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Chindindindi cha ku Turkey na Syria mu 2023

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Pa 6 February 2023, pa 04:17 TRT (01:17 UTC), chindindindi cha M 7.8 chikasunkhunya kumwera na pakati kwa Turkey na kumpoto na kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Syria..[1][2] Malo agha ghakaŵa pa mtunda wa makilomita 32 kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Gaziantep. Chindindindi ichi chikaŵa na nkhongono ya Mercalli ya XI (Extreme), ndipo chikalondezgana na chindindindi cha M 7.7 pa 13:24.[3] Chindindindi ichi chikachitika pa mtunda wa makilomita 95 (59 mi) kumpoto-m'mafumiro gha dazi kwa chigaŵa chakwamba, mu chigaŵa cha Kahramanmaraş. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakakomeka.

Chindindindi cha M 7.8 ndicho chikaŵa chankhongono chomene mu Turkey kufuma apo chikachitikira ku Erzincan mu 1939 ndipo chikaŵa chakukhora chomene. Cikaŵa cinyake mwa vindindindi vikuru comene ivyo vikacitikapo mu vyaru vya ku Levant. Likapulikikwa m'paka ku Eguputo, Israyeli, Palestina, Lebanoni, Kipro, na mumphepete mwa Nyanja Yiswesi ku Turkey. Mu masabata ghatatu ghakulondezgapo, kukachitika vindindindi vinyake vyakujumpha 10,000. Vinthu ivi vikacitika cifukwa ca kuzgoka kwa maji.

Vinthu vikaparanyika chomene pa malo ghakujumpha 350,000 km2 (pafupifupi malo ghakukwana maulendo 12 kufuma ku Belgium). Ŵanthu pafupifupi 14 miliyoni, panji kuti 16 peresenti ya ŵanthu wose ŵa ku Turkey, ŵakakhwaskika. Ŵanthu awo ŵakumanya vya vinthu vya ku caru ca United Nations ŵakati ŵanthu pafupifupi 1.5 miliyoni ŵakasoŵa pakukhala.

Pa 1 Malichi 2023, ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 51,800 ŵakafwa: ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 45,000 ku Turkey, ndipo ŵakujumpha 6,700 ku Syria. Ni cindindindi ico cikakoma ŵanthu ŵanandi comene mu Turkey kwambira mu 526 apo kukacitika cindindindi ca ku Antiyoke, kweniso ico cikakoma ŵanthu ŵanandi comene mu Syria kwambira mu 1822 apo kukacitika cindindi ca ku Aleppo. Chikaŵa chankhongono chomene pa charu chose kufuma apo kukachitika chindindindi cha ku Haiti mu 2010, ndipo chikaŵa cha nambara 5 pa chindindindi chikuru chomene cha m'ma 2000. Vinthu vyose ivyo vikaparanyika pa chindindindi ichi vikakwana madola 84.1 biliyoni. Iyi ni soka likuru comene kuluska masoka ghose ghacilengiwa agho ghali kucitika mu Turkey.

Misewu iyo yikanangika, chimphepo cha mu nyengo ya chiwuvi, na kutondeka kwendera lumoza, vikapangiska kuti mulimo wa kuponoska na kovwira awo ŵakakhwaskika na masoka wa AFAD uleke kwenda makora. Ku Turkey, ŵanthu ŵakujumpha 141,000 ŵakufuma mu vyaru 94 ŵakawovwirapo.

Vinthu vya mu charu[lemba | kulemba source]

Vya pa charu[lemba | kulemba source]

Mapu gha Anatolian Plate, agho ghakulongora chigaŵa cha East Anatolian Fault

Chindindindi ichi chikachitika pafupi na malo agho ghakukolerana pakati pa Anatolia, Arabia, na Africa. Malo na nthowa iyo chindindindi ichi chikachitikira vikukolerana na malo agho chikachitikira. Chigaŵa cha East Anatolian Fault chikovwira kuti charu cha Turkey chijumphe kumanjiliro gha dazi na kunjira mu Nyanja ya Aegean, apo chigaŵa cha Dead Sea Transform chikovwira kuti chigaŵa cha Arabia chijumphe kumpoto.

