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Mitundu ya ba Malaŵi[edit | edit source]

Mu chalo cha Malaŵi muli banthu ba mitundu yinandi. Apa, tilongosolengepo mitundu yikulu ya banthu ba mu Malaŵi.

Ba Tumbuka[edit | edit source]

Ba Tumbuka ni banthu awo bakusangika mu Malaŵi ku chigaba cha ku mpoto. Ba Tumbuka beneko bakusangika kufumila ku mwela kwa boma la Karonga kufikila ku mpoto kwa boma la Mzimba. Ba Tumbuka bakafumila mu mphepete mwa mulonga wa Congo ndipo bakiza mu Malaŵi mu vyaka vya muma 1700.

Ba Ngoni[edit | edit source]

Ba Ngoni ni banthu awo mbamoza na mitundu ya ba Xhosa, ba Zulu na ba Swazi ba ku South Africa. Ba Ngoni bakaba na tumitundu (clans) tubili uto tukaba twa ba Zulu awo fumu yawo yakaba Tchaka (banyakhe bakulemba ‘Shaka’) na ba Ndwandwe awo fumu yawo yakaba Zwide. Mu cha 1818 banthu ba Zwide awo bakalongozgeka na Soshangane, Zwangendaba na Nxaba na banthu ba Tchaka awo bakalongozgeka na Mzilikazi na Mgobozi. Balwi ba Tchaka bakaba na nkhongono kuluska ba Zwide ndipo balwi ba Zwide bakati batondeka pa nkhondo iyi Zwide na banthu bake bakachimbilila ku chalo cha ba Sotho uko Zwide wakafwila. Soshangane wakachimbilila ku Moçambique ndipo Nxaba na Zwangendaba bakachimbilila ku Zimbabwe. Mu chaka cha 1826 Zwangendaba wakamuvya Tchaka ndipo bakatondekaso ndipo wakachimbilila ku Moçambique kwa Soshangane. Bakakhala makola nyengo yichoko ndipo mu 1831 bakayambana na kulwa apo Zwangendaba wakawukako na kuluta ku Zimbabwe. Ku Zimbabwe wakakhalapo na babali bake awo bakaluta ku Zimbabwe na Nxaba kweni bakapulikana makola yayi ndipo bakalwanaso bekha-bekha. Pakwamba Zwangendaba wakabatonda banthu awo bakaluta ku Zimbabwe na Nxaba ndipo bakachimbilila kwa Nxaba. Bati basazgana na Nxaba bakamukonda Zwangendaba ndipo Zwangendaba wakayenda-yenda mu Zimbabwe nakulwa na ba Shona na ba Kalanga, kugula bespoke ba mitundu iyi kuba badge na kupoka ng’ombe zawo. Bena Soko, Tembo, Nyangulu, Chibambo na ba viwongo vinyakhe awo bakusangika pamoza na ba Ngoni mba Kalanga. Chifukwa cha kuwopa banthu ba Nxaba, ba Soshangane na ba Mzilikazi, Zwangendaba wakawukako ku Zimbabwe ndipo wakakhupuka mulonga wa Zambezi pa Zumbo, malo ayo Luangwa wakuthilila mu Zambezi mu mwezi wachikhumi na umoza (November) mu chaka cha 1835. Wati wakhala mu chalo cha ba Nsenga vyaka vinayi, mu 1839 Zwangendaba wakanjila mu chalo icho sono ni Malaŵi pa malo yikuchemeka Mabili pafupi na ku Loudon. Apo ndipo M'mbelwa, mwana wa Zwangendaba na muwoli wake Mnene wakababikila. Wati walwala, Zwangendaba wakasankha kuti mwana wake wa muwoli wake Mnene, M’mbelwa ndiyo wabe fumu pala iyo wafwa kuleka mwana wake wakwamba, Mpezeni. Pa Mabili wati wasanga kuti banthu ba chiCheŵa na ba chiTumbuka balije ng’ombe, Zwangendaba wakaukapo mu chaka cha 1845 nakuluta ku Tanganyika na kukakhala ku mafumilo ya zuba ya nyanja ya Tanganyika ndipo wakazenga mu chalo cha bachiFipa. Ku Tanganyika bana ba Zwangendaba wakapatukana: Mpezeni wakaluta kumanjililo ya zuba cha ku mwela ku chalo cha ba Bemba na ba Bisa apo M’mbelwa wakakhala kuko ku Tanganyika. Mpezeni wakamalila ku Chipata na Mchinji mu vyalo vya Zambia na Malaŵi. Mu chaka cha 1855 banthu awo bakaba na M’mbelwa wakawelako ku Tanganyika na kukhalapo ku Henga apo M’mbelwa wakazgoka fumu ndipo bakakhalapo nyengo yidoko. Bakati bafuma pa malo apa bakazakazenga mu Mzimba.

ba Cheŵa[edit | edit source]

Ba Cheŵa, ngeti ba Tumbuka, bakafumila mu mphepete mwa mulonga wa Congo. Ba Cheŵa ni bamoza ba banthu bakwamba kwiza mu chalo cha Malaŵi. Nyengo yeneko iyo ba Cheŵa bakizila mu Malaŵi (na vyalo vya Zambia na Moçambique) yikumanyikwa makola yayi kweni banyakhe bakughana-ghana kuti ni vyaka vya muma 1400 Yesu wati wawako (AD). Bakati bafika ku mafumilo ya zuba ya chalo icho sono ni Zambia, banyakhe bakagonanga pachanya pa phili ndipo banyakhe bakazenganga tu visakasa. Bakugona mu mapili bakamba kubachema mwa myati kuti mbena Phiri ndipo bakugona mu visakasa bakachemekanga ba Banda. Kuyambila apa tumagulu tubili twa banthu aba tukaba na mazina ya bena Banda na bena Phiri. Mu malo ayo ba Cheŵa bakayendanga bakasanganga banthu banyakhe ngeti ni banthu bafupi chomene awo bakuchemeka ba bathwa panjiso bakafula. Chifukwa cha nkhani ya malonda, ba Cheŵa bakalwapo na ba banthu ba chi Phwitikizi mu vyaka muma 1588 ku malo yikuchemeka Kilwa na Mombasa ndipo bakatondeka padoko waka kupoka malo ya Malindi. Ba Phwitikizi bati bawona nthena, bakatumizga balwi banyakhe mu chaka cha 1592 kweni nawo bakatondeka kubatonda ba Cheŵa. Ba Cheŵa bakumanyikwa na luso lwa kuvina ‘Nyau’ uyo ni gule uyo bakuvina bakuvwala chakubisa kumaso. Kweni gule uyu wakukwaskanaso na vya ufwiti.

ba Tonga[edit | edit source]

Ngeti mba Tumbuka na ba Cheŵa, ba Tonga nawo bakafumila mu mphepete mwa mulonga wa Congo.

Nxaba should ahve been written Xaba. This is a small clan under the Ngini speaking people that thas now spread country wide in Malawi. There are those in Kasenga area (MBalachanda Boma), Ekwendeni, Emtshengula, Enukwini, Edindeni, all these are Northern Regions of Malawi that is very close to the Zambian border post. Some have settled in Rumphi, Mzuzu, Nkhota Kota aND nHKHATHA bAY. Before spreading all over Malawi, they settled as one clan under Chindi Jere in Mthwalo.