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Chiyowoyelo cha ChiShona

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Kufuma Wikipedia
ChiShona
chiShona
Native toZimbabwe, Mozambique, Botswana
Native speakers
6.5 million, Shona proper (2000 to 2007)[1]
5.50 million Zezuru, Karanga, Chimanyika, Korekore (2000)
5.8 million incl. Manyika, (2000–2006)[2]
Dialects
Latin script (Shona alphabet)
Arabic script (formerly)
Shona Braille
Official status
Official language in
 Zimbabwe
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-1sn
ISO 639-2sna
ISO 639-3Variously:
sna – Zezuru, Karanga, Korekore
twl – Tavara (Korekore)
mxc – Manyika
twx – Tewe (Manyika)
Glottologcore1255  Core Shona
tawa1270  Tawara
S.7–10[3]
Linguasphere99-AUT-a =
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
PersonMuShona[4]
PeopleVaShona
LanguagechiShona
CountryMashonaland

Chiyowoyelo cha ChiShona (/ˈʃnə/;[5] Shona: chiShona) ni chiyowoyero cha Bantu cha ŵanthu ŵa Shona ku Zimbabwe. Lizgu ili likugwiliskirika ntchito pakulongosora mitundu yose ya Shonic (yakusazgapo Zezuru, Manyika, Korekore na Karanga) panji Standard Shona, mtundu uwo ukalembeka pakati pa vyaka vya m'ma 1900. Para tingati chiyowoyero ichi chikuyowoyeka na ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 14,000,000.[6]

Gulu likuru la viyowoyero ivyo vikukolerana na mbiri ya ŵanthu (ivyo ŵanthu ŵakusanda viyowoyero ŵakuvichema kuti Shona panji Shonic) likusazgapo Ndau (Eastern Shona) na Kalanga (Western Shona). Mu chigaŵa cha Guthrie cha viyowoyero vya Bantu, chigaŵa cha S.10 chikung'anamura gulu la viyowoyero vya Shonic.

Viyowoyero ivyo vikukolerana na ChiShona[lemba | kulemba source]

ChiShona chikukolerana na Ndau, Karanga ndipo wakukolerana na Tonga, Chewa, Tumbuka, Tsonga na Venda.

Malango[lemba | kulemba source]

Wikipedia mu chiyowoyero cha Shona.
Msambizgi Ignatio Chiyaka wakusambizga chiyowoyero cha Shona ku U.S. Ŵateŵeti ŵakujipeleka ŵa Peace Corps ku Zhombe, Zimbabwe. Pa chikhwangwani pakalembeka mazgu ghakuti pfeka ("kuvwara waka") na hembe ("shati").

ChiShona ni chiyowoyero icho ŵanthu ŵakulemba na kulemba makora. Mu ma 1920, boma la Rhodesia likakumana na suzgo la kunozga mabuku gha masukulu na vinthu vinyake mu viyowoyero vyakupambanapambana. Mazuŵa ghano, ŵanthu ŵakuyowoya chiyowoyero ichi mu mabuku gha viyowoyero viŵiri.

Buku lakwamba mu Cishona, la Solomon Mutswairo la Feso, likafuma mu 1957. Kufuma apo, mabuku ghanandi gha nkhani zicoko na mabuku gha sumu gha mu Cishona ghafuma. Ŵanthu ŵakusambira ciyowoyero ca Cishona mu masukulu, kweni para ŵamara waka kilasi lakwamba, ŵakusambira viyowoyero vinyake padera pa ciyowoyero ca Cishona.

Mitundu[lemba | kulemba source]

Kafukufuku waumaliro wakulongosora mitundu na vigaŵa vya chiyowoyero cha ku Central Shona wakachitika na Clement Doke mu 1930, ntheura vigaŵa vinandi vya chiyowoyero ichi vikugwira ntchito yayi ndipo tikwenera kuŵa maso.