Chigaŵa chakumafumiro gha dazi kwa Anatolia ni chigaŵa chakumafumiro gha dazi na kumwera kwa kumanjiliro gha dazi uko kuli mphaka pakati pa Anatolia na Arabia. Ku chigaŵa cha kumafumiro gha dazi, chigaŵa ichi chikuchepa pa 10 mm (0.39 inchi) pa chaka. Mu 1789 (M 7.2), 1795 (M 7.0), 1872 (M 7.2), 1874 (M 7.1), 1875 (M 6.7), 1893 (M 7.1), na 2020 (Template:M 6.8) kukaŵa vindindindi vikuru. Vipasi ivi vikaphulika mu vigaŵa vyakupambanapambana. Ku chigaŵa cha kumafumiro gha dazi kwa charu ichi kuli chindindindi cha Palu na Pütürge. Ku chigaŵa cha Pazarcık na Amanos kumanjiliro gha dazi kuli vindindindi vya vyaka 237 na 772 kweniso vyaka 414 na 917. Malo agha ndigho ghakwimira malo ghaŵiri ghakuru chomene ku Turkey.

Mwakupambana na chigaŵa cha North Anatolian Fault icho chikachitika na vindindindi vikuruvikuru 11 mu vyaka vya m'ma 1900, chigaŵa cha East Anatolian Fault chikaŵa chamtende. Vipinda vya Palu-Sincik na Çelikhan-Türkoglu vikaŵa na mphepo. Kufuma apo chindindindi chikuru chikachitikira, maji ghakukwera kufika pa mamita 1.5 na mamita 5.2. Vinthu ivi vyawunjika nkhongono zinandi mwakuti vingapangiska vindindindi. Chigaŵa cha Palu ̇Sincik chili na makilomita 135, ndipo chili na chigaŵa cha Palu ̇Sivrice (50 km (31 mi)) na Sivrice ̇Sincik (85 km (53 mi)). Mu 1874 na 1875, kukachitika vindindindi mu chigaŵa cha Palu-Sincik. Chigaŵa cha Çelikhan-Türkoglu chili na utali wa makilomita 140. Chindindindi chikuru chaumaliro icho chikachitika pa chigaŵa cha Çelikhan-Türkoglu chikachitika mu 1513.

Chigaŵa cha East Anatolian chikukumana na chigaŵa cha North Anatolian ku Karlıova Triple Junction mu chigaŵa cha Karlıova mu chigaŵa cha Bingöl. Pafupifupi 60 km (37 mi) kumwera kwa kumanjiliro gha dazi kukaŵa malo agho kukachitika chindindindi cha Bingöl mu 2003. Chinthu ichi chikachitika yayi pa East Anatolian Fault. Chindindindi cha magnitude 7.1 chikachitika kumpoto cha kumafumiro gha dazi kwa Bingöl mu 1971.

Chigaŵa cha Nyanja Yakufwa chikwenda kumpoto na kumwera kufuma ku Nyanja Yiswesi m'paka ku Marash Triple Junction, uko chikukumana na East Anatolian Fault. Ku chigaŵa cha kumpoto kwa chigaŵa icho chili kumwera kwa Turkey, kukachitika vindindindi vikuruvikuru 14. Sonosono apa, kukachitika vindindindi vikuruvikuru viŵiri mu 1822 na 1872. Chindindindi cha mu 1872 chikakoma ŵanthu pafupifupi 1,800. Vindindindindi ivyo vikachitika mu 115, 526, 587, 1170 na 1822 vikakoma ŵanthu ŵanandi.

