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Chiyowoyero cha Chimbunda

Coordinates: 14°06′44″S 21°26′07″E / 14.11222°S 21.43528°E / -14.11222; 21.43528
Kufuma Wikipedia
Chimbunda
Mbúùnda, Chimbúùnda
Native toAngola, Zambia
EthnicityMbunda people
Native speakers
260,000 (2000–2010)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3mck – inclusive code
Individual codes:
yax – Yauma dialect
nkn – Nkangala dialect
Glottologmbun1249  Mbunda
nkan1238  Nkangala
K.15,18[2]
ELPYauma

ChiMbunda ni ciyowoyero ca ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Bantu ku Angola na Zambia. Pali viyowoyero vinandi: Katavola, Yauma,[3] Nkangala, Mbalango, Sango, Ciyengele ("Shamuka"),na Ndundu, vyose ivi vikukolerana comene.[4] Chimbunda chikaŵa chimoza mwa viyowoyero vinkhondi na cimoza ivyo Instituto de Línguas Nacionais (National Languages Institute) yikasankha kuti vilembeke mu 1980 kuti viwovwire kusambizga mu masukulu na kukhozga ŵanthu kuti ŵayowoyenge viyowoyero ivi. [5][6]

Kapulikikilo[lemba | kulemba source]

Mbunda wakuyana waka na Luchazi, kweni wali na mazgu ghanyake ghakupambana. Pakati pa mphambano zinyake, apo Luchazi wali na /s, z/, Mbunda wali na /θ, ð/. Apo Luchazi wali na /ts/, Mbunda wali na /t̪/.

Malemba[lemba | kulemba source]

Nga ni viyowoyero vinyake vya kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Angola na Zambia, chiyowoyero cha Chimbunda chili na mavowel ghankhondi:

Front
(unrounded)
Central
(unrounded)
Back
(rounded)
high i u
mid ɛ ɔ
low a

Consonants[lemba | kulemba source]

Para munthu wakuyowoya mazgu ghakupulikikwa waka, ghakupulikikwa yayi. Mu chiyowoyero cha Mbunda muli waka mazgu ghakuti tenuis:[7]

Prenasalized consonants
Aspirated Voiced Place of formation Sample Word Sound Translation
/mpʰ/ mp /mb/ mb bilabial mbandu sore
/nt̪ʰ/ nths /nd̪/ ndthz dental ndthzili power
/ntʰ/ nt /nd/ nd alveolar ndolome brother
/ndʒ/ nj alveopalatal njamba elephant
/ŋkʰ/ nk /ŋɡ/ ng velar ngonde moon

Kulemba[lemba | kulemba source]

Graphic Representation Phonetic Symbol(*) Word Example Word Sound Translation
a /a/ angula choose
mb /mb/ mbunga crowd
ch (used with nouns)
or c
/tʃ/ cili true
chiyambi hunter
nd /nd/ ndumba lion
e /ɛ/ ewa yes
f /f/ fundanga gunpowder
ng /ŋɡ/ ngombe cow, ox
ŋ /ŋ/ ŋala crab
h /h/ hanja outside
i /i/ imanena wait
j /ʒ/ jombolola reveal
k /k/ kovela enter
l /l/ lilonga plate, dish
m /m/ mulonga offence
n /n/ naana my mother
ndthz /nd̪/ ndthzita war
nk /ŋkʰ/ nkuta court
ny /ɲ/ or maybe /nʲ/ nyali brother or sister-in-law
o /ɔ/ owo that one
p /p/ putuka start
mp /mpʰ/ mpulu male animal
t /t/ tulo asleep, sleepy
th /θ/ thimbu time
ths /t̪/ thsa die
thz /ð/ thzala dress up
u /u/ uli where is he (she)
v /β/ vwato boat, canoe
w /w/ wahi he (she) is not here
x /ʃ/ xwata forest
y /j/ yange myself
Viyowoyero 6 vya ku Angola.[8][9]

Ŵanthu[lemba | kulemba source]

Mbunda yikuyowoyeka na ŵanthu ŵa Mbunda mu chigaŵa cha Moxico na Cuando Cubango mu chigaŵa cha Angola na kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Zambia.[10]

Viyowoyero vinyake vimoza[lemba | kulemba source]