Mwakuyana na ivyo Ethnologue wakayowoya:

  • S14 Karanga (Chikaranga). Chikuyowoyeka kumwera kwa Zimbabwe, kufupi na Masvingo. Kweniso ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakuyowoya chiyowoyero ichi mu chigaŵa cha Midlands, chomenechomene mu chigaŵa cha Mberengwa na Zvishavane. Viyowoyero vinyake: Duma, Jena, Mhari (Mari), Ngova, Venda, Govera.
  • S12 Zezuru (Chizezuru, Bazezuru, Bazuzura, Mazizuru, Vazezuru, Wazezuru). Chikuyowoyeka ku Mashonaland kumafumiro gha dazi na pakati pa Zimbabwe, kufupi na Harare. Chiyowoyero icho ŵakuyowoya. Viyowoyero vinyake: Shawasha, Gova, Mbire, Tsunga, Kachikwakwa, Harava, Nohwe, Njanja, Nobvu, Kwazvimba (Zimbabwe).
  • S11 Korekore (Northern Shona, Goba, Gova, Shangwe). Chiyowoyero ichi chikuyowoyeka kumpoto kwa Zimbabwe, Mvurwi, Bindura, Mt Darwin, Guruve, Chiweshe, Centenary. Viyowoyero vinyake: Gova, Tande, Tavara, Nyongwe, Pfunde, Shan Gwe.

Viyowoyero ivyo vikuyowoyeka na ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Shona, ni S15 Ndau, icho chikuyowoyeka ku Mozambique na Zimbabwe, na S13 Manyika, icho chikuyowoyeka kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Zimbabwe, kufupi na Mutare. Ŵasambizgi ŵa sukulu za pulayimale ŵakamba kusambizga ŵanthu ŵa ku Ndau.

Maho (2009) wakuwona kuti viyowoyero vya Korekore, Zezuru, Manyika, Karanga, na Ndau ni viyowoyero vyakupambanapambana mu gulu la viyowoyero vya Shona, ndipo Kalanga ndiyo yikupambana chomene.

Malembo gha vilembo[lemba | kulemba source]

Malembo ghose gha mu Chishona ghakumalira pa vowel. Vilembo vyakulondezgana vikuŵa mu syllable yakulondezgapo. Mwaciyelezgero, lizgu lakuti mangwanani ("mulenji") likulembeka kuti ma.ngwa.na.ni; "Zimbabwe" ni zi.mba.bwe. Chiyowoyero cha Chishona chikulembeka mwakuyana na mazgu agho ŵanthu ŵakuyowoya. ChiShona chili na mazgu ghaŵiri, ghapachanya na ghapasi, kweni mazgu agha ghakusangika yayi mu kalembero ka ŵanthu.

Ma vawelo[lemba | kulemba source]

Vilembo vinkhondi vya Shona vikuyowoyeka nga umo vikuyowoyekera mu Cisipanishi: Para munthu wakuyowoya lizgu limoza, wakuyowoya lizgu linyake. Mwaciyelezgero, Unoenda kupi? ("Kasi mukuluta nkhu?") likuzunulika [u.no.e.nda.ku.pi].

Kachemelo[lemba | kulemba source]

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
plain whistled
Plosive voiceless p t k
breathy ɡ̤
implosive ɓ ɗ
prenasalized ᵐb ⁿd ᵑɡ
Affricate voiceless p͡f t͡s t͡sᶲ t͡ʃ
breathy b͡v̤ d͡z̤ d͡z̤ᵝ d͡ʒ̤
prenasalized ⁿd͡ʒ̤
Fricative voiceless f s sᶲ ʃ
breathy z̤ᵝ ʒ̤ ɦ
prenasalized ⁿz̤ ⁿz̤ᵝ
Nasal plain m n ɲ ŋ
breathy mʋ̤
Trill r
Approximant ʋ j w

Kuyowoya mwalukhwelu[lemba | kulemba source]

ChiShona na viyowoyero vinyake vya kumwera na kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Africa vikusazgapo kupulika kulira kwa mbata. Mu ChiShona, mazgu agho ghakuchemeka sibilant ni "sv" na "zv" kweniso "tsv" na "dzv".

