BSAC rule there came to an end in 1924. In both parts of Rhodesia, the BSAC Administrators were required to submit all draft Proclamations affecting Europeans to the High Commissioner for South Africa for approval before they were issued. The High Commissioner could in theory, and subject to certain restrictions, also make, alter or repeal Proclamations for the administration of justice, the raising of revenue, and for the peace, order and good government of either territory, without reference to their Administrators, although this power was never used.[51][52]

The British South Africa Company was planning to centralise the administration of the two Rhodesias at the time of the Jameson Raid in 1896. Following the raid, the British government increased its oversight of BSAC affairs in Southern Rhodesia, and insisted on a separate administration in Northern Rhodesia. In both 1915 and 1921, BSAC again failed to set up a single administration for both Rhodesias. In part, this was because the Southern Rhodesian settlers feared that it more would be difficult for a united Rhodesian state to achieve responsible government.[53]

Self-government[lemba | kulemba source]

In 1917, the Responsible Government Association was formed as a political party to press for responsible government, and fought the 1920 Legislative Council election in opposition to those advocating union with the Union of South Africa. When the British courts decided that the ultimate ownership of all land which had not already been alienated into private ownership lay with the Crown, not with BSAC, the campaign a self-government gained strength.[54]

In 1921, General Smuts and his government wished for the early admission of Southern Rhodesia into the Union of South Africa. When the Union was established, Natal and the Free State were given representation in the Union Parliament considerably in excess of the number of their electors, and Smuts promised that this would apply in the case of Rhodesia, which would receive 12 to 15 seats in the Union Parliament, which then had 134 members. Smuts also promised that South Africa would make the financial provision necessary to buy out the commercial rights of the BSAC. If those rights continued under responsible government, they would create a serious financial problem for that government. In 1922, the company entered negotiations with the Union government for the incorporation of Southern Rhodesia. However, as the BSAC charter was due to expire in 1924, a referendum was held in 1922 in which the electorate was given a choice between responsible government and entry into the Union of South Africa. Those in favour of responsible government won a significant, but not overwhelming, majority. In 1923, the British government chose not to renew the company's charter, and instead accorded self-governing colony status to Southern Rhodesia and protectorate status to Northern Rhodesia.[55]

The end of BSAC administration[lemba | kulemba source]

An agreement of 29 September 1923 between the British South Africa Company and the Colonial Secretary settled the outstanding issues relating to Southern and Northern Rhodesia. It terminated the company's administration of Northern Rhodesia by the British South Africa Company as from 1 April 1924: Northern Rhodesia continued to be a protectorate, but now governed by a Governor. All laws were to continue in force, and all rights reserved to indigenous peoples under treaties they had made with BSAC also continued in force. From 1 April 1924, control of all lands that the company claimed in Northern Rhodesia, were taken over by the Northern Rhodesian administration, to administer in the interests of their African populations, but BSAC were to receive half the net rents from these lands.[56]

Merger[lemba | kulemba source]

In 1964, the company handed over its mineral rights to the government of Zambia, and the following year, the business of the British South Africa Company was merged with the Central Mining & Investment Corporation Ltd and The Consolidated Mines Selection Company Ltd into the mining and industrial business of Charter Consolidated Ltd, of which slightly over one-third of the shares were owned by the British/South African mining company Anglo American Corporation. In the 1980s the company disposed of its overseas mining concerns to concentrate on its British engineering interests.

In 1993 Charter Consolidated Ltd changed its name to Charter plc, and in 2008 to Charter Limited, which is incorporated in England and Wales, Company Number 02794949. The British South Africa Company still exists, and is registered as a non-trading business incorporated in England and Wales, Company Number ZC000011.