Chiyowoyero cha Mbunda mu Zambia na Angola chikuyowoyeka mwakuyana yayi. Ku Zambia, mino ghake ghakumanyikwa na lulimi, ndipo ghakuyowoya mazgu nga ni agha: "Mundthzindthzime" (mithunzi), "chithzalo" (vwaliro), "Kuthsa" (nyifwa) na ghanyake ghanandi. Makutu ghakusuzga agho ghakwimira TH. Chiyowoyero cha Mbunda mu Angola na Namibia chikuyowoyeka kwambura mazgu gha TH, nga umo vikuŵira mu chiyowoyero cha Luchazi. Nanga ni mu Zambia, ciyowoyero ca Mbunda ico cikayowoyeka na ŵanthu ŵa Chiyengele awo ŵakasamira kunyake, cikupambana na ca ŵanthu ŵa Mbunda awo ŵakachimbilira ku Zambia cifukwa ca nkhondo iyo yikacitika mu 1914. Lekani chiyowoyero cha Chiyengele, icho chikusangika chomene mu chigaŵa cha Mongu, chikuchemeka "Shamuka". Lizgu ili likung'anamuraso chiyowoyero cha Mbunda ku Namibia, icho chili na ŵanthu ŵa viyowoyero vya Nyemba na Luchazi.

Ma nambala[lemba | kulemba source]

Kuŵerenga manambara mu chiyowoyero cha Mbunda kukukolerana na manambara ghakumanyikwa chomene. Kuzuzga maji na manambara ghacoko nkhwakusuzga yayi.

Mazina na ng'anamuro lake[lemba | kulemba source]

Mazina gha Ŵambunda nganandi, kweni agha ndigho ghakumanyikwa chomene. Vingapelekeka kwa mwanalume panji mwanakazi, kupaturako viŵiya vichoko waka ivyo ni vya ŵanakazi pera ndipo vyazunulika na (f). Zina mwa mazina gha Ŵambunda ghakuyana waka na mazina gha ŵanthu ŵanyake awo nawo ŵakukhala mu Ufumu wa Luba, nga ni Kaunda, Katongo, Kavanda, Mulenga, Muvanga, Mwila, Kavunda, Kalunga, Muti, Chiinga, Kavalata, Chiti, Nkonde na ŵanyake. Mazina ghanyake agho ghakuyana na gha Mbunda ni Chipoya, Chipango, Musole, Kayata, Ngambo, Kawengo, Kapisa na Musumali. Vinthu ivi vikulongora kuti ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Mbunda ŵakakhalanga mu Ufumu wa Lunda na wa Luba mu vyaka vya m'ma 1500. Mazina gha Mbunda agho ghakugwiliskirika nchito kanandi ni agha:

1. Viemba (Vyemba) meaning medicines.

2. Vulungi meaning trekking to new settlement

3. Chendamundali meaning tourist, (vacendamundali-plural).

4. Chalula meaning someone who found (picked) a lost thing.

5. Chambato meaning a bridegroom.

6. Changoco meaning a useless person.

7. Changano meaning an "I don't care" person.

8. Chavaya meaning a destitute person.

9. Chikatu meaning source.

10. Chilala meaning cruelty.

11. Chiinga meaning substitute or substitution.

12. Chiingi meaning the substitute wife from same family as first wife.

13. Chilindo meaning the float of fish net.

14. Chilombo meaning a place where things are put to soak or dye.

15. Chilunda meaning the second born.

16. Chimbali meaning the slave of a white person.

17. Chimbinde meaning a cantankerous person, cruel.

18. Chindele meaning a white person.

19. Chindumba meaning a kind of hair plait.

20. Chingumbe meaning a strong and healthy man. Name of the 14th Mbunda King who ruled Mbundaland in the 17th century in what is now Angola.

21. Chingunde meaning moroseness, sullenness.

22. Chingwali meaning a shackle for the head, a fetter.

23. Chinjenge meaning to be left in hardship.

24. Chinunga meaning an articulated joint.

25. Chinyundu meaning a beehive smoker (to rid the hive of bees).

26. Chioola meaning a quiet person; sober.

27. Chipango meaning the fence built for a woman giving birth.

28. Chipipa meaning to swish or whip through the air.

29. Chipoya meaning a machile or hammock.

30. Chiputa meaning a type of shrub; bush.

31. Chixwaxwa (Chishwashwa) meaning an empty light shell.

32. Chiti meaning wood or tree.

33. Chitumbo meaning a big heap of soil.

34. Chitundu meaning a type of plant with an edible tuber.

35. Chiyengele meaning a red cloth belt. Name of the Senior Mbunda Chief in Bulozi, declared by King Mulena Mulambwa of the Aluyi people.