Vinthu vyakofya[lemba | kulemba source]

Malo agho kukachitika chindindindi pa Febuluwale 6 ghakukhala waka chete. Kufuma waka mu 1905, kukachitika vindindindi vinkhondi pera (1905, 1945, 1986, 1998) ivyo vikaŵa vikuru chomene. Chindindindi chikuru chomene icho chikachitika pa Janyuwale 24, 2020, chikaŵa chakumpoto cha kumafumiro gha dazi kwa chindindindi icho chikachitika pa Febuluwale 6. Vinthu vyose ivi vikachitika kufupi na East Anatolian Fault. Nangauli chivomezi cha Febuluwale 6 chikachitika mu chigaŵa icho chikaŵa pakatikati pa charu, kweni kumwera kwa Turkey na kumpoto kwa Syria kukachitika kale vindindindi vikuru. Aleppo, msumba ukuru comene waciŵiri mu Syria, ukaparanyika kanandi waka na vindindindi vikuru, nangauli malo na ukuru wa vindindindi ivi tingamanya waka. Mu 1138 ku Aleppo kukachitika chindindindi chikuru icho chikaŵa na nkhongono ya 7.1 ndipo mu 1822 chikaŵa na nkhongono ya 7.0. Ŵanthu ŵakukwana 60,000 ŵakafwa pa chindindindi cha mu 1822. Mu 1114, mu msumba wa Marash mukachitika chindindindi icho chikakoma ŵanthu 40,000. Vindindindindi vikuru ivyo vikachitika ku Middle East mu 856, 1033 na 1754 vikakoma ŵanthu 200,000, 70,000 na 40,000.

[4]

Vindindindi[lemba | kulemba source]

Malo agho kukachitika chindindindi chakwamba na chachiŵiri

Seismogram[lemba | kulemba source]

Cindindindindi cikuru cakwamba cikacitika pa 01:17 UTC. United States Geological Survey (USGS) na Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) ŵakayipima pa magnitude Template:M7.8 na Template:M7.8. GEOSCOPE yikalembapo kuti mapulaneti agha ghakaŵa na ukuru wa M8.0 ndipo Kandilli Observatory (KOERI) yikalembapo kuti mapulaneti agha ghakaŵa na ukuru wa M7.7 na M7.4. Chindindindi ichi chikaŵa pa 37°09′58′′N 37°01′55′′E / 37.166°N 37.032°E, 34 km (21 mi) kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Gaziantep mu chigaŵa cha Gaziantep, icho chili pafupi na mphaka na Syria. Malo agho kukachitika chindindindi ghakaŵa pasi pa mtunda wa makilomita 10.0 kuyana na USGS na makilomita 5 kuyana na KOERI.

Cinthu ico cikapangiska kuti munthu watenthemere cikaŵa cinthu cambura kusunkhunyika. Ŵakaŵa pa malo agho ghakaŵa pafupi na malo ghakupambanapambana.

Chindindindi ichi chikaŵa chankhongono chomene kuluska vyose ivyo vikachitikapo mu Turkey. Chivomezi ichi chikachitika mu chaka cha 1668 ku North Anatolia, ndipo pa charu chose chapasi chikaŵa chankhongono chomene kufuma mu Ogasiti 2021.

Seismogram

Pa 10:24 UTC, chindindindi icho chikapima Template:M7.5 kuyana na USGS, Template:M7.6 kuyana na KOERI, panji Template:M7.7 kuyana na Geoscope na GCMT. Kuyana na Geoscope, yikaŵa yakuzika makilomita 13, ndipo KOERI yikaŵa yakuzika makilomita 5. Chindindindi ichi chikaŵa pa 38°04′54′′N 37°10′38′′E / 38.0818°N 37.1773°E kuyana na KOERI na 38°01′26′′N 37°12′11′′E / 38.024°N 37.203°E kuyana na USGS. Likaphulika pa malo ghakupambanapambana gha kumpoto na kumwera. Kufuma apo, kukachitika chindindindi chinyake. Chindindindi chachiŵiri chikalutilira pa Febuluwale 9.

Kuzgoka[lemba | kulemba source]

Mu maora 24 kufuma apo chindindindi ichi chikachitikira, pakachitika vibingu vinyake vyakujumpha 570. Chindindindi cha M 7.7 chikapangiska kuti paŵe chindindindi. Nkhwantha iyi yikati yafika pa malo agha, yikapulika chimphepo chikuru. Mu maora 6 kufuma apo chindindindi chikuru chikachitikira, kukachitika vindindindi vikuruvikuru 25. Pakati pajumpha maora ghakujumpha 12, USGS yikati pakaŵa vindindindi 54 vya ukuru wa 4.3 panji kujumpha apa, apo wupu wa Turkey Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) ukati pakaŵa vindindindi vyakujumpha 120. Chindindindi cha M6.3 chikachitika kufupi na Uzunbağ mu chigaŵa cha Hatay pa Febuluwale 20.