Sound example translation notes
sv masvosvobwa "shooting stars" "sv" can be represented by S͎, from the Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet
masvosve "ants"
tsv tsvaira "sweep" (Standard Shona)
svw masvavembasvwi "schemer" (Shangwe, Korekore dialect)
zv zvizvuvhutswa "gold nuggets" (Tsunga, Zezuru dialect)
dzv akadzva "he/she was unsuccessful"
zvw huzvweverere "emotions" (Gova, Korekore dialect)
nzv nzvenga "to dodge" (Standard Shona)
zvc muzvcazi "the Milky Way" Dental clicks. Only found in Ngova, Karanga dialect.
svc chisvcamba "tortoise"

Mu 2006, ŵanthu ŵa ku vyaru vya kumanjiliro gha dazi na ŵapharazgi ŵakamba kudandawura chomene chifukwa cha mafumbo ghakukhwaskana na umo munthu wangayowoyera zina la Morgan Tsvangirai, mulongozgi wa gulu la Movement for Democratic Change. Wupu wa BBC ukayowoya kuti "chang-girr-ayi" /ˈæŋɡɪri/.[7][page needed][8]

Malemba ghapadela[lemba | kulemba source]

  • ' - Para mazgu gha Chingelezi ghakuti ' ghalembeka kufuma ku lizgu lakuti "-ng", mazgu agha ghakuŵa nga ni "n". Mwaciyelezgero, lizgu lakuti "n'anga" likung'anamura wakucizga.[9]

Alphabet[lemba | kulemba source]

  • A - a - [a]
  • B - ba - [ɓ]
  • Bh - bha - [b̤]
  • Ch - cha - [t͡ʃ]
  • D - da - [ɗ]
  • Dh - dha - [d̤]
  • E - e - [e]
  • F - fa - [f]
  • G - ga - [ɡ̤]
  • H - ha - [ɦ]
  • I - i - [i]
  • J - ja - [d͡ʒ̤]
  • K - ka - [k]
  • M - ma - [m]
  • N - na - [n]
  • Nh - nha - [n̤]
  • O - o - [o]
  • P - pa - [p]
  • R - ra - [r]
  • S - sa - [s]
  • Sh - sha - [ʃ]
  • T - ta - [t]
  • U - u - [u]
  • V - va - [ʋ]
  • Vh - vha - [v̤]
  • W - wa - [w]
  • Y - ya - [j]
  • Z - za - [z̤]
  • Zh - zha - [ʒ̤][10]

Letter combinations[lemba | kulemba source]

Shona version of the Book of Mormon
  • bv - [b͡v̤]
  • dz - [d͡z̤]
  • dzv - [d͡z̤ᵝ]
  • dy - [d̤ʲg]
  • mb - [ᵐb]
  • mbw - [ᵐb]
  • mh - [m̤]
  • mv - [mʋ̤]
  • nd - [ⁿd]
  • ng - [ŋ]
  • nj - [ⁿd͡ʒ̤]
  • ny - [ɲ]
  • nz - [ⁿz̤]
  • nzv - [ⁿz̤ᵝ]
  • pf - [p͡f]
  • sv - [sᶲ]
  • sw - [skw]
  • ts - [t͡s]
  • tsv - [t͡sᶲ]
  • ty - [tʲk]
  • zv - [z̤ᵝ]

Old alphabet[lemba | kulemba source]

From 1931 to 1955, Unified Shona was written with an alphabet developed by linguist Professor Clement Martyn Doke. This included these letters:

ɓ (b with hook),
ɗ (d with hook),
ŋ (n with leg),
ȿ (s with swash tail),
ʋ (v with hook),
ɀ (z with swash tail).

In 1955, these were replaced by letters or digraphs from the basic Latin alphabet. For example, today ⟨sv⟩ is used for ⟨ȿ⟩ and ⟨zv⟩ is used for ⟨ɀ⟩.