Gazettes published by the company[lemba | kulemba source]

See also[lemba | kulemba source]

References[lemba | kulemba source]

  1. J S Galbraith, (1974). Crown and Charter: The early Years of the British South Africa Company, pp. 88, 90.
  2. 2.0 2.1 J S Galbraith, (1974). Crown and Charter: The early Years of the British South Africa Company, pp. 87, 202–3.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Charter of the British South Africa Company". Archived from the original on 22 Okutobala 2013. Retrieved 10 Meyi 2013.
  4. A Keppel-Jones (1983) Rhodes and Rhodesia: The White Conquest of Zimbabwe 1884–1902, pp. 112–3, 133–6, 315.
  5. J S Galbraith, (1970). The British South Africa Company and the Jameson Raid, pp. 146–7.
  6. J S Galbraith, (1970). The British South Africa Company and the Jameson Raid, pp. 114, 116–7.
  7. J S Galbraith, (1970). The British South Africa Company and the Jameson Raid, p. 159.
  8. Klas Rönnbäck and Oskar Broberg. Capital and Colonialism: The Return on British Investments in Africa 1869-1969. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, chap. 10
  9. P Slinn, (1971). Commercial Concessions and Politics during the Colonial Period: The Role of the British South Africa Company in Northern Rhodesia 1890–1964, pp. 370–2.
  10. Klas Rönnbäck and Oskar Broberg. Capital and Colonialism: The Return on British Investments in Africa 1869-1969. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, table 10.2
  11. J S Galbraith, (1974). Crown and Charter: The early Years of the British South Africa Company, pp. 211–5, 217–9.
  12. P E N Tindall, (1967). A History of Central Africa, p. 134.
  13. E A Walter, (1963).The Cambridge History of the British Empire: South Africa, Rhodesia and the High Commission Territories, pp. 696–7.
  14. J S Galbraith, (1974). Crown and Charter: The early Years of the British South Africa Company, pp. 97–8, 207, 230–3.
  15. M Newitt, (1995). A History of Mozambique, pp. 345–7.
  16. J G Pike, (1969). Malawi: A Political and Economic History, pp. 86–7.
  17. R. I. Rotberg, (1965). The Rise of Nationalism in Central Africa : The Making of Malawi and Zambia, 1873–1964, p. 25.
  18. B N Floyd, (1962). Land Apportionment in Southern Rhodesia, pp. 573–4.
  19. B N Floyd, (1962). Land Apportionment in Southern Rhodesia, p. 574.
  20. G. D. Clough, (1924). The Constitutional Changes in Northern Rhodesia and Matters Incidental to the Transition, p. 281.
  21. J Lunn, (1992). The Political Economy of Primary Railway Construction in the Rhodesias, 1890–1911, pp. 239, 244.
  22. 22.0 22.1 S Katzenellenbogen, (1974). Zambia and Rhodesia: Prisoners of the Past: A Note on the History of Railway Politics in Central Africa, pp. 63–4.
  23. M Newitt, (1995). A History of Mozambique, pp. 395, 402.
  24. G. D. Clough, (1924). The Constitutional Changes in Northern Rhodesia and Matters Incidental to the Transition, p. 282.
  25. J Lunn, (1992). The Political Economy of Primary Railway Construction in the Rhodesias, 1890–1911, pp. 250, 252–4.
  26. Phimister, Ian (18 Febuluwale 2015). "Late nineteenth-century globalization: London and Lomagundi perspectives on mining speculation in southern Africa, 1894–1904". Journal of Global History. 10 (1): 27–52. doi:10.1017/S1740022814000357. S2CID 206334366.
  27. Rhodesia Herald, 6 April 1894
  28. G. D. Clough, (1924). The Constitutional Changes in Northern Rhodesia and Matters Incidental to the Transition, Journal of Comparative Legislation and International Law, p. 282.
  29. A G Hopkins, (1976). Imperial Business in Africa. Part I: Sources, p.31.
  30. Government of Northern Rhodesia (Zambia). (1964). White Paper on British South Africa Company's claims to Mineral Royalties, pp. 1135, 1138.