36. Chiyengo meaning big barrel.

37. Chuma meaning thing.

38. Kaalu meaning a surviving twin.

39. Kavavu meaning June.

40. Kafunya meaning a presumptuous person.

41. Kafuti meaning the child born after twins.

42. Kailu meaning the child born after five children's death, regarded as a "returned" person.

43. Kaliki meaning the chief's storehouse.

44. Kaliye meaning being lonely.

45. Kalimbwe (vulimbwe) meaning a person using birdlime to catch birds.

46. Kalumbu, for females, meaning a stray person who has lost her good character.

47. Kaliata (Kalyata) meaning a person who oppresses others.

48. Kaliangu (Kalyangu) meaning a kind of jester or masked dancer.

49. Kamana meaning a wise person.

50. Kanjengo meaning white cloth.

51. Kankondo meaning a kind of weasel that eats fowls.

52. Kanjonja meaning a type of gun; flintlock.

53. Kanunga meaning a small joint.

54. Kapatitho (Kapatiso) meaning bolt fastener.

55. Kapitha (Kapisa) meaning a person who refuses to help because he is miserly and stingy or who burns something.

56. Kaxweka (Kashweka) meaning a hidden thing.

57. Kaxukwe (Kashukwe) meaning August.

58. Kathoka (Kasoka) meaning a person who loads the gun; rams the charge into the gun.

59. Kathonda (Kasonda) (vuthampu - vusampu) meaning a kind of coiffure.

60. Katavola meaning a person who tears something apart. Name of the famous 20th Mbunda King who fought and defeated the Chokwe people in what is now Angola.

61. Katota meaning a person who knocks or hammers on something.

62. Katongo meaning a wanderer.

63. Kaulembi (kulamba) meaning a person who goes to appeal for help.

64. Kavindama meaning an unfortunate person.

65. Kavunda meaning a person who smears the concrete floor.

66. Kawengo meaning the spirit of a deceased woman.

67. Kayando meaning a sufferer, trouble.

68. Kayawe meaning a cunning person.

69. Kayongo meaning the spirit of a deceased man.

70. Kathzungo (Kazungo) meaning noise or racket. Name of the 22nd Mbunda King who was installed by the Portuguese colonialists, after abducting King Mwene Mbandu I Lyondthzi Kapova, the 21st Monarch of Mbundaland in what is now Angola.

71. Kufuna meaning to and fro. (Not Mbunda by origin but used today).

72. Kalunga meaning God.

73. Kuunga meaning to gather.

74. Kuvangu, see Kawengo.

75. Lifuti meaning country. Name of the 23rd Mbunda King and the first to be installed by the Mbunda people after the restoration of the Mbunda monarchy in what is now Angola, since the abduction of the 21st Mbunda King who resisted the Portuguese occupation of Mbundaland in 1914.

76. Likonge meaning a kind of water grass.

77. Liongo meaning a river reed.

78. Livindamo meaning an unlucky village or place.

79. Luvinda meaning hard luck or misfortune.

80. Liwoyo meaning racket, noise.

81. Lumbala is the name of a river in eastern Angola.

82. Liato (Lyato) meaning a big canoe.

83. Liunda (Lyunda) meaning grove.

84. Maamba meaning evil spirits possessing people.

85. Makayi meaning bracelets.

86. Makalu meaning a brave person.

87. Makuwa from (kulikuwa) meaning someone who shouts when rejoicing.

88. Maliti meaning a type of rifle, a single loader.

89. Manjolo meaning tubular anklets.

90. Manyenga meaning a worried person, also means to render fat.

91. Mathambo (Masambo) meaning small wires.

92. Matheka (Maseka), see Makayi.

93. Mathumba (Masumba) meaning crescent shaped medallions.

94. Mbaita (f) meaning please pass, to allow to pass.

95. Mbalili (f) meaning keg, barrel.

96. Mbambale meaning the spinning device used by Mbunda.

97. Mbandu meaning sore. Name of the 21st Mbunda King who resisted the Portuguese occupation of Mbundaland in 1914 in what is now Angola.