Wasayansi munyake wa pa Seismology Research Centre ku Australia wakati vindindindi vikuru vizamulutilira kwa chaka chimoza. Ndipouli, para kwachitika chindindindi chikuru, chindindindi ichi chikulutilira mazuŵa panji masabata ghanandi.

Map
Map of mainshock and aftershocks – Mw  4.0 or greater

Seismology[lemba | kulemba source]

Mw 7.8 finite fault
Distribution of slip across the rupture
Surface projection of finite fault model
Mw 7.7 finite fault
Distribution of slip across the rupture
Surface projection of finite fault model

Harold Tobin, mulara wa Pacific Northwest Seismic Network ndiposo pulofesa wa pa Yunivesite ya Washington, wakati East Anatolian Fault yili na mbiri yakale ya vindindindi ndipo yikumanyikwa kuti ni malo ghakofya chomene. Kwamba kale, pa malo agha palije chindindindi chikuru kuluska 7.0. Kweni kale kukaŵa vindindindi vikuruvikuru ivyo vikaŵa na nkhongono ya 7.4. Tobin wakati vindindindi ivyo vikacitika pa Febuluwale 6 vikaŵa "vikuru comene kuluska umo tikaghanaghaniranga". Wakasazgirapo kuti ni viŵi yayi kuti para munthu wapwetekeka pa malo ghanyake wapwetekeso ghanyake. Vinthu ivyo vikapangiska kuti ku California kuŵe vindindindi vikamba chifukwa cha kupasuka kwa malo ghaŵiri.

Mtundu wakupangika na USGS ukulongora kuti chindindindi cha M7.8 chikaphulika vigaŵa vitatu vya mphinjika na utali wakukwana 40 km (25 mi) × 30 km (19 mi) (Chigaŵa 1), >175 km (109 mi) × 30 km (19 mi) (Chigaŵa 2) na >160 km (99 mi) × 20 km (12 mi) (Chigaŵa 3). Kuphulika uku kukufuma mu chigaŵa 1 ndipo kukufuma mu chigaŵa 2. Likamba kuphulika kumpoto ca kumafumiro gha dazi mumphepete mwa Cigaŵa ca 2 na kumwera ca kumanjiliro gha dazi mumphepete mwa Cigaŵa ca 3. Chindindindi ichi chikapangiska kuti maji ghasolere mtunda wa mamita 11.2 (37 ft) mu chigaŵa cha 2, kusi kwa Sakarya mu chigaŵa cha Kahramanmaraş, kumpoto kwa kumafumiro gha dazi kwa malo agho ghakusanganako na chigaŵa cha 1. Chigaŵa chinyake icho chikaŵa pa mtunda wa mamita 4.96 chikaŵa kumpoto cha kumafumiro gha dazi, kumpoto cha kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Adıyaman.

Chindindindi icho chikachitika pakati pajumpha maora ghankhondi na ghatatu, chikaphulika. Kuphulika uku kukamba mu cigaŵa ca 1 ndipo kukafika pa cigaŵa ca 3 kumafumiro gha dazi na cigaŵa ca 2 kumanjiliro gha dazi. Chigaŵa cha 1 ni mphinjika ya kumafumiro gha dazi na kumanjiliro gha dazi iyo yili na utali × usani wa makilomita 70 × makilomita 20. Cigaŵa caciŵiri cikulimbana na kumafumiro gha dazi, kumpoto ca kumafumiro gha dazi, kumanjiliro gha dazi na kumwera ca kumanjiliro gha dazi, ndipo cacitatu cikulimbana na kumpoto ca kumafumiro gha dazi na kumanjiliro gha dazi. Chigaŵa cha 2 na cha 3 vili na utali × ufupi wa makilomita >40 (25 mi) × > makilomita 20 (12 mi) na ~80 km (50 mi) × > makilomita 20 (12 mi), mwakulondezgana. Pa chigaŵa cha 1 pakaŵa mtunda wa mamita 11.4.