  31. S Cunningham, (1981). The Copper Industry in Zambia: Foreign Mining Companies in a Developing Country, pp. 57–8.
  32. R W Steel, (1957) The Copperbelt of Northern Rhodesia, pp. 83–4.
  33. P Slinn, (1971). Commercial Concessions and Politics during the Colonial Period: The Role of the British South Africa Company in Northern Rhodesia 1890–1964, pp. 371–3.
  34. Government of Northern Rhodesia (Zambia), (1964). White Paper on British South Africa Company's claims to Mineral Royalties, pp. 1134–5.
  35. P Slinn, (1971). Commercial Concessions and Politics during the Colonial Period: The Role of the British South Africa Company in Northern Rhodesia 1890–1964, pp. 372–3.
  36. Government of Northern Rhodesia (Zambia), (1964). White Paper on British South Africa Company's claims to Mineral Royalties, pp. 1138–9.
  37. P Slinn, (1971). Commercial Concessions and Politics during the Colonial Period: The Role of the British South Africa Company in Northern Rhodesia 1890–1964, pp. 375–6.
  38. P Slinn, (1971). Commercial Concessions and Politics during the Colonial Period: The Role of the British South Africa Company in Northern Rhodesia 1890–1964, pp. 377–8.
  39. P Slinn, (1971). Commercial Concessions and Politics during the Colonial Period: The Role of the British South Africa Company in Northern Rhodesia 1890–1964, pp. 380–1.
  40. P Slinn, (1971). Commercial Concessions and Politics during the Colonial Period: The Role of the British South Africa Company in Northern Rhodesia 1890–1964, pp. 382–3.
  41. George Karekwaivenani, A History of the Rhodesian Stock Exchange, p.14 .
  42. T Lloyd, (1972). Africa and Hobson's Imperialism, p. 144.
  43. J S Galbraith, (1974). Crown and Charter: The early Years of the British South Africa Company, pp. 143–6, 149.
  44. J S Galbraith, (1974). Crown and Charter: The early Years of the British South Africa Company, pp. 262–3.
  45. R.S. Roberts, (1974) Towards a History of Rhodesia's Armed Forces, Rhodesian History, vol. 5.
  46. L H Gann, (1958). The Birth of a Plural Society: The Development of Northern Rhodesia under the British South Africa Company, 1894–1914, pp. 67, 74–5, 106–7.
  47. J G Pike, (1969). Malawi: A Political and Economic History, pp. 87, 90–2.
  48. P E N Tindall, (1967). A History of Central Africa, Praeger p. 267.
  49. E A Walker, (1963). The Cambridge History of the British Empire: South Africa, Rhodesia and the High Commission Territories, pp. 682, 684–5.
  50. R. I. Rotberg, (1965). The Rise of Nationalism in Central Africa : The Making of Malawi and Zambia, 1873–1964, p. 26.
  51. G. D. Clough, (1924). The Constitutional Changes in Northern Rhodesia and Matters Incidental to the Transition, Journal of Comparative Legislation and International Law, Third Series, Vol. 6, No. 4 pp. 279–80.
  52. E A Walker, (1963). The Cambridge History of the British Empire: South Africa, Rhodesia and the High Commission Territories, p. 686.
  53. H. I Wetherell, (1979) Settler Expansionism in Central Africa: The Imperial Response of 1931 and Subsequent Implications, pp. 211–2.
  54. R Blake, (1977). A History of Rhodesia, p. 179.
  55. E A Walker, (1963). The Cambridge History of the British Empire: South Africa, Rhodesia and the High Commission Territories, pp. 690–1.
  56. G. D. Clough, (1924). The Constitutional Changes in Northern Rhodesia and Matters Incidental to the Transition, Journal of Comparative Legislation and International Law, Third Series, Vol. 6, No. 4 p. 281.

Sources[lemba | kulemba source]

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External links[lemba | kulemba source]

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