Jump to content

ŴaYao (ŵa kumafumilo gha dazi gha Afilika)

Kufuma Wikipedia

Yao
Ŵanyamata ŵa vyaka 9 m'paka 10 ŵa fuko la Wa-Yao
awo ŵakuchita minthondwe ya ukotoli (Malici 2005).
Total population
3 million+
Regions with significant populations
 Malawi2,321,763 (2018)[1]
 Tanzania500,000 (2021)[2]
 Mozambique450,000 (2021)[3]
Languages
Chiyao, Kiswahili
Religion
Islam
Person'Myao
PeopleWaYao
LanguagechiYao
CountryUyao[4]

ŵaYao ni fuko likuru la ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Bantu awo ŵakukhala kumwera kwa Nyanja ya Malawi. Ŵakaŵa na mulimo wakuzirwa comene pa nkhani ya kumwera kwa Africa, comenecomene mu vyaka vya m'ma 1800. Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Yao ŵali na ciŵelengero ca ŵanthu pafupifupi mamiliyoni ghaŵiri awo Mbasilamu. Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Yao ŵali na cikaya cakukhora comene, ndipo ŵakulondezga yayi malango gha caru.

Mbili[lemba | kulemba source]

Munthu wakuvina wa chiYao, mu 1896

Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Yao ŵalimi na ŵalovi. Ŵarabu ŵakati ŵafika ku Africa, ŵakamba kusinthana na ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Yao. Cifukwa cakuti ŵakaguliskanga vinthu mumphepete mwa nyanja, ŵakaŵa ŵanthu ŵasambazi comene na ŵakumanyikwa comene mu vyaru vya kumwera kwa Africa. Mu vyaka vya m'ma 1800, ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Yao ŵakamba kulamulira chigaŵa cha Niassa ku Mozambique. Pa nyengo iyi, ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Yao ŵakamba kusama kufuma ku malo agho ŵakakhalanga kuluta ku Malaŵi na Tanzania. Cinthu cimoza cakuzirwa comene ico cikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa mu caru ici ŵambe kusopa Ciislamu. Mu 1870, Makanjila III (yumoza wa ŵalongozgi ŵa Mangochi Yao ŵa ku Nyasa) wakatora Chisilamu kuŵa chisopa chake.

Pamanyuma, ŵalongozgi ŵa Yao (awo ŵakajichemanga kuti ma sultans) ŵakakhumbikwiranga ŵalembi awo ŵakamanyanga kuŵazga na kulemba. Mu vikaya vya Yao, ŵalembi aŵa ŵakakhwaska comene ŵanthu, ŵakasambizganga waka ŵanthu kuŵazga na kulemba yayi, kweni ŵakapelekangaso wovwiri wa mtende, chisopa, na vya cuma ku ŵanthu ŵa mu vigaŵa vya mumphepete mwa nyanja.[5] Kweniso, mafumu gha Yao ghakalimbana chomene na Ŵapwitikizi, Ŵanandi, na Ŵachijeremani, awo ŵakawonekanga kuti mbanthu ŵaheni chomene. Ŵanalume ŵa ku Britain ŵakayezga kukanizga malonda gha maryero na ŵazga. Mulara wa Ŵayao zina lake Mataka wakakana Chikhristu, cifukwa cisopo ca Cisilamu cikaŵapa ndondomeko ya umoyo wa ŵanthu iyo yikaŵawovwira kuti ŵamanye makora mitheto yawo. Ŵalongozgi ŵakati ŵamba kusopa Ciislamu, ŵanthu nawo ŵakamba kusopa. Chisopa ca Ciislamu ico ŵanthu ŵa Yao ŵakulondezga cikukolerana na vigomezgo vyawo vya cisopa ca Ciislamu.

Ku Mozambique[lemba | kulemba source]

Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Yao ŵakakhalanga kumpoto kwa Mozambique (uko kale kukaŵa ku Portuguese East Africa). Para tingawona mbiri ya ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Yao mu Mozambique, tingamanya kuti chigaŵa chawo chikaŵa mu muzi uchoko wakuchemeka Chiconono, mu chigaŵa cha Niassa. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵa ku Yao ŵakaŵa ŵalimi, kweni ŵanyake ŵakaguliskanga njovu na ŵazga. Ŵakasangana na masuzgo gha ndyali na gha ŵanthu chifukwa cha kuwerako kwa Ŵapwitikizi (mu chigaŵa cha Niassa) na kukhazikiska kampani ya Niassa. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal aŵa ŵakamba kukhala mu chigaŵa ichi, ndipo ŵakazenga matawuni. Pa nyengo iyi, ŵakawuskapo ndondomeko ya ulimi na malonda ya ŵanthu ŵa ku malo agha na kusintha ku vyakurya ivyo vikaŵa pasi pa boma la Portugal. Ufumu wa Portugal uwo ukakuranga, ukaŵa na malo ghakuguliskirako malonda, vigongwe na virwa mu vyaru vya kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Africa kwambira mu vyaka vya m'ma 1500. Ŵanthu ŵa ku Portugal ŵakamba kupharazga mu chigaŵa ichi chifukwa cha nthowa iyo ŵakendanga na vyakununkhira. Ndipouli, mu ma 1800, Ŵapwitikizi ŵakaguliskanga ŵazga ŵanandi chomene. Kuumaliro wa vyaka vya m'ma 1800, Ufumu wa Portugal ukaŵa wankhongono chomene pa charu chose. Vipambi vya viŵeto ivyo vikaŵa vya Ŵapwitikizi vikamba kusazgikira, ndipo ŵanthu ŵa ku mizi iyi ŵakagwiranga ntchito yakulipira. Kweni ŵakalutilira kulondezga mitheto yawo na kulima. Pakuŵa Ŵasilamu, ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Yao ŵakatondeka kuzizipizga muwuso wa Ŵapwitikizi, awo ŵakaŵachichizga kuti ŵasambire Cikhristu mu Ciphwitikizi.

Ku Mozambique kuli ŵanthu 450,000 ŵa mtundu wa Yao. Ŵanthu aŵa ŵakukhala ku chigaŵa cha kumafumiro gha dazi na kumpoto kwa chigaŵa cha Niassa, ndipo ŵakukwana 40% ŵa ŵanthu ŵa ku Lichinga, msumba ukuru wa chigaŵa ichi. Ŵali na mitheto yinandi, kusazgapo kulondezga viyuni vikuruvikuru ivyo vikulongozga ŵanthu pakusanga uchi. Paumaliro, ŵakufumiska njuchi mu chiŵaya, ŵakuwunjika uchi na kusida sera ku viyuni ivyo vikulongozga njuchi. Kafukufuku uyo wakachitika mu 2016 pa ŵanthu awo ŵakukoma uchi ku Yao kumpoto kwa Mozambique, wakalongora kuti ŵanthu awo ŵakulongozga ŵanthu awo ŵakukoma uchi ŵakapulikanga para ŵakuŵachema kuti brrrr-hmm. Ŵalwani ŵakusambira mazgu agha ku ŵadada ŵawo ndipo ŵakughapeleka ku ŵana ŵawo.[6] Ŵalwani ŵakasanganga malo ghakukhala njuchi para ŵakuŵachema. Kafukufuku uyu wakulongosoraso kuti ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Yao ŵakughanaghana kuti viyuni vikuru na viwukirano ivyo vikulongozga ŵanthu awo ŵakwenda pa uchi ni vyamoyo vyakupambana.[7]

Kuwalo kwa Mozambique[lemba | kulemba source]

Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Yao ŵakasamira ku chigaŵa icho sono ni kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Malawi mu ma 1830, apo ŵakaŵa ŵalimi na ŵamalonda. Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Yao ŵali na mitheto na sumu zinandi, ndipo mbasilikari ŵa visopa vinyake. Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Yao ŵakaŵa paubwezi wakukhora na ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Swahili awo ŵakakhalanga mumphepete mwa nyanja m'ma 1800. Cifukwa cakuti ŵakakolerananga comene na Ŵaarabu, ŵakaŵa na vilwero, ivyo vikaŵawovwira kuti ŵarwe nkhondo zinandi na ŵanthu ŵa mu vigaŵa vyawo, nga ni Ŵangoni na Ŵachiwa. Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Yao ŵakasuskanga comene ŵasilikari ŵa Germany awo ŵakakhalanga mu vigaŵa vya kumwera kwa Africa (uko sono ni Tanzania, Rwanda, na Burundi). Chiyelezgero cha umo Yao wakachitiranga na ŵanthu ŵakususka chikaŵa mu vigaŵa vya mumphepete mwa nyanja vya Kilwa Kivinje, Mikindani, na Lindi, kumwera kwa Tanzania mu 1888, apo ŵasilikari ŵa German East Africa Company ŵakayezga kupoka vigaŵa vya mumphepete mwa nyanja ivyo vikaŵa pasi pa muwuso wa Sultan wa Zanzibar. Mu vyaka vyakulondezgapo, ŵa Yao ŵakalutilira kuvikilira nthowa yawo ya malonda kufuma ku vigaŵa vya Makanjila kumwera kwa Nyasa kuya ku Kilwa Kivinje. Kweni mu 1893, Harry Johnston pamoza na ŵasilikari ŵake ŵa ku Britain, ŵakamba kuyowoya kuti ŵali kuthereska chigaŵa chose cha Makanjila mumphepete mwa Nyanja ya Nyasa. Mu 1890, Themba Machemba likaphalira Mulara wa ŵasilikari, Hermann von Wissmann, kuti likukhumba kuchita malonda kweni likukhumba yayi kujilambika ku boma la Germany. Ndipouli, ŵakati ŵafika ku malo ghanyake, Yao wakajipeleka.