Vyakwananga

Wasayansi munyake wa vyapasi wa ku Middle East Technical University wakati chindindindi chakwamba cha M>7 chikwenera kuti chikaphulika mu vigaŵa vinandi mumphepete mwa East Anatolian Fault. Malo agha ndigho ghali kumpoto comene kwa Nyanja Yakufwa. Chivundikirochi chikupita ku East Anatolian Fault; chimafalikira kumwera chakumadzulo kudutsa Amanos ndi kumpoto chakum'mawa kudutsa magawo a Pazarcık-Erkenek. Ŵasayansi ŵa pa Yunivesite ya Istanbul ŵakati mu nyengo ya chindindindi chakwamba, pakaŵa mabowo ghankhondi. Pulofesa munyake wa pa yunivesite iyi wakati nangauli East Anatolian Fault ndiyo yikaŵa yikuru chomene, kweni pakaŵaso vinyake ivyo vikabwangasuka. Wasayansi munyake wa pa California Institute of Technology wakati chigaŵa cha East Anatolian Fault icho chili pa mtunda wa makilomita 55 pakati pa 2023 na 2020 chikaŵa kuti chindapwetekeke. Chimphepo cha M 6.8 icho chikachitika maminiti 11 pamanyuma ndipo kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa malo ghakwambilira gha M>7 chikwenera kuti chikaphulika mumphepete mwa Salçagöz Fault.

Chindindindi chachiŵiri cha M>7 chikamba pa malo ghanyake agho ghakumanyikwa kuti Çardak'Sürgü Fault Zone. Chinthu ichi ntchigaŵa cha East Anatolian Fault yayi, kweni ntchigaŵa chinyake cha kumanjiliro gha dazi. Chivundikirocho chinafalikira kum'mawa kwa Malatya kudutsa kumpoto chakum'mawa kwa Doğanşehir Fault Zone. Kweniso chivundungwele chikafika kumwera ku chigaŵa cha kumanjiliro gha dazi kwa Çardak-Sürgü Fault Zone. Utali wose wa malo agha ukaŵa makilomita 160. Wasayansi munyake zina lake Ross Stein wakati chindindindi ichi chikaŵa "chinthu chambura kunozgekera". Chindindindi chakwamba chikati chachitika, chivundikiro cha Sürgü na Çardak chikamara..[5]

Surface rupture[lemba | kulemba source]

Map of surface rupture; blue indicates surface rupture mapped using satellite imagery; red indicates rupture inferred from Sentinel-1 pixel matching

Vithuzithuzi ivyo Sentinel-1 yikajambura pambere chindindindi chindachitike na pamanyuma pake, vikulongora kuti pakaŵa malo ghaŵiri agho ghakapasuka. Chivomezi chakwamba chikaŵa na mtunda wa makilomita 300, ndipo chachiŵiri chikaŵa na mtunda wa makilomita 125.

Ku chigaŵa cha East Anatolian Fault kukaŵa chivundungwele. Kuyana na AFAD, malo agha ghakaŵa ghakutali pafupifupi makilomita 400. Likamba kumpoto kwa Antakya, chigaŵa cha Hatay kulazga ku Pazarcık, chigaŵa cha Kahramanmaraş na Gölbaşı, chigaŵa cha Adıyaman. Ku mpoto kwa matawuni agha, maji ghakalutilira kuphulika. Mu chigodobu cha Amik mukaŵa maji ghanandi. Chigaŵa chakumanjiliro gha dazi kwa chiŵanja cha ndege cha Hatay chikapwetekeka chifukwa cha kuphulika kwa malo. Mlonga ukuru ukaparanyika ndipo ukayambiska maji ghanandi mu chigaŵa cha Amik Valley icho kale chikaŵa Nyanja ya Amik. Kuwona ivyo vikucitika mu malo agha, kukulongora kuti malo agho ghakukhalako ghakukwana mamita 7.3. Ŵasayansi ŵakamanya kuti pa malo agha pakaŵa chivundungwele cha makilomita 15 icho chikaŵa kumwera kwa Pazarcik. Kufuma ku Golbasi kuya ku Nurdağı, malo ghakaŵa gha mamita 5.