Grammar[lemba | kulemba source]

Noun classes (mupanda)

Shona nouns are grouped by noun class (mupanda) based on:

  1. Meanings (Zvaanoreva) e.g. words found in class 1 and 2 describe a person: munhu ("person") is in mupanda 1 and vasikana ("girl") is in mupanda 2.
  2. Prefix (Chivakashure) e.g. words in class 1 have prefix mu-, class 8 zvi-, class 10 dzi-, class 11 ru-, etc. Empty prefix units refer to words that do not require a prefix
  3. Singular and plural forms (Uwandu neushoma) e.g. words found in class 8 are plurals of class 7: zvikoro ("schools") in class 8 is the plural form of chikoro ("school") in class 7.
  4. Agreement (Sungawirirano) e.g. words in class 5 have accordance of the marker -ri- with pronouns and modifiers: garwe iri ("this crocodile"), dombo iri ("this stone"), gudo iri ("this baboon"); 'iri' means 'this'.
Noun class Muenzaniso weIzwi("word example") Word construction

Prefix+body=word

English translation
Prefix Body
1 mu mukomana mu- -komana "boy"
1a baba -baba "father"
2 va vakomana va- -komana "boys"
2a va vasahwira va- -sahwira "best friend"
2a vana vanatezvara vana- -tezvara "father-in-law"
2b a atete a- -tete "aunt"
3 mu muti mu- -ti "tree"
4 mi miti mi- -ti "trees"
5 ri rize ri- -ze "scorpion"
6 ma marize ma- -ze "scorpions"
7 chi chingwa chi- -ngwa "bread"
8 zvi zvingwa zvi- -ngwa "bread"
9 i imba i- -mba "house"
10 dzi dzimba dzi- -mba "houses"
11 ru rwizi ru- -izi "river"
12 ka kambwa ka- -mbwa "that little dog"
13 tu tumbwa tu- -mbwa "those little dogs"
14 u upfu u- -pfu "mealie meal"
15 ku kuenda ku- -enda "going"
16 pa pamba pa- -mba "home"
17 ku kumusha ku- -musha "rural home"
17a zasi -zasi "below"
18 mu mumunda mu- -munda "in the farm"
19 svi svimbudzi svi- -mbudzi "goat"
21 zi zigomana zi- -gomana "big boy"

Wonaniso[lemba | kulemba source]

Ukaboni[lemba | kulemba source]

  1. Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
  2. "Ethnologue report for Shona (S.10)". Archived from the original on 19 Febuluwale 2015. Retrieved 19 Febuluwale 2015.
  3. Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  4. Haberland, Eike (3 Meyi 1974). Perspectives Des Études Africaines Contemporaines: Rapport Final D'un Symposium International. Deutsche UNESCO-Kommission. ISBN 9783794052257 – via Google Books.
  5. Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
  6. "Shona". Ethnologue.
  7. Ryan K. Shorsed. "Just put your lips together and blow? The whistled fricatives of Southern Bantu" (PDF). University of California. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 Juni 2011. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  8. Clement M. Doke (1932). "Report on the unification of Shona dialects". Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London. JSTOR. 6 (4): 1097–1099. JSTOR 606944.
  9. Ndambakuwa, Victor. "Shona word n'anga in the Shona Dictionary". VaShona Project (in English). Retrieved 30 Novembala 2021.
  10. "Dzidzai Shona pa Kombiyuta - The Shona Alphabet". African Studies Center - African Languages at Penn. Retrieved 10 Disembala 2020.

Mabuku[lemba | kulemba source]

  • Biehler, E. (1950) A Shona dictionary with an outline Shona grammar (revised edition). The Jesuit Fathers.
  • Brauner, Sigmund (1995) A grammatical sketch of Shona : including historical notes. Köln: Rüdiger Koppe.
  • Carter, Hazel (1986) Kuverenga Chishóna: an introductory Shona reader with grammatical sketch (2nd edition). London: SOAS.
  • Doke, Clement M. (1931) Report on the unification of the Shona dialects. Stephen Austin Sons.
  • Fortune, George (1985). Shona Grammatical Constructions Vol 1. Mercury Press.
  • Mutasa, David (1996) The problems of standardizing spoken dialects: the Shona experience, Language Matters, 27, 79
  • Lafon, Michel (1995), Le shona et les shonas du Zimbabwe, Harmattan éd., Paris (in French)
  • D. Dale:
    • Basic English – Shona dictionary, Afro Asiatic Languages Edition, Sept 5, 2000, ISBN 978-0869220146
    • Duramazwi: A Shona - English Dictionary, Afro Asiatic Languages Edition, Sept 5, 2000, ISBN 978-0869220146

Vigaŵa vya kuwalo[lemba | kulemba source]