Ku Zimbabwe, ŵanthu ŵa fuko la Yao ŵakafika nga mbalendo ndipo ŵakakhazikiska gulu ku Mvurwi, pasi pa muwuso wa fuko la Jalisi. Ŵakaŵa ŵamoza ŵa ŵanthu ŵakwamba kwiza na cisopa ca Ciislam ku Zimbabwe pa Great Dyke Mountain Pass. Ŵa Yao ŵakagwiraso nchito yikuru mu Ciwukirano ca Maji Maji mu German East Africa.

Chiyowoyelo[lemba | kulemba source]

Ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Yao ŵakuyowoya ciyowoyero ca ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Bantu ico cikucemeka Chiyao (chi- ni lizgu lakwamba ilo likung'anamura "ciyowoyero"). Charu chawo chili pakati pa milonga ya Rovuma na Lugenda kumpoto kwa Mozambique. Kweniso ŵakuyowoya viyowoyero vya boma mu vyaru ivyo ŵakukhala, nga ni Chiswahili mu Tanzania, Chichewa na Chitumbuka mu Malawi, na Ciphwitikizi mu Mozambique.

Umoyo[lemba | kulemba source]

Ŵanthu ŵakugomezga kuti matenda ghakuŵako cifukwa ca vinthu vyakuthupi, kutembeka, panji kuswa malango. Para ŵanthu ŵakugomezga kuti matenda ghakufuma ku viŵaro viŵiri ivi, ŵakuluta ku maofesi gha boma yayi. Matenda ghanyake agho ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Yao ŵakumanya ni undubidwa (matenda agho ghakukhwaska ŵana awo ŵakonkheska mwana chifukwa cha sanji za mubali wawo), kweniso matenda ghanyake gha ndaka agho ghakuŵapo chifukwa cha kukomana na awo ŵakuchita yayi uzaghali.[8]

Ŵanthu ŵakumanyikwa[lemba | kulemba source]

Wonaniso[lemba | kulemba source]

Ukaboni[lemba | kulemba source]

  1. "2018 Malawi Population and Housing Census". www.nsomalawi.mw. Retrieved 17 Malichi 2021.
  2. "Tanzania Language Focus: What Do You Know About the Language Spoken in Tanzania?". www.tomedes.com (in English). Retrieved 23 Julayi 2021.
  3. "About the Yawo People – The I Am Yawo Project" (in English). Retrieved 23 Julayi 2021.
  4. Steere, Edward (1872). "On East African Tribes and Languages". The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 1: cxliii–cliv. doi:10.2307/2841297. JSTOR 2841297.
  5. Msiska, Augustine W.C. (1995). "The Spread of Islam in Malawi and its Impact on Yao Rites of Passage, 1870-1960". The Society of Malawi Journal. 48 (1): 49–86. JSTOR 29778728.
  6. Saha, Purbita; Spottiswoode, Claire (22 Ogasiti 2016). "Meet the Greater Honeyguide, the Bird That Understands Humans". National Audubon Society (in English). Retrieved 14 Ogasiti 2020.
  7. Spottiswoode, Claire N.; Begg, Keith S.; Begg, Colleen M. (22 Julayi 2016). "Reciprocal signaling in honeyguide-human mutualism". Science. 353 (6297): 387–389. Bibcode:2016Sci...353..387S. doi:10.1126/science.aaf4885. PMID 27463674. S2CID 206648494.
  8. Dicks, Ian (2012). An African worldview: the Muslim Amacinga Yawo of Southern Malawi. Kachere Series. ISBN 978-99908-87-51-8. OCLC 794906947.Template:Pn
  • J. Clyde Mitchell, The Yao Village: A Study in the Social Structure of a Malawian Tribe Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1956, 1966, 1971