Chivundungwele ichi nchimoza mwa vivundungwele vikuru comene pa caru cose, ndipo nchakuyanako na cindindindi ca mu 1906 ico cikacitika mu San Francisco. Pulofesa munyake wa sayansi ya charu ku King Abdullah University of Science and Technology ku Saudi Arabia wakati chindindindi ichi chikwenera kuti chikachitika pa mtunda wa makilomita 300. Ŵanthu ŵakughanaghana kuti maji agha ghakaphulika kufuma ku East Anatolian Fault na ku Dead Sea Transform. Shinji Toda, uyo wakusanda vya vindindindi pa Yunivesite ya Tohoku, wakati ni "chitenthe chankhongono comene" ca mu vyaka ivi.

Kale kukaŵa vindindindi vikuru ivyo vikachitikanga mu vigaŵa vya mukati mwa charu. Mu 1905, vindindindi viŵiri vya mu charu cha Mongolia vikachitika. Ungano uwu ukamba na chindindindi cha ku Tsetserleg. Chindindindi cha Bulnay, icho chikachitika mazuŵa 14 pamanyuma, chikapangiska kuti chivundungwele chakumafumiro gha dazi na kumanjiliro gha dazi. Mu 2002, mu Alaska mukachitika chindindindi chakuchemeka Template:M7.9. Chindindindi ichi chikaphulika mu Denali na Totschunda, ndipo chikapangiska kuti pa vigaŵa vyose viŵiri ivi paŵe chivundungwele cha mtunda wa makilomita 340. Mu 1976, chindindindi cha M7.5 chikaphulika pa mtunda wa makilomita 250 (160 mi) kufuma ku Motagua Fault ku Guatemala.[6]

Kusuntha kwa nthaka[lemba | kulemba source]

Vinthu ivyo vikupangiska chindindindi ichi kuŵa chikuru chomene ni chindindindi icho chili na nkhongono ya 11. Vinthu vinyake ivyo vikachitika pafupi na malo agha vikaŵa vyakukwera chomene. Maofesi ghatatu gha USGS, ghaŵiri ku Antakya na limoza ku Hassa, ghakawona kuti charu chikusunkhunyika chomene. Mu tawuni ya Hassa ŵakalembapo 0.9082 g pa malo gha pasi (pga) na 215.34 cm/s pa malo gha pasi. Mauthenga gha pa siteshoni iyi ghakakolerana na nkhongono ya Mercalli ya X (Extreme). Pa malo agha pakaŵa malo ghakuchemeka Fevzipaşa.

Ukaboni[lemba | kulemba source]

  1. Subramaniam, Tara; Mogul, Rhea; Renton, Adam; Sangal, Aditi; Vales, Leinz; Hammond, Elise; Chowdhury, Maureen; Vera, Amir (6 February 2023). "February 6, 2023 Turkey-Syria earthquake news". CNN. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  2. "Live Updates Turkey, Syria earthquake kills thousands". AP News. 6 February 2023. Archived from the original on 6 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  3. "Global CMT Catalog Search". Global Centroid Moment Tensor. 6 February 2023. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 6 February 2023.
  4. Uddin, R. (6 February 2023). "Five deadly earthquakes in the Middle East through history". Middle East Eye. Archived from the original on 6 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  5. Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.; Özbakir, Ali Deger; Gonzalez-Huizar, Hector; Sevilgen, Volkan; Lotto, Gabriel; Sevilgen, Serkan (8 February 2023). "Stress change calculations provide clues to aftershocks in 2023 Türkiye earthquakes". Temblor, Inc. Retrieved 13 February 2023.
  6. Matumoto, Tosimatu; Latham, Gary V. (1976). "Aftershocks of the Guatemalan Earthquake of February 4, 1976". Geophysical Research Letters. 3 (10): 599–602. Bibcode:1976GeoRL...3..599M. doi:10.1029/GL003i010p00599.