98. Mbundi (f) meaning a fetish stick.

99. Mukovoto meaning a talkative person.

100. Mukuve meaning a kind of tree for bark rope.

101. Mukwita meaning a passer-by; to pass by.

102. Mulenga meaning a piece of wood split off a tree struck by thunder and lightning.

103. Mulemba meaning a kind of tree that produces rubber.

104. Mulikita meaning great big-game hunter, also boxer.

105. Muliata (Mulyata), see Kaliata (Kalyata).

106. Mundanya, see Mathumba (Masumba).

107. Mundu (kaundu) meaning medicine rubbed on the body to make it impervious to bullets. Name of the first Mbunda Chief who migrated to Bulozi in the 16th century.

108. Mundthzimba meaning an ignorant person.

109. Mununga meaning a person who joins things together.

110. Muthando (Musando) meaning millet.

111. Muthangu (Musangu) meaning a resurrected person.

112. Muxova (Mushova) (f) meaning mixed things.

113. Muxuwa (Mushuwa) (f) meaning a tree with little leaves, see mulemba.

114. Muthompa (Musompa) meaning a judge.

115. Muti (chiti) meaning tree.

116. Muvanga meaning a kind of shrub; also means firstborn.

117. Muwae (f) meaning beauty.

118. Muyeva, see Katongo.

119. Muyenga meaning to render fat or beeswax.

120. Muyombo (muxaa - mushaa) meaning a type of fetish stick.

121. Mwila meaning grass.

122. Ndandula meaning he must follow.

123. Ndombelo meaning a young girl who pounds white maize into theke (seke) which is used in ritual offerings (nombelo) to ancestral spirits.

124. Ndumba meaning lion.

125. Ngeve meaning female twins.

126. Ngongola, see Katota.

127. Nguvu meaning male twins; also hippopotamus.

128. Njamba, meaning elder of the twins; also elephant.

129. Nkumbwa meaning ostrich.

130. Nyumbu meaning a type of swamp reed.

131. Nyundu meaning otter.

132. Thakulo (Sakulo) meaning a kind of grass used for thatching.

133. Theke (Seke) meaning white maize meal used for offerings to ancestral spirits.

134. Xanda (Shanda), meaning battle, honey badger. Name of the 22nd Mbunda King who was installed by the Portuguese colonialists, after abducting King Mwene Mbandu I Lyondthzi Kapova, the 21st Monarch of Mbundaland in what is now Angola.

135. Wacama, the abbreviation of (waca manene) meaning you like something very much.

136. Wampata meaning an argumentative or stubborn person.

Wonaniso[lemba | kulemba source]

Ukaboni[lemba | kulemba source]

  1. Chimbunda at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Yauma dialect at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Nkangala dialect at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  3. Bantu-Languages.com, citing Maniacky 1997
  4. Bantu-Languages.com, citing Maniacky 1997
  5. Resolution adopted by Council of Ministers - Official Gazette No. 3/87 of May 1987
  6. Angola Harmonização das línguas bantu dificultada pela fonética e grafia
  7. Tusona: Luchazi Ideographs : a Graphic Tradition of West-Central Africa By Gerhard Kubik, page 300
  8. História da criação dos alfabetos em línguas nacionais, edições 70 - Portugal (History of the creation of alphabets in national languages, 70th editions - Portugal)
  9. Tusona: Luchazi Ideographs : a Graphic Tradition of West-Central Africa By Gerhard Kubik, pages 291
  10. Bantu-Languages.com, citing Maniacky 1997

Vyakulemba[lemba | kulemba source]

  • Jacky Maniacky, 1997, "Contribution à l'étude des langues bantoues de la zone K: analyse comparative et sous-groupements", Mémoire pour l'obtention du DEA de langues, littératures et sociétés, études bantoues, INALCO (Paris - France), 101p.
  • José Redinha, 1975, Etnias e Culturas de Angola, Luanda: Instituto de Investigação Científica de Angola; reprinted fac-simile by the Associação das Universidades de Língua Portuguesa, 2009, ISBN 978 989 8271 00 6

14°06′44″S 21°26′07″E / 14.11222°S 21.43528°E / -14.11222; 21